Presentation of grammatical material depending on students’ type of information perception on English lessons

Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №9 - 2017

Tolcheeva Yuliya, Kazakh-American Free University, Kazakhstan
Oskolkova Anna, Kazakh-American Free University, Kazakhstan

This theme is of current interest, because grammar is very important at any stage of learning a foreign language. Grammar is a science which studies how the correct meaningful speech segments are formed in a language. The use of various forms of introducing grammatical material on lessons, taking into account the psychotypes of students, introduces novelty in the learning process, and also makes it more effective. Even if a person has a good vocabulary, but doesn’t have enough knowledge in the field of grammar, he will not be able to express his thoughts correct. He will not know how, for example, where certain parts of speech should be located and how to construct this proposal.

The goal of this paper is to present the alternative forms of presentation of grammatical rules for secondary school students, taking into account their psychotype.

And we have set the following tasks:

- consider the theoretical basis for teaching the grammatical side of the English language;

- study forms of presentation of grammatical material;

- describe the types of students' type of information perception;

- analyze the presentation of the grammar material for the 6th grade "Massages 2" by Diana Goodley and Noel Goodley Cambridge University Press.

Nowadays, the world is changing very fast, international cooperation is growing, modern society is developing, and all this in combination leads to the fact that English is gaining the role of the leading language of the new civilization. According to statistics, English is the mother tongue for 375 million people, and it is the second language for a large number of people. It is impossible to name the exact number, but it is from 470 million to one billion people. The well-known linguist D. Kristall notes that users of English as a foreign language are numerically superior to those who speak English as their native language in the proportion of 3 to 1 [1]. English is one of the most widely used languages in the world, the language of world communication. A huge number of artistic, scientific and technical and special literature is written in English, and also a lot of films and series are produced in this language. Many materials in Internet which can help in self-education, often exist only in English or are translated into a limited number of languages.

We can say that English is a cultural, educational and social formation of society. That is why, Kazakhstan pays much attention to learning English. English language should take its place in the social and communicative space of our country [2].

If we want to accomplish all these tasks, it is necessary to solve the problems which are connected with teaching English. Using of new teaching technologies that can help speed up the process of strengthening English. Allthe  lessons should be effective, but interesting. Of course, it depends on the teacher and his skills. And the level of his skills directly depends on his level of education. Interesting lessons are really important during the teaching of English grammar. The reason is that for some people the grammar seems boring and perhaps even unnecessary. And sometimes it is difficult to understand the material if teachers explain it without examples, images and associations. We mustn’t forget that it is impossible to master the language without knowing the basic rules that are necessary for constructing the right sentences. If you teach grammar without using various forms of work, interesting exercises or games, it will not be so effective. The main task of school teaching English is to master it, and also to create grammatical skills among pupils [3].

The role of grammar had the tendency to change, in some universities there had even been a partial or even complete elimination of grammar. It was believed that grammar does not teach how to write and read in a right way. Even now, there is a tendency to reduce the role of grammar in teaching foreign languages, including English. Most teachers believe that the problem is that students do not understand the meaning of many grammatical rules and constructions which they give them, and especially do not understand the role of grammatical analysis. Due to the reduced role of grammar, there are a large number of mistakes in the speech of students. From all of the above, it can be concluded that the increase and decrease in the role of grammar negatively affects the learning of a foreign language and the results of this learning [4].

If you know not so many grammatical constructions it is possible to formulate your statement, but there are no guaranties, that other people will not use other constructions in speech, which can make the statement not so easy for understanding. When people do not understand each other, it is impossible to talk about normal communication between them [5].

Teaching grammar is an important aspect of learning a foreign language, because the real and full communion cannot occur without grammar.

Teachers use different methodological approaches to form students’ grammatical skills. There are several possible approaches:

- an explicit approach;

- an implicit approach;

- differentiated approach [6].

When we speak about explicit approach, we can distinguish deductive and inductive methods. The deductive method is derived from the word "deduction". Deduction is a way of thinking, which leads to a logical conclusion, in which the particular is derived from the general.

There are several stages in the implementation of the deductive method. The first stage is familiarization. This stage is realized in the course of acquaintance with the rules and examples of using these rules. The second stage is training. The stage of training includes working out the rules that the student has become familiar with. And the last stage is the speech practice, which is based on the basis of transfer tasks.

