Time management and competitiveness of the organization
Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №9 - 2017
Kenzhetayev Kanat, Kazakh American Free University, Kazakhstan
Bordiyanu Ilona, Kazakh-American Free University, Kazakhstan
In the 21st century, the management of such an intangible and at the
same time irreplaceable resource, as time, becomes extremely important. The
rational use of time occupies a special place in the activity of the head.
This is due, firstly, to the need, to be able to focus on solving
strategic issues, and secondly, the desire to respond quickly to changes in the
environment, which is highly dynamic. One of the tools to increase the
adaptability is the corporate implementation of time management technologies as
an element of the organization's management system.
Traditionally, "time management" is a division of general management.
However, at present, time management is experiencing a period of its formation
as one of the special disciplines of the administrative sphere of scientific
and practical knowledge.
D. Litvak considers time management as a concept. According to him,
the management of these four things is carried out with time management. Thus,
the techniques used are not aimed at achieving more, but in order to achieve
Effective time management implies carefully planned planning of each
day, which should be made before this day in the evening. It is planning, if,
of course, it is adhered to, will save a lot of time. The plan is better to
write down on a piece of paper, and then, as the implementation of a particular
item, delete it and, if necessary, add a new one.
According to the principles of time management, it is desirable to
divide all matters in terms of three groups. The first of these includes the
primary, non-susceptible, cases and alleged problems that may arise in the day
to be planned. Problems for effective time management, you need to define no
more than two. All these questions, no matter what feelings they cause, must be
decided on the exact date on which they are scheduled.
The second group of the plan is important, but important, but not
immediately required. They can be done if a part of something timed for
something else is suddenly released on the scheduled day. If you do something
important, but not urgent, this day will not succeed, eventually it will move
from the second group of the plan to the first.
The third group of the plan for personal time management consists of
small routine cases. These little things need not only be taken into account in
planning, but also eliminated as quickly as possible - they have the
peculiarity of bringing discord into any, even very well organized, activity.
The composition of such groups is especially important if time
management is applied in the organization of medium and more scale. It helps to
determine the most significant moments of work of all employees of this
organization, including their management team. However, to increase the
productivity of the team, one grouping will not be enough. According to the
rules of time management, every major business in the planning should be
divided into several subparagraphs. In these subparagraphs, the objectives of
the performance of a particular work, ways of achieving the goals and the main
tasks of this work should be described in detail. Then for each group of cases
it is necessary to determine the optimal time, when they will be performed, and
the approximate duration of execution .
Any activity within the organization is subject to normalization and
accounting. The labor of personnel connected with obtaining a material and
material result is easier to normalize and study the costs of work, and
consequently it is easier to identify losses and to reduce these losses, as a
result, to increase labor productivity. The work of management personnel,
service providers, to a lesser extent, can be measured and evaluated.
Methods for reducing the loss of working time:
1. The Pareto principle;
2. ABC analysis;
3. The Eisenhower Principle;
The Pareto principle (Figure 1).
This principle can be called universal, that is, applicable to many
spheres of public life. In general terms, the Pareto principle says: 20% of
efforts give 80% of the result, and the remaining 80% of efforts give only 20%
of the result. This applies to the company's customers, and the goods sold by
the enterprise, and the time it takes to accomplish the tasks set.
The conclusion suggests itself: first to think, to take a balanced,
meaningful decision, and only then to get down to business, not shying from
side to side and not simultaneously grasping at all the business at once.
Urgent matters should either be done, or entrusted to others, but also
immediately, without delaying their decision. Those things that can wait should
not just be put aside, but you must set a time, specific and precise, when they
are done, and the corresponding item should be written down in your plan.
ABC-analysis - a method that allows you to classify the firm's
resources in terms of their importance. This analysis is one of the methods of
rationalization and can be applied in the sphere of activity of any enterprise.
The essence of this method is that all tasks are divided by letters
in accordance with their significance.
In accordance with this figure, we can trace the following pattern:
- A - the most important category, account for 15% of the total
tasks, have a significance of 65%;
- B - not a particularly important category, account for 20% of
common cases, significance at 20%;
- C - insignificant cases, account for 65% of all tasks, the
significance is only 15%.
The technique of using the ABC analysis consists of the following
1. Create a list of tasks;
2. Set the order of cases in accordance with their importance;
3. Number the tasks;
4. Evaluate in accordance with categories A, B, C;
5. Decide whether to transfer tasks belonging to categories B and C.
The Eisenhower Principle is a fairly effective method for obtaining
prioritization skills. The method is simple enough. At the same time, all
priorities are ranked according to the criteria of importance and urgency.
Based on this, all tasks can be divided into 4 groups:
- Urgent and important matters. These cases must be carried out
- Urgent and unimportant matters. Since they are urgent, the manager
can stop all their attention on them. But since it is not important, it must be
delegated to a subordinate.
- Unordinary and important matters. These types of tasks must also
be delegated to their subordinates.
- Unremitting and unimportant. Tasks of this category should be
"thrown into the basket", as their implementation will not bring any
result, but in return it takes a lot of time.
