Psychological analysis of pedagogical communication of future teachers and psychologists
Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №3 - 2011
Author: Khassenov Sayakhat, East Kazakhstan State University in honor of S. Amanzholov, Kazakhstan
The questions of pedagogical communication organization, content and
teacher training are revealed in the studies of O. Abdullina, N. Kuzmina, N. Kukharev,
A. Mudrik, H. Liymetsa, D. Ruvinskiy, V. Slastenin, M. Subkhankulov, L.
Kharaeva, Kh. Sheryazdanova, A. Yermentaeva, L. Shcherbakov, etc. The structure
and the basis of teacher pedagogical communication are determined in their
Considering the basis of professional pedagogical communication of
the future teachers and psychologists, we rely on a number of propositions
developed in psychopedagogical science. The idea of professional pedagogical
communication of the future teachers and psychologists is fundamental to our
understanding as the complex formation, which has moral, educational, and
psychological components at its basis. This logic of professional pedagogical
communication discloses the matter of a teacher-students interaction, the
content-transfer of human values by the teacher and the result, which should be
achieved in the process of this interaction – establishing well-defined
relationship between the teacher and students. Communication always has a
personal nature, i.e. it acts as an individual form of social relations, their
personal and psychological concretization. That is why the problem of
identification of certain features of pedagogical communication of future
teachers and psychologists, as well as the use of data obtained at its
improvement process, expects the study of psychopedagogical literature on
specific issues. Namely, what personality traits of the teacher are the most
important in the process of pedagogical communication: what really represents
the importance in the teacher for students with whom he interacts; how the socioethnic
personality traits of the teacher are reflected in the communication process,
and their relative independence and the dialectical connection in the communication
of the future teachers and psychologists.
This formulation of the problem supposes an orientation to the
knowledge, skills and personal qualities of the future teachers and
psychologists, which are important in the communication, their development in
the professional training system. At the same time the communication problems
are not the abstract out of time and space teacher should consider, but of a
person, who lives in a certain ethnic environment at a particular stage of
development of society, as a bearer of certain ethnic properties.
The specific psychology characteristics of different nations are
preserved. These characteristics include the following components: 1) national
consciousness; 2) ethnocentrism; 3) national feelings, mood, temperament; 4)
volitional elements of the nation; 5) national directions; 6) national
character; 7) national taste; 8) national stereotypes, prejudices, biases; 9)
psychological side of the national symbols of values. One should bear their
relativeness in mind, because there is no nation which would have absolutely
unique features. There can be different degrees of intensity, which appears in
the practice of communion, filling it with specific content.
Both teaching and interpersonal relationships of the future teachers
and psychologists are modeled and structured on the pattern of interpersonal
relations specific to an ethnic group as well as a person at any social and
professional role feels closeness to the customs, habits and traditions of the
environment in which one grew up and was educated. The aim and the manner of
use of acquired personalized meaning, norms and values can be most important in
the teacher's professional communication as the orientation basis of the
interaction. Normative-value system forms the social attitudes to quite
definite normative communication. All of the above must be seriously
comprehended, since taking into account ethnocultural variables allows
completely new way to look at the traditional socio-psychological universals.
On this basis, improving of the potential pedagogical communication will
expand, identifying the communication peculiarities in different cultures and
will favor the better problem solving of the individual’s behavior regulation.
The analysis of pedagogical and psychological studies of a number of
scientists (N. Anikeeva, N. Berezovin, A. Bodalev, V. Grekhnev, A. Dobrovich,
V. Kang Kalik, A. Kirichuk, Y. Kolominskiy, S. Kondratieva, A. Kurakin, A.
Leontiev, M. Lisina, T. Malkovskaya, A. Mudrik, L. Novikova, L. Petrovskaya, L.
Ruvinskiy, V. Slastenin, A. Tolstykh, Kh. Sheryazdanova, A. Yermentaeva, etc.)
shows that the training of teachers to the pedagogical communication is a
twofold process: on the one hand, it is the acquisition of some new knowledge,
skills and experience, and on the other hand, it is the alteration,
modification and development of already formed psychological properties of an individual.
Both of the aspects should be viewed in the context of broad connections between
the teacher and the reality because the personality of the future teachers and
psychologists is an active subject of assimilation of systemic effects of organizational
structure of continuing education as well as sociocultural, ethnic, culturological,
traditional factors of social environment. It is in this “ensemble” of social
relations in which professionally relevant knowledge, skills, personal
qualities of future teachers and psychologists, are formed. These aspects
define the professionalism, personality, and as a matter of course specific
features of relationships with the students and other people around a teacher.