The following explicit approach method is an inductive method. The inductive method comes from the word "induction". Contrary to deduction, induction is a way of thinking that implies a transition from the particular to the general, from some particular facts to general questions.

The inductive method allows students to formulate a rule on the basis of those things that they meet in the process of learning a foreign language. The use of this method implies that students should search in the text for any grammatical constructions and try to understand their meaning using context. After this, it is necessary to further analyze the new information. For this, students compare a foreign text with a translation into their native language, and only then formulate the rule. The teacher or a textbook can help them with it. Next, there are a number of exercises for the practice of new grammatical material [6].

In the implicit approach, there are two different methods in order to form the grammatical skills of students. These are structural and communicative methods.

To the structural can be attributed several methods of forming grammatical skills, which were developed by different authors and called them active, oral, structurally-functional, etc.

The next kind of implicit approaches communicative methods. These methods include different types of high-intensity methods. For example: immersion in the language environment, which the student will have to communicate and the method of the governess. It is the method of teaching foreign languages in which well-to-do families employ native speakers for the education of children.

In a differentiated approach teachers use different methods and tasks, which depend on several factors. These factors are: the stage of training, the characteristics of students, the material, the type of speech activity and the types of teaching.

There are different forms of presentation grammatical material. The presentation of the grammatical material includes its introduction and explanation. The teacher usually a board with not so difficult text on it, in which a particular grammatical phenomenon is displayed. The teacher can also use drawings, diagrams or tables. They can be used separately or in various combinations with each other.

There are different ways and methods of introducing grammatical material on English lessons. The first we will be talking about is the practical way of introducing grammatical material. Using this method, students meet with new grammatical rules using a speech pattern. They read a text, try to understand from the context what is common in it, establish some patterns, establish the signs of a grammatical phenomenon, try to comprehend it independently.

The goal of the first stage of learning the new grammatical material is not only the introduction and familiarization of pupils with this phenomenon. But also they should make the primary grammatical actions in the corresponding exercises.

In the theoretical and practical way of introducing grammatical material, teachers use various techniques:

- explanation based on the speech pattern and rule - instruction;

- comparison of the grammatical phenomenon in the native language;

- comparison within the language, reliance on similar elements of the previously studied material;

- analysis of the grammatical phenomenon;

- translation of the grammatical phenomenon into the native language.

There is also an inductive method. When a teacher uses this method, he meets students with a rule on the basis of the transition of individual facts to this rule. During the time when the teacher explains the grammatical material, and the students perform different exercises, they observe the grammatical phenomenon and on the basis of this then come to conclusions about the meaning of the rules and how their form changes. Students themselves derive the rule, that is, acquaintance occurs inductively [7].

In the deductive method of acquaintance with grammatical rules, everything happens the other way round. First, the teacher tells and explains the rule, and then they do grammar exercises [7].

There are some important aspects in explaining the new grammatical material. They are level of the language and the age of students. When the students are at intermediate or advanced level, teacher often use the deduction method. This method is used for several reasons:

- the students already have a sufficiently high level of language literacy, which makes it possible to use various reference literature effectively.

- rather complex grammatical structures are used [8].

At this stage learning the English language, much attention is paid to the formation of skills through which the students will be able to overcome difficulties on their own, will be able to correct their mistakes, supplement and correct the acquired knowledge, overcome difficulties.

The control of learned grammatical material is also very important. Control of receptive grammatical skills includes comprehension, perception, comprehension and understanding of the grammatical content of sentence structure, word form. Teachers also can use tests to control grammatical skills.

There are several types of perception of information and they can help in the process of education. For some people it is easier to get information by ears, others can learn and understand something, only if they project it on life experience, the third type of people needs to see everything with their own eyes, and the fourth can only understand the logically constructed information. This means that everyone has his own way of perceiving information. Therefore, people are divided into audial learners, kinesthetic learners, visual learners and digital learners [9].

We will start with the type that includes more people – visual learners. They operate with visual images and even the information that they receive verbally, in their head they transform into a picture. This type of people has a well developed visual memory.