The technique of using the Eisenhower method:
1. Make a list of tasks for the day, that is, all the cases that
need to be performed during the working day need to be written out either on
paper or in electronic form;
2. Prioritize each task, that is, each task should be ranked
according to the criterion of importance and urgency;
3. All the tasks should be written in the quadrant of the matrix in
accordance with the group, that is, it is necessary to construct the Eisenhower
matrix and, in accordance with the prioritized priorities, make a suitable
quadrant of the matrix.
The Eisenhower matrix is four quadrants, based on two axes - the
axis of importance (vertically) and the axis of urgency (horizontally). As a
result, it turns out that each quadrant differs in its quality indicators. In
each of the quadrants all tasks and deeds are recorded, thanks to which an
extremely clear and objective picture of what should be done in the first place
is formed, than - in the second, and what not to do at all.
To facilitate the processing of observation results, we will use the
typical indexation of time spent using the symbols of the elements of the
production process and the various positions of the worker when performing
labor activities .
The following types of indexing are distinguished:
1. Indexing the costs of working hours by types:
- VR - operating time;
- OLT - time to rest;
- PNR - the time of breaks due to violations of operating modes or
shortcomings in the organization of production;
- HDPE - time of breaks due to violations of labor discipline.
2. Indexing the cost of working time on the content of labor:
- О - time of the basic work;
- PZ - preparatory-final time;
- ORM - time for servicing the workplace.
We will analyze the costs of working hours in the following areas:
1. Extent of use of working time.
To assess the effectiveness of the use of working time, you can
apply the coefficient of extensiveness, reflecting the use of the fund of
Extent of use of working hours
Without taking into account the time for rest and personal needs:
Index = (F - (PNR + OLT + HDPE)) / Ф = 1 - (PNR + OLT + HDPE) / F;
Index = 1 - (5 + 85) / 570 = 0.84;
The normative value of index without taking into account the rest
time is 0.94, so the workflow is organized inadequately rational, the
deviations are -0.1.
2. Rational use of working time is reflected in the following
indicators, presented in Table 1.
After analyzing the data presented in the table, it can be noted
that the estimated value of the time factor of the preparatory work and the
time factor for servicing the workplace is 4.3% and 6.6%, respectively, above
the normative value. The coefficient of rationality of using the main working
time is lower than the normative value by 6.6% .
To implement the reserve for the use of working time management needs
to strengthen work on monitoring the labor discipline of personnel, as well as
to organize the organizational and technical supply of jobs. The implementation
of these measures will increase the efficiency of the use of working time and
increase the productivity of staff.
The main consequences of ineffective use of working time are that
the effectiveness of the organization suffers because of the improper
distribution of employee time, there are constant braking of work due to lack
of time, the probability of "losing" tasks or their late execution
increases, the "management capacity" Department, the stress of the
staff, which leads to diseases, is increased, and this, in turn, is sick days.
Therefore, it is necessary to rationalize the working day in the company, in
the department or at individual employees.
Proposals for improving time management.
Step 1. List of tasks. In the formed plan of the day are listed all
the tasks that are necessary or important for the next day. In the
"tasks" column, you must specify the following information:
1. Cases from the plan for a week or a month.
2. Tasks that were not fulfilled the day before.
3. Periodically arising goals.
4. Added tasks.
Step 2. Estimate the duration of the task. A realistic plan should
contain a list of tasks that can be truly achieved. Therefore, before you start
to manage time, you should estimate the estimated duration of the necessary
measures. In assessing the duration of cases, it is impossible to achieve
complete accuracy. However, experience allows us to state - enough a week's
experience in this technique to achieve accuracy of 85-90%. When the time
interval appears, the performer will be more precise in keeping within the allotted
time, effectively coping with the assigned tasks.
An important condition - when determining the time limit for solving
problems, you need to specify not only the time for a particular task, but also
specify when you plan to start it and when to complete it.
Step 3. Reservation of time. When drawing up a plan, the first main
council should be taken into account - it should cover no more than 60% of the
working time. The rest of the time becomes a reserve for important cases, not
planned initially, but still arising in the work of everyone. If the working
tasks in the completed table exceed 60% of your working time, you can recommend
the following steps:
- Give up one of the items or postpone it the next day;
- Identify your priorities, the importance is given to the
delegation of tasks, reducing the time spent for these tasks;
- Reduction of time expenditures for each item in its schedule;
- If the tasks are beyond the time frame, they should be canceled or
transferred to the next day.
Step 4. Setting priorities and delegating tasks. When planning the
time, you should determine the priorities of the tasks, taking up delegation -
to save time for each task. Three types of priorities are set - a (important
and urgent tasks), b (something one - urgent or important), c (current
day-to-day tasks). For each day should be planned no more than 3 tasks a, no
more than 6 tasks b and not more than 7 c.
As a result, you will be able to avoid unnecessary tasks, saving
your time, saving only important goals from your area of responsibility.
Step 5. Monitoring the results. Based on this scheme, we begin the
execution of tasks, controlling the result and observing the allocated time.
Tasks that they did not manage to cope with are being carried over to the next
The benefits of these events are enormous: first, it becomes
possible to plan the work accordingly and prioritize in all areas.
Despite the fact that each method can exist separately, the greatest
effect will be achieved only when all recommendations are implemented.
The application of these methods does not require large financial
investments and a long time to prepare for implementation, but in this case it
requires self-monitoring and systematic implementation .
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Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №9 - 2017