The relevance of this problem is further enhanced in the present
period of revival and significant increase in the national self-consciousness.
For example, in Kazakhstan today there is a growing tendency toward returning
to national culture, rising of people’s interest in religion, increasing number
of national Kazakh schools. Meanwhile, Kazakh schools mostly located in rural
areas, where the elements of business and interpersonal communication of the
future teachers and psychologists are interwoven in a complex manner. This
raises new content in pedagogical communication of the future teachers and
psychologists, because school starts to some extent serve as the family,
teachers – as the parents. In Kazakh schools, as elsewhere, most of the employees
are women, who tend to be more ethnocentric. They are the main carriers of the
nation’s traditions and customs as they maintain and pass them on from generation
to generation. The custom of “honoring the elders” in accordance with age, sex,
social rank is essential not only at home but also in the process of education.
Kazakh schools are characterized as having “akin relationships” inside of them
between the teacher and students, colleagues, administration. This feature
makes the content of pedagogical communication specific.
We fully agree with the opinion of many national pedagogy scholars
that unique methods and forms of national education based on the progressive customs
and traditions provide tremendous potential for development of the individual
and their moral qualities. The works of Sh. Zhalgassova, S. Zhamansarieva, A.
Mukhambayeva, etc., consider various manifestations of national identity in the
content of education and in Kazakh schools, open the possibility of using
traditional means of teaching in the educational process. But yet not enough
study were obtained about such urgent issues as: the impact of national
traditions and national psychology on work and personality of the teacher;
teacher’s understanding and application of the values of national communication;
the specific features of the professional training of future teachers and
psychologists to work in the national Kazakh school.
The logic of these issues research involves determination of common,
particular and individual in the pedagogical communication content of the
future teachers and psychologists. It requires a number of observations. First,
as we study the problem of formation and development of knowledge, skills and
personality characteristics of teachers and psychologists as a condition for
improving the pedagogical communication it is necessary to reveal the external
factors which not only promote, but also prevent it. Secondly, considering the
reasons of the difficulty of pedagogical communication of the future teachers
and psychologists, we partly examine them beyond the personality of the teacher
and the psychologist trying to understand not only subjective, but also objective
reasons for their difficulties in communicating with students and others. The
effectiveness of educational activities depends to a large extent on how the
forms of their organization and the content itself suppose communication, where
its natural forms turn into professional and functional and serve as an
instrument of influence. At the same time competence in the communication is
required from the teachers and psychologists. Here the competence in the
communication means the ability to establish appropriate contact with students;
knowledge and skills to ensure effective process of pedagogical communication.
The question of competence in communication of the future teachers and psychologists
has its own peculiarities, as there is a certain stereotype of the teacher and
psychologist the minds of students in Kazakh schools. Under the preserved high
social status each teacher of Kazakh schools priori considered as a specialist
with a high culture of communication in the framework of ethnic etiquette. His
communication with students, parents, colleagues and other people must conform
to a well-defined standard of the nation and it must be clearly differentiated
in accordance with age, sex, individual psychological, social and features.
Thus, future teachers and psychologists have to be the reference person not
only in educational activities, but also in everyday communication situations,
this is how the system of definite expectations works.
Such understanding of communication competence of future teachers
and psychologists in a specific environment requires an analysis of its
communication core. A. Bodalev  includes the content of concept
communicative core “all the psychological characteristics that managed to
develop in a given individual, and which appear while that individual communicates.
More or less integrated experience with different categories of people reflects
in all this set of properties”.
Hence, the communicative core of a person is a harmonious unity of
knowledge, skills and personal qualities of the future teachers and
psychologists, which are significant in pedagogical communication. The
personality of the teacher and his communicative orientation, attitudes, motivations,
capabilities and commitment to pedagogically expedient ways of communication
with students are studied in the works O. Abdullina, I. Bagaeva, S. Batrakov,
A. Bodalev, V. Grekhnev, S. Yelkanov, I. Zyazyun, A. Zhuravlev, I. Kuzmina, A.
Mudrik, Y. Shaposhnikova, Kh. Sheryazdanova, A. Yermentaeva, etc. Depending on
the theoretical position of researchers various components of the
communicative core content of the future teachers and psychologists were determined,
as well as the level of its establishment, role and place of different subjective
qualities of pedagogical communication and the degree of their infuence on the
nature of the interaction. However, in modern pedagogy and psychology there is
no integrated system of components of teacher’s communication competence, where
the ratio of the properties, the level of expression of individual properties,
the nature of the relationships between them would be taken into account. There
are several models of formed communicative core of the teacher. Some of the
variants are considered further below.
