Conceptual approach to the development of tourism cluster business model based on Leontyev's matrix
Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №9 - 2017
Granetskiy Vladimir, East Kazakhstan State Technical University in honor of D. Serikbayev, Kazakhstan
Kazykenov Aslan, East Kazakhstan state technical university, Kazakhstan
statement. In a lot of
countries tourism as one of the high-yielding interbranch complexes plays a
significant role in the formation of gross domestic product, the creation of
additional jobs, the activation of the external trade balance. At the same
time, countries with transitive economy do not use its tourist potential to the
full extent. Tourism development in these countries should be carried out in a
comprehensive, systematic manner, based on the multidisciplinary nature of the
tourism industry which includes not only the activities of tour operators and
travel agents, but also the scope of supply, trade, accommodation and hospitality,
transportation system, services and communications and other related activities.
This fact suggests that increasing of the efficiency and competitiveness of business
entities engaged in tourism is possible on a cluster basis. At the same time,
for the formation of the tourism cluster business model it is advisable to use
both traditional and innovative methods.
Analysis of recent research and publications. Economics and tourism management issues are discussed in numerous
works of Russian and foreign scientists and economists such as Darowski L.,
Strilchuk J., Provost C. (2006), Diamantis D. (1999), Donohoe, H.M., Needham,
R.D. (2006), Hutchinson-Jafar L. (2012), Mantel R. (2013), Minnaert L.,
Maitlandb R., Millera G. (2011), Nigg S. (2011), Bektimirova N.N. (2003), Nikitinskiy
Y.S., Vukolov V.N. (2006), Shvets Y.V. (2005) and others.
Unresolved earlier parts of the overall problem. Despite significant theoretical and
methodological framework the problem of systematic development of tourism on a
cluster basis is poorly studied, and therefore provides to scientists ample
opportunities for innovations, theoretical understanding and methodological
basing of the ways to increase the efficiency and competitiveness of the
Goal of the study. The
goal of this article is justification of the conceptual approach to the
development of tourism cluster business model based on Leontyev's model.
Study highlights. Countries
with transitive economy such as Kazakhstan, Russia and Ukraine have the necessary resources for the development of domestic and incoming tourism
which include favorable climatic conditions, availability of water and
balneological resources, rich landscape and recreational potential and
distinctive historical and cultural heritage, unique museum complex of
international importance. However, existing tourism potential of these
countries is not used in full, causing them to lag behind the world leaders in
of the tourism field (table 1).
Table 1. Travel and Tourism
Implementation of the potential of countries with transitive economy
is only possible upon the condition of using systematic approach to solving problems hindering the development of tourism, which are the following:
- administrative barriers (protracted procedures for obtaining
permits in the border areas, lengthy registration procedures of foreign
- inefficient promotion of tourist product on the world market;
- insufficient funding;
- lack of tourism infrastructure according to international
standards, including the poor condition of roads, lack of communication;
- lack of coordination of intra-industry and inter-agency activities
on the development of tourism infrastructure;
- lack of qualified specialists, including guides who speak foreign
According to WTO and the World Travel & Tourism Council, for
every job created in the tourism industry accounts for five to nine jobs that
appear in other industries. Tourism directly or indirectly affects the
development of 32 industries and promotes the development of the country's
infrastructure. This indicates the desirability and feasibility of the development
of tourism cluster.
Cluster is a sustainable territorial and
sectoral partnership united by innovation program of advanced manufacturing,
engineering and management technologies to increase the competitiveness of its
Clusters affect competitiveness as they:
- increase productivity of firms and industries;
- create opportunities for innovation and productivity growth;
- stimulate and facilitate the formation of a new business that
supports innovation and expansion of a cluster .
The national policy on creation and development of tourist clusters
should be based on the following principles:
- anticipatory goal setting taking into account the dynamics of
changes in the external environment;
- multilevel government regulation;
- creation of clusters according to competitive advantages;
- attraction of direct investments;
- development of specialized factors;
- development of progressive factors;
- interaction of conjugate countries;
- prevention of crime, economic, financial, information expansion of
certain social and economic groups [10, p. 78-81].
For diversified (horizontal) cluster "input-output" model
is suitable and for vertical cluster - V.V. Leontyev's problem .
Vertical cluster can be represented as
"cascade waterfalls", on each of its sites (kind of activity) cash
flow is added. This value chain (VC) is shown schematically in Figure 1.
Scheme of the vertical cluster as a "cascade waterfalls"
Initially, we have 5 activities of this cluster: travel agencies,
transportation, hotels, catering facilities and leisure sphere.
Based on expert judgment define the structure of the gross product
of the cluster, profitability and wage share in the self-cost of each unit
According to the experts catering facilities and hotel complexes
have the largest share in the gross output of the tourism cluster (about 60%).
Table 2. Structure of the tourism cluster
and its characteristics
Tentative example of vertical cluster is shown in Table 3. Here
every activity (redistribution) fully carries the cost for the next stage of
development as in the Leontyev's model.
As the initial data accept the fact when a 1000 tourists have been
sold tours at the price of 1000 conventional units (c.u.) which costs include
all five types of service. The total gross product of the tourism cluster will
make up 1000 thousand c.u., and revenues for the first revision of its
functioning will be 100 thousand c.u. In Table 2, the structure of the gross
output of this conglomerate is presented.
Table 3. The
traditional Leontyev's model of a "cascade waterfalls"
Determine cost of each repartition of a cluster by the following
Зi –cost of repartition;
Ri – profitability of repartition;
i – repartition of a cluster (i=1,2,3,4,5);
GPi – gross product of repartition.
On the basis of table 2 data define material inputs (past labour)
and wage share (living labour) on the each stage of cluster functioning:
Vi –wage of i repartition;
Ci –material costs of i repartition;
αi –wage share of i stage of repartition.
Make calculation of the 1st repartition of a cluster:
V1 = 87,0 ths c.u. * 0,6 =52,2 ths c.u.
С1 = 87,0 – 52,2 = 34,8 ths c.u.
Further, summarize all the calculations in Table 3, finding rates
for the traditional problem by the accepted pattern:
V2 = 17%
С2 = 83% = 100 ths. c.u
According to traditional model the sum of gross revenue will make
633,9 ths c.u.:
GPclus =С1+V∑ + m∑ =
34,8 +325,1 + 308,8 = 668,3 ths c.u. or
GPclus с = С1 + VC1= 34,8 + 633,9 = 668,7.
However, the tourism cluster operates on a different scheme, where
tourist traffic plays the role of a continuous stream which also operates on a
"cascade waterfalls" approach, but value flows of each of the cluster
do not intersect.
Table 4 presents a modified model applicable for the tourism
4. A modified model of the tourism cluster
As can be seen from Table 4, the gross product of the tourism
cluster is 1000 thousand c.u. unlike traditional cluster where this value is
633.9 thousand c.u. If calculate gross product of the traditional model by the
new scheme, the value of gross domestic product is 1552,6 thousand c.u. The
difference in this model is due to the presence of double counting (918.7 -
34.8 = 883.9).
Conclusions. The study concluded the
need of cluster development of tourism in the countries with transitive
economy, provided justification for a conceptual approach to the development of
tourism cluster business model based on the Leontyev's model.
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Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №9 - 2017