The next type is audial learners. Audial learners like to listen, they are very attentive and can catch and memorize different sounds. Most often the audial learners need silence to concentrate. It is easy for them to perceive lectures, music, conversations, dialogues. Therefore, it is necessary to include them in the process of education. They also need to discuss with others aloud the things to understand them better [10].

Kinesthetic learners are the type of people who receive information through movements and actions. They easily remember practical exercises, as well as any actions. They perceive the information through the practical exercises.  Kinesthetic learners need to touch, sniff and taste everything [10].

What about digital learners, they are well trained in the sciences, in which there is logic. These include physics, mathematics, technology, etc. It is important for them to understand the links in information, some logic and order the material into a system. Teachers should use logic in teaching this type of students. Different schemes, intelligence cards and tight plans can help them with it [10].

Students with different psychotypes have different characteristics of mental work, such as the level of distraction, the distinctive features of remembering the material, etc. And if the teacher knows the phychotype of the student it is easier for him to explain something and build relations with this student.

Each type needs its own approach:

- with visual learners it is necessary to use words that describe the color, size, shape, location. Color different points or aspects of content, and also write actions, using the schemes, visual aids, tables, etc.;

- with audial learners you need to use the variations of the voice (loudness, pause, height), reflecting the rhythm of speech with the body at a speed characteristic for this type of perception;

- with kinesthetic learners you should use gestures and touching.

Thus, each child should receive an individual approach, through which he can show the best results. The teacher should try to communicate during the lesson with the student in "his language", focusing on perception, not just on memorization [10].

We want to show some exercises for the students with different psychotypes. For the practical part of this work, we used the textbook for 6thgrade  "Massages 2" by Diana Goodley and Noel Goodley Cambridge University Press. This textbook was released in 2011 and was adapted for the Kazakh schools by I. Minina and N. Mukhamedzhanova [11].

The textbook has 150 pages and 6 modules:

- My life;

- In the past;

- Out and about;

- It is different;

- A healthy future;

- Our world.

The first theme we have chosen is "There is / there are". The textbook has just some exercises to explain it, where it is necessary to insert into the sentence either "is" or "are." For visual learners we offer the teacher to use pictures, depicting different subjects. For visual learners of any age is very important appearance: everything should be beautiful and aesthetically decorated. Therefore, pictures should be bright and memorable. When we say everything aloud at the same time, it will become clear to the children with the next psychotypes – audial learners. You can also speak aloud the given construction and ask the students to repeat them and translate. As for kinesthetic learners, you can play a game with them. The teacher, for example, will say "Put the pencil on the desk" and the student will need to say "There is a pencil on the desk". Thus, this theme will become understandable for all children.

Another one grammatical theme which we decided to show in this work is "Link words". Link verbs are very important in English language. When a person uses them he can properly organize his speech and make it logical and understandable for others. According to the textbook "Massages 2", students of the 6th grade should learn how to use such words as "before, after, then, after that". The textbook offers an exercise in which you need to insert a suitable word.

We propose to begin this theme from the explanation of their meaning for out speech. After this, we can hand out the leaflets to the students, on which there will be a text with link verbs. The textbook also has a lexical theme, so wecan link these two topics, using the text "Everyday routines of Simba":

“Every day he gets up at 6 o’clock. After that, he goes to wake his family. It seems that there are not always happy in the morning, but Simba wants to play and eat. Before going to play, he looks out the window. Simba wants to play with birds, but he can’t. Then he starts to play with his toys. The whole family went to their jobs and he can do it everywhere. Simba’s favorite toy is a little bear. Every day Simba plays with him and then sleeps. After that, he eats again. In the evening, when the members of the family return home, Simba becomes very happy, and starts running throughout the flat. And then, when the family goes to sleep, the can wants to sleep too. But before, he must eat and play a little more.”

The teacher should read it aloud, and after the pupils should translate it, paying attention to the use of "before, after, then, after that. And after that, we can tell students different sentences and their task will be to find wrong and right sentences. Some examples of the sentences: “Simba gets up after his family.”, “He likes to look out the window before going to play”, “Simba’s favorite toy is a mouse.”

Thus, with the help of two simple exercises, the material will be explained for visual learners, audial learners and kinesthetic learners.

In conclusion we can say that if the teacher knows the psychotype of every student, it will make the process if education easier for the teacher and for students too.


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Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №9 - 2017

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