Inclusive education in Kazakhstan: legal, social, psychological and pedagogical aspects
Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №4 - 2012
Author: Moshenskaya Natalya, Kazakh-American Free University, Kazakhstan
One of the main problems of education in Kazakhstan is the problem of inclusive education. Inclusive education is the involvement
for all children of all religious and ethnic backgrounds, with any features in
their physical development, of any economic or social status in the studying.
The main objective of the introduction and development of inclusive education
is the adaptation to the various needs of children in order to achieve full
access to high-quality education.
On the one hand, inclusive education is the principle of
education system forming, and, on the other hand, it is a process. The essence
of this process is that schools, educational institutions, kindergartens, must
accept children regardless of their peculiar characteristics. We are talking
not only about children with physical disabilities, but also about healthy children,
for example, very clever ones. All children are different, every child is
unique in his abilities, and the education system should be based on the
principle of distinction of children. All children belong to the society, and
we should have an individual approach to each child, in order to consider and
meet all their educational needs.
The basic principle of inclusive education is teaching
children with special educational needs in ordinary educational institutions.
The requirement for educational institutions is to provide all conditions for
Inclusive education is based on the following
1. Value of a person doesn't depend on his (her)
abilities and achievements;
2. Every person is able to feel and to think;
3. Every person has the right to communicate and to be
4. All people need each other;
5. Genuine education can be implemented only in the
context of real relations;
6. All people need support and friendship of age mates;
7. For each student the progress means reaching for
success, not failure.
8. Diversity intensifies all aspects of human life.
The system of inclusive education involves primary,
secondary and higher educational institutions. The set of measures assumes both
technical equipping of educational institutions and development of the
curriculum for educators and students aimed at the development of disabled
people and interaction with them. There is also an obvious necessity in special
programs developed to facilitate the adaptation of physically challenged children
at educational institutions.
The educational system of Kazakhstan is still in the
process of democratization. This is the stage of the strengthening of
humanistic approaches to upbringing, development and education of the rising
generation. This imparts a special relevance to the issue of creating
conditions favorable for creative development, self-education and vocational
self-determination of all children, including physically challenged ones.
Education as a process of knowledge and skill
acquisition is an integral part of social and psychological adaptation and
integration of disabled children in the society. It has a purpose of providing
them with the access to the gnosiological basis and cultural-historic heritage
of the humanity.
The educational environment prepares these children to
professional activity and stimulates their personality potential development.
Inclusive education is also considered to be the best form of establishing
optimal interactions with surrounding people as coeducation itself allows
improving the quality of everyday communications among children that have vital
Legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan and other
fundamental international documents on human rights provide the principle of
equal rights to education for all children in the country.
Moving from equal rights to equal opportunities in
access to quality education for all children the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the "State Program of Development of Education in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2011-2020" identifies development of inclusive education
as one of the important goals. The program includes measures of creating a
legal framework for all children and also children with developmental
disabilities to be involved in the general education area.
The process of creating and including of the regulatory
and legal framework for the implementation of inclusive education in Kazakhstan is based on sociological and scientific studies that were made last decade by
the experts of the National Research Centre for Special Education.
This project studied international experience and the
point of view on inclusive education of various social groups. And also the
analysis of statistical data on children with special needs across the regions
of the country was made in four areas: health, education, social security, internal
With regional psychological, medical and educational
consultations the scale of "spontaneous" inclusion of children with
disabilities in mass pre-school and school organizations was determined. Such
experience has a good influence on different regions of our country during the
course of these studies and reviews.
All the needs of students and teachers to succeed are
taken into account by inclusion. An inclusive school considers every student as
an important part of a group which gives them a sense of confidence that can be
the reason for the children to be responsive and kind. Disabled students are
supported by their classmates. Nowadays there are a lot of schools that use
inclusive education system, but there are still many problems for inclusive education
to become mass. Here are the main points:
- Problems in architectural structure of educational
- In most cases disabled students are considered to be uneducable;
- The majority of school teachers and directors do not
have proper education in the area of teaching disabled students, so they are
not ready to involve disabled students into education process;
- Disabled students' parents don't know how to defend
their children's rights to education.
Many specialists believe that inclusive education is a
new stage in the development of education. State educational establishments in
most cases do not consider the abilities of every child. The reasons of this
may be overcrowding of classes - teachers just have no time to find individual
approach to every student. But inclusive education gives a new opportunity to
teach disabled children, which takes social support of this category of
children to the next level.
Inclusive education is a progressive way in education
that has big opportunities to develop in the modern society. To make it
nationwide we need to consider the experience of foreign countries, which can
be carried out by specialists, as most of current teachers are not able to
change their approach to educational system.
Inclusive education is based on the idea that all the
children should be treated in the same way, but disabled children should get
special attention. About 15% of students are expelled because of system's
inability to meet their needs. We should understand that it is the system to be
blamed, not the children. Inclusive approach will give them a chance for a
better life. Common education system is a process of general education, which
means that every child is able to get knowledge. The main point of inclusive
education is developing a methodology where every child is an individual that
has different needs. And if teaching became more effective due to changes that
introduce inclusive education it would have positive effect on all the
Inclusive school teaches children an idea of human
rights which leads to decrease in discrimination so children learn to
communicate to each other and recognize the feeling of other mates.
Disabled students first of all need an environment
different from their family environments, communication with other students and
mediator whose role is assigned to the teacher. Inclusive educational
environment is formed by teachers that work altogether. Today development of
inclusive educational system is the teachers' duty. There is no doubt that the
inclusive educational environment is formed by a teacher, not just a teacher,
but a team of teachers and specialists - a team working in interdisciplinary
cooperation. Today primary school teachers, subject teachers, speech
therapists, educational psychologists, teachers, speech pathologists, physical
therapy instructors, teachers, teacher educators and tutors take part in the
development of an inclusive educational environment.
As a result of their joint work we will get:
- Development of child's abilities;
- Creation of social relations system;
- Compensation of special needs;
- Creation of a comprehensive support system;
- Functional approach to teaching and treatment;
- Taking part in public activities;
- Development of self-sufficiency.
Inclusive education is trying to develop a new method of
teaching that would be more flexible to meet the needs of different students.
And if education becomes more effective due to changes that inclusive education
adopts, all students will benefit from it.
1. Improving Education. The
Promise of Inclusive Schools. The US National Institute on city education
improvement. Handbook. Retrieved from the web-site http://perspectiva-inva.ru
2. Sue Stubbs, Inclusive
Education Where There are few resources. Textbook. Oslo, 2002.
3. National programme of Republic of Kazakhstan in education system development for 2011-2020. // "Kazakhstanskaya
Pravda", December 14, 2010.
Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №4 - 2012