Case technologies as an interactive method of teaching a language
Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №12 - 2020
Moshenskaya Natalya, Kazakh-American Free University, Kazakhstan
Nurlanova Asem, Kazakh-American Free University, Kazakhstan
Oskolkova Anna, Kazakh-American Free University, Kazakhstan
technologies are a group of educational technologies, methods and techniques of
teaching based on solving specific problems and tasks. They are classified as
interactive teaching methods, they allow all students to interact together with
their teacher. The name of the technology comes from the Latin word casus - a tangled unusual case; and also from the English word case. The
origin of the terms reflects the essence of the technology. Students receive a
package of documents (case) from the teacher, with the help of which they
either identify the problem and ways to solve it, or develop options for
getting out of a difficult situation when the problem is identified.
case-based teaching method originated in the USA at the business school of Harvard University. Students reviewed difficult situations in which real organizations
ended up to function and thought about ways to get out of them. If the same
situation happened to the students, they could easily find ways to solve the
problem. In 1920, a collection of cases was published, after which the entire
management education system at Harvard School was transferred to case-study -
learning based on real situations. Now case technologies are called the method
of analyzing specific situations and situational tasks. In recent years, case
technologies have been wide-spread in medicine, law, economics, political
studies, business education and, of course, in pedagogy and language teaching.
Teachers of various sciences use the case method not as a specialized course in
the study of the situation, but in the form of teaching technology in the
classroom (case technology). Various organizations in many countries of the
world (institutes, universities, colleges) have their own case collections.
successful case technologies can be used in the lessons of economics, law,
social studies, history on topics that require the analysis of a large number
of documents and primary sources. Case technologies are designed to gain
knowledge in those disciplines where there is no unanimous answer to the
question posed, but there are several answers that can cause disagreement. Case
technologies that activate the educational process include:
- method of
dealing with business correspondence;
- the method
of situational analysis.
The goals of
of students' cognitive activity, which in turn increases the effectiveness of
motivation for the learning process;
the skills to work with information, including the ability to request additional
information needed to clarify the situation;
- ability to
make a correct conclusion based on group analysis of the situation;
acquisition of skills of clear and accurate presentation of their own point of
view in speaking and in writing, clear assertion and defense of their point of
and skills of critical evaluation of different points of view, the implementation
of self-awareness, self-control and self-esteem.
of the case method is as follows:
of tasks for the possibility of using different solutions;
- block and
module structure of new learning material;
of students' independent work in preparation for the lesson, when working with
exchange of students' answers;
of all types of activities by stages of work.
of the case method is that the assimilation of knowledge and the formation of
skills is the result of active independent activity of students to resolve
contradictions, as a result of which there is a creative mastery of knowledge,
skills, and the development of thinking abilities. The main condition for using
the case-method in teaching a particular discipline is the presence of
contradictions, on the basis of which problem situations, tasks, practical
tasks are formed and formulated for discussion and finding an optimal solution
can be classified according to the kind of creative work they require. In
particular, methods of incident, dealing with business correspondence and situational
analysis are highlighted.
include the following methods:
- method of
- method of
situational role-playing games;
- method of
dealing with business correspondence.
will consider the options for applying these methods in relation to the
language learning process.
Method. Incident (from Latin incident) - case, incident, collision.
of the method is to search for information for making a decision by the
listener himself, and, as a result, to learn to work with information:
communicate, organize and analyze it. A problem with missing data is considered
to be resolved. Depending on the language level of students and the direction
of their study, the main areas of work within the framework of this method will
ability of each student to independently acquire knowledge;
of lexical skills: learning of lexical units of the subject under study;
of grammar skills: learning grammar structure;
of reading skills;
of cognitive activity - the ability to generalize, analyze, reason and prove;
of the ability to extract the necessary information in the target language;
of the ability to conduct a sociological survey;
of the ability to draw up a project, systematize the material;
of the ability to defend your project;
of civil attitude to global problems in society;
of the responsibly for the family and community;
of a positive attitude towards a healthy lifestyle.
The use of
instructional techniques allows designing activity with the use of case -
technologies, given the ability of the group and in accordance with the
allotted work time.
2. Method of
Dealing with Business Correspondence (a.k.a "Folders with Incoming
Documents", "Information Maze", "Basket Method "). The
method is based on working with documents and papers related to a particular
organization, situation, problem.
with this technology of situation analysis, students receive the folders with
the same set of documents related to a certain historical event, a specific
situation, the activities of a certain enterprise, depending on the topic and
in such training act as decision makers.
The aim of
the exercise for the participants is to take the position of the person in
charge of working with the "incoming documents" and to cope with all
the tasks that it implies.
using the method are cases on pedagogy, law, social studies, sociology, where
an analysis of a large number of primary sources and documents is required.
Within the framework of teaching languages this method can be used as a
professional approach to the study of language and students future professional
calling. In this variant of constructing a lesson, it is necessary to take into
account the selection of texts for work, analysis and project activity.
method of discussion as one of the methods of problem-based learning is
increasingly being used in the classroom for studying the languages, especially
in teaching for specific purposes, mainly because it allows you to organically
integrate the knowledge of students from different fields when solving a
problem, gives the opportunity to apply language knowledge and skills in
practice, while generating new ideas.