L. Mnatsakanyan and K. Levitan  state that communication in the
teaching activities to the maximum extent includes professional and personal
qualities. The authors have compiled an extensive list of main skills and
personality traits of the teacher. In their view, high level of knowledge of
the taught subject, ability to convey knowledge and skills to the students,
exactingness, general erudition, and kindness are necessary in the process of
interaction with the students.
Thus, problems in relationships lead to loosing of the student’s
communication skills, limit the possibility of communication experience, block
the development of necessary personal qualities and determine the maladaptive
Personality traits of the teacher, which affect the professional
pedagogical communication in a negative way, represent the second group
Thus, T. Polyakova  suggests that the lack of teachers’ special
communicative skills, lack of commitment to their development, instability of
temper can lead to serious difficulties in the relationship of the teacher with
Y. Kolominsky  identifies the following list of teacher’s traits
that prevent normal communication with the students: lack of understanding of
students, injustice, anger, low or excessive exactingness, pedantry, imposition
of own views tactlessness, the contradiction between words and deeds,
dishonesty, shortcomings in teaching. The dominance of at least one of these
character traits in the "ensemble of mental properties" can have
dangerous consequences for the moral state of a student. For example, the O.
Bondarenko in her study determined that 50% of students feel increased anxiety
in the process of communication with the teacher. Socio-pedagogical analysis of
E. Panova, L. Rybako, Y. Moroz reveals the following: 22% of teenagers
reported to the teacher’s rudeness, insults, humiliation, yelling, total
indifference (“do not see me as a person”), 16% say that they were physically
assaulted by the teacher. Hence children account the teacher’s aggressive
behavior for negative personal qualities of teachers.
T. Malkovskaya believes that qualities such as temper,
straightness, hastiness, harshness, heightened self-esteem, self-confidence,
stubbornness, lack of sense of humor, excessive softness, simple-mindedness,
sensibility, sluggishness, excessive restraint, disorganization also have
negative influence on teacher’s professional and pedagogical communication.
In the study of T. Yatsenko  two types of teacher and student’s
relationship are distinguished – friendly and hostile. These types depend on
the interpersonal orientation of the teacher. It is established that the
hostile attitude of the teacher varies to a large extent in relation to
different students. Most often negative emotions appear toward weak,
unattractive, melancholic and phlegmatic children.
Teacher communication experience with different categories of
people, his age characteristics, sex, unique understanding of cultural values
of communication and other factors reflects in the personal qualities, which
degrade pedagogical communication is reflected . For example, S. Kondratyeva in
her experimental studies  found out that male teachers have more
difficulties in understanding students in the communication process then female
teachers have. The data obtained suggest that teachers of natural disciplines
are less competent in understanding the state of the student and one and a half
times higher rate their ability to establish contacts than teachers of humanities.
It is known that inadequate self-esteem determine the inner position of those
who rely only on force, orders, power, who does not tolerate opposition,
remarks in his address, who does not recognize the right of students to have
their own opinion.
Thus, inadequate self-esteem of the future teachers and
psychologists leads them to the wrong comprehension of the degree of their
proximity to the students and measures of influence on them. In this case the
syndrome of exaggerated self-esteem comes to the existence, promoting
self-satisfaction of the future teachers and psychologists.
1. Bodalev A. Communication and development of the
psyche. M., 1986.
2. Mnatsakanyan L., Levitan K. The culture of
communication. – Yerevan, 1987. – p. 87
3. Polyakova T. The analysis of the difficulties in
teaching activities of the entry-level teachers. – M.: Pedagogy, 1983. – p. 129
4. Kolominsky Y. The human: The Psychology. – M.:
Education, 1986. – p. 218
5. Yatsenko T. Soci-psychological education in the
training of the future teachers. Kiev, 1987.
6. Kondratiev S. The teacher – The student.
– M.: Pedagogy, 1984. – p. 80
Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №3 - 2011