Case technologies as an interactive method of teaching a language

Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №12 - 2020

Moshenskaya Natalya, Kazakh-American Free University, Kazakhstan
Nurlanova Asem, Kazakh-American Free University, Kazakhstan
Oskolkova Anna, Kazakh-American Free University, Kazakhstan

Case technologies are a group of educational technologies, methods and techniques of teaching based on solving specific problems and tasks. They are classified as interactive teaching methods, they allow all students to interact together with their teacher. The name of the technology comes from the Latin word casus - a tangled unusual case; and also from the English word case. The origin of the terms reflects the essence of the technology. Students receive a package of documents (case) from the teacher, with the help of which they either identify the problem and ways to solve it, or develop options for getting out of a difficult situation when the problem is identified.

The case-based teaching method originated in the USA at the business school of Harvard University. Students reviewed difficult situations in which real organizations ended up to function and thought about ways to get out of them. If the same situation happened to the students, they could easily find ways to solve the problem. In 1920, a collection of cases was published, after which the entire management education system at Harvard School was transferred to case-study - learning based on real situations. Now case technologies are called the method of analyzing specific situations and situational tasks. In recent years, case technologies have been wide-spread in medicine, law, economics, political studies, business education and, of course, in pedagogy and language teaching. Teachers of various sciences use the case method not as a specialized course in the study of the situation, but in the form of teaching technology in the classroom (case technology). Various organizations in many countries of the world (institutes, universities, colleges) have their own case collections.

The most successful case technologies can be used in the lessons of economics, law, social studies, history on topics that require the analysis of a large number of documents and primary sources. Case technologies are designed to gain knowledge in those disciplines where there is no unanimous answer to the question posed, but there are several answers that can cause disagreement. Case technologies that activate the educational process include:

- incident method;

- method of dealing with business correspondence;

- the method of situational analysis.

The goals of case-method are:

- activation of students' cognitive activity, which in turn increases the effectiveness of training;

- increasing motivation for the learning process;

- training the skills to work with information, including the ability to request additional information needed to clarify the situation;

- ability to make a correct conclusion based on group analysis of the situation;

- the acquisition of skills of clear and accurate presentation of their own point of view in speaking and in writing, clear assertion and defense of their point of view;

- development and skills of critical evaluation of different points of view, the implementation of self-awareness, self-control and self-esteem.

The essence of the case method is as follows:

- selection of tasks for the possibility of using different solutions;

- block and module structure of new learning material;

- organization of students' independent work in preparation for the lesson, when working with a case;

- communication, exchange of students' answers;

- concentration of all types of activities by stages of work.

The essence of the case method is that the assimilation of knowledge and the formation of skills is the result of active independent activity of students to resolve contradictions, as a result of which there is a creative mastery of knowledge, skills, and the development of thinking abilities. The main condition for using the case-method in teaching a particular discipline is the presence of contradictions, on the basis of which problem situations, tasks, practical tasks are formed and formulated for discussion and finding an optimal solution by students.

Case methods can be classified according to the kind of creative work they require. In particular, methods of incident, dealing with business correspondence and situational analysis are highlighted.

Case technologies include the following methods:

- incident method;

- game design;

- method of discussion;

- method of situational role-playing games;

- method of dealing with business correspondence.

Next, we will consider the options for applying these methods in relation to the language learning process.

1. Incident Method. Incident (from Latin incident) - case, incident, collision.

The purpose of the method is to search for information for making a decision by the listener himself, and, as a result, to learn to work with information: communicate, organize and analyze it. A problem with missing data is considered to be resolved. Depending on the language level of students and the direction of their study, the main areas of work within the framework of this method will be:

- the ability of each student to independently acquire knowledge;

- formation of lexical skills: learning of lexical units of the subject under study;

- formation of grammar skills: learning grammar structure;

- formation of reading skills;

- development of cognitive activity - the ability to generalize, analyze, reason and prove;

- development of the ability to extract the necessary information in the target language;

- development of the ability to conduct a sociological survey;

- development of the ability to draw up a project, systematize the material;

- development of the ability to defend your project;

- formation of civil attitude to global problems in society;

- realization of the responsibly for the family and community;

- formation of a positive attitude towards a healthy lifestyle.

The use of instructional techniques allows designing activity with the use of case - technologies, given the ability of the group and in accordance with the allotted work time.

2. Method of Dealing with Business Correspondence (a.k.a "Folders with Incoming Documents", "Information Maze", "Basket Method "). The method is based on working with documents and papers related to a particular organization, situation, problem.

When working with this technology of situation analysis, students receive the folders with the same set of documents related to a certain historical event, a specific situation, the activities of a certain enterprise, depending on the topic and subject.

Participants in such training act as decision makers.

The aim of the exercise for the participants is to take the position of the person in charge of working with the "incoming documents" and to cope with all the tasks that it implies.

Examples of using the method are cases on pedagogy, law, social studies, sociology, where an analysis of a large number of primary sources and documents is required. Within the framework of teaching languages this method can be used as a professional approach to the study of language and students future professional calling. In this variant of constructing a lesson, it is necessary to take into account the selection of texts for work, analysis and project activity.