"discussion" in translation from Latin means
"investigating". This type of argumentation always strives for a
comprehensive discussion of controversial subject, and its means are not the
opinions of the parties, but positions characterized by convincing logical
is a type of debate, during which, by comparing different points of view, a
common opinion is sought for the possible correct solution of a controversial
issue. The fundamental component of the discussion is the presence of a
practically and theoretically significant problem for discussion (from social,
cultural, political and other points of view), but the existence of the problem
itself will not ensure a fruitful discussion. In order to participate in the
discussion, it is necessary to have a certain set of skills, including both
intellectual skills and speaking skills.
method of the game design in the classroom for language learning.
of "game pedagogical technologies" includes a fairly extensive group
of methods and techniques for organizing the pedagogical process in the form of
various pedagogical games. Unlike games in general, pedagogical play has an
essential feature - a clearly defined goal of teaching and the corresponding
pedagogical result, which can be substantiated, singled out in an explicit form
and is characterized by an educational and cognitive direction.
form of classes is created in the classroom with the help of game techniques
and situations that act as a means of motivating students to run educational activities.
implementation of game techniques and situations in the classroom occurs in the
following main directions: a didactic goal is set for students in the form of a
game task; educational activity is subject to the rules of the game; the
educational material is used as its means, the element of competition is
introduced into the educational activity, which turns the didactic task into
the game one; the successful completion of the didactic task is associated with
the game result.
the idea of the need to teach language as communication has
become urgent in a group activity, taking into account personal-interpersonal
relationships, such as teacher-group, teacher- student , student- group,
student - student. Group activities have a positive effect on the personality
of the learner. Academic success - is the result of the collective use of all
learning opportunities. The use of role-playing games provides ample
opportunities for activating the educational process.
The game is
a small situation, the construction of which resembles a dramatic work with its
own plot, conflict and characters. In the course of the game, the situation is
played several times, and each time in a new version. But at the same time, the
situation of the game is a situation of real life. Despite the clear conditions
of the game and the limited language material used, there are always elements
of surprise in it. Hearing an unexpected question, the student immediately
begins to think about how to answer it. Therefore, the game is characterized by
spontaneous speech. Both verbal and non-verbal communication is purposeful and
of the role-playing game is the activity being carried out, since it is the
game, the motive that lies in the content of the activity, and not outside it.
As a model of interpersonal communication, role play creates the need for
communication in the target language, so students' internal motivation starts
is a simple and natural way of a person's cognition of the surrounding reality,
the most accessible way to master knowledge, skills, and abilities. When
students participate in role-playing games, the foundations of communicative
competence are laid, allowing them to carry out language communication in the
classroom, which is the main goal of language learning and teaching.
Play is a
sphere of self-expression, self-determination, self-examination and self-realization.
The effectiveness of teaching here is primarily due to an increase of motivation
and interest in the subject. It is effective both at the younger stage of
education, and at the middle and senior levels. Students are convinced that
language can be used as a means of communication.
activates the desire of students to contact each other and the teacher, creates
a condition of equality in speech partnership, destroys the barrier between the
teacher and the student.
makes it possible for shy, insecure students to talk and thereby overcome the
barrier of uncertainty. In a normal discussion, student leaders tend to seize
the initiative, while shy ones prefer to remain silent. In role play, everyone
is given a role and must be an active partner in verbal communication.
they master such elements of communication as the ability to start a
conversation, support it, interrupt the interlocutor, at the right time agree
with his opinion or refute it, the ability to purposefully listen to the
interlocutor, and ask clarifying questions.
language can seem completely boring and uninteresting if this process is
monotonous, includes one type of activity and, in any way, does not motivate
the student to learn the language with interest. The task of the teacher is to
present the teaching process in such a way that the student wants to learn the
language, strives to understand it and is ready to speak it.
position of the teacher, role play acts as a form of organizing the educational
process, the purpose of which is to form and develop speaking skills and
abilities in students. In the game, the teacher can take the following
positions (Diagram 1):
Diagram 1. Teacher's Role during the
games are based on the principles of group activity, competitiveness, active
work of each student and unlimited prospects for the creative activities of the
role-playing game. Therefore, the use of role play in language lessons helps to
reveal the personal potential of each student, his positive personal qualities,
maintain and strengthen educational motivation. Thus, games form cognitive
interest, promote the development of independence and foster a sense of
collectivism. Role play is one of the most effective techniques for implementing
the communicative principle in language teaching.
thinking in the aspect of modern education is the most important mechanism for
the development of each student. Therefore, the main task of case-method serves
to provide conditions for the formation of student's individuality.
for fundamentally new ways is rather challenging, it requires both time and
creativity from the teacher. However, the level of students' language
knowledge development achieved through case technology is the main reward for
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Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №12 - 2020