Development of the assessment system in foreign and domestic pedagogy: positive and negative aspects
Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №12 - 2020
Zaleskova Olga, Kazakh-American Free University, Kazakhstan
Oskolkova Anna, Kazakh-American Free University, Kazakhstan
The relevance of the
evaluation system study to date is undeniable. The evaluation system is still
being reformed throughout the world, and especially in our country. The system
of evaluation of educational activities has always been a reliable tool for improving
the quality of education. School grades have always been. Perhaps it is
possible to determine the level of development of the child, see progress in
education and notice emerging problems by this only objective criterion. In
domestic pedagogy, a 5-point rating system was most common. Foreign countries
do not understand such a graduation very well and consider it limited. There
are 10, 12- and 100-point scoring systems. It is interesting how the formation
of the evaluation system, its positive and negative aspects, as well as the
need for the evaluation system itself.
The history of formation
and development of evaluation can be conditionally divided into three stages:
The first stage covers
the period from ancient times to the seventeenth century.
The training of this
period was based on the fear of physical punishment of students for poor
performance and bad behavior. There were no marks, verbal forms of assessment
were used; students were instilled with a sense of humility and respect; the
development of students' desire for knowledge was not the goal of learning and
education. The first stage can be called "natural pedagogy."
Pedagogical activity was an integral part of the life of a child and an adult.
Each member of community participated in transfer and acquisition of knowledge,
abilities, and skills necessary for survival. The main methods were imitation,
The second phase covers
the period from the seventeenth century to the beginning of the twentieth
The essence of the
second stage is the purposeful transfer of adult experience to children through
a specially organized pedagogical process. The foundations of the modern
educational system were born; the concepts "class",
"lesson", "scheme of a lesson", "planning",
"system", "method" and others were entered; the ideas of
humanism and a comprehensively developed, intellectual person developed,
physical punishment was openly condemned; there was a primary development of
methodological ways of individual stimulation of cognitive activity of
students. For the first time in the seventeenth century, a point system for
assessing knowledge began to be used in Jesuit schools. In the XVIII century,
there was an acute debate about the shortcomings of the point system; attempts
were made to introduce education without grades. At the beginning of the
twentieth century, a new knowledge assessment system was born - test.
The third phase covers
the period from the beginning of the twentieth century to the present.During
this period, intensive research is being carried out in foreign countries
(Germany, France, Japan, USA and others) to improve the knowledge assessment
system; application of multi-point elevation scale. Evaluation is based on the
principles of individualization and differentiation, as well as training in
general. Development of new assessment methods (qualimetric, modular, rating;
ideas for the development of cognitive activity and creativity among students
are leading. The child is no longer a subject of education and upbringing; he
is considered as a full member of the educational and pedagogical process, where
the creation of an adult and a child is important.
What goals are being
pursued in the pedagogy of developed countries at present? Modern Western
pedagogy adheres to the course of moderation, practicality, achievability [1,
p. 10]. Pragmatic pedagogy is directly related to life. John Dewey, an American
philosopher and teacher, a representative of the philosophical direction of
pragmatism, managed to prove the need for pragmatic education and propose the
goals of education corresponding to the time and the interests of the general
population. Education, in his opinion, cannot be a means of preparing a person