3. The method of discussion as one of the methods of problem-based learning is increasingly being used in the classroom for studying the languages, especially in teaching for specific purposes, mainly because it allows you to organically integrate the knowledge of students from different fields when solving a problem, gives the opportunity to apply language knowledge and skills in practice, while generating new ideas.

The term "discussion" in translation from Latin means "investigating". This type of argumentation always strives for a comprehensive discussion of controversial subject, and its means are not the opinions of the parties, but positions characterized by convincing logical justification.

Discussion is a type of debate, during which, by comparing different points of view, a common opinion is sought for the possible correct solution of a controversial issue. The fundamental component of the discussion is the presence of a practically and theoretically significant problem for discussion (from social, cultural, political and other points of view), but the existence of the problem itself will not ensure a fruitful discussion. In order to participate in the discussion, it is necessary to have a certain set of skills, including both intellectual skills and speaking skills.

4. The method of the game design in the classroom for language learning.

The concept of "game pedagogical technologies" includes a fairly extensive group of methods and techniques for organizing the pedagogical process in the form of various pedagogical games. Unlike games in general, pedagogical play has an essential feature - a clearly defined goal of teaching and the corresponding pedagogical result, which can be substantiated, singled out in an explicit form and is characterized by an educational and cognitive direction.

The game form of classes is created in the classroom with the help of game techniques and situations that act as a means of motivating students to run educational activities.

The implementation of game techniques and situations in the classroom occurs in the following main directions: a didactic goal is set for students in the form of a game task; educational activity is subject to the rules of the game; the educational material is used as its means, the element of competition is introduced into the educational activity, which turns the didactic task into the game one; the successful completion of the didactic task is associated with the game result.

Currently, the idea of ​​the need to teach language as communication has become urgent in a group activity, taking into account personal-interpersonal relationships, such as teacher-group, teacher- student , student- group, student - student. Group activities have a positive effect on the personality of the learner. Academic success - is the result of the collective use of all learning opportunities. The use of role-playing games provides ample opportunities for activating the educational process.

The game is a small situation, the construction of which resembles a dramatic work with its own plot, conflict and characters. In the course of the game, the situation is played several times, and each time in a new version. But at the same time, the situation of the game is a situation of real life. Despite the clear conditions of the game and the limited language material used, there are always elements of surprise in it. Hearing an unexpected question, the student immediately begins to think about how to answer it. Therefore, the game is characterized by spontaneous speech. Both verbal and non-verbal communication is purposeful and mandatory.

The purpose of the role-playing game is the activity being carried out, since it is the game, the motive that lies in the content of the activity, and not outside it. As a model of interpersonal communication, role play creates the need for communication in the target language, so students' internal motivation starts to increase.

Role-playing is a simple and natural way of a person's cognition of the surrounding reality, the most accessible way to master knowledge, skills, and abilities. When students participate in role-playing games, the foundations of communicative competence are laid, allowing them to carry out language communication in the classroom, which is the main goal of language learning and teaching.

Play is a sphere of self-expression, self-determination, self-examination and self-realization. The effectiveness of teaching here is primarily due to an increase of motivation and interest in the subject. It is effective both at the younger stage of education, and at the middle and senior levels. Students are convinced that language can be used as a means of communication.

The game activates the desire of students to contact each other and the teacher, creates a condition of equality in speech partnership, destroys the barrier between the teacher and the student.

The game makes it possible for shy, insecure students to talk and thereby overcome the barrier of uncertainty. In a normal discussion, student leaders tend to seize the initiative, while shy ones prefer to remain silent. In role play, everyone is given a role and must be an active partner in verbal communication.

In games, they master such elements of communication as the ability to start a conversation, support it, interrupt the interlocutor, at the right time agree with his opinion or refute it, the ability to purposefully listen to the interlocutor, and ask clarifying questions.

Learning a language can seem completely boring and uninteresting if this process is monotonous, includes one type of activity and, in any way, does not motivate the student to learn the language with interest. The task of the teacher is to present the teaching process in such a way that the student wants to learn the language, strives to understand it and is ready to speak it.

From the position of the teacher, role play acts as a form of organizing the educational process, the purpose of which is to form and develop speaking skills and abilities in students. In the game, the teacher can take the following positions (Diagram 1):

Diagram 1. Teacher's Role during the Game

Role-playing games are based on the principles of group activity, competitiveness, active work of each student and unlimited prospects for the creative activities of the role-playing game. Therefore, the use of role play in language lessons helps to reveal the personal potential of each student, his positive personal qualities, maintain and strengthen educational motivation. Thus, games form cognitive interest, promote the development of independence and foster a sense of collectivism. Role play is one of the most effective techniques for implementing the communicative principle in language teaching.

Out-of-the-box thinking in the aspect of modern education is the most important mechanism for the development of each student. Therefore, the main task of case-method serves to provide conditions for the formation of student's individuality.

The search for fundamentally new ways is rather challenging, it requires both time and creativity from the teacher. However, the level of students' language knowledge development achieved through case technology is the main reward for a teacher.


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Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №12 - 2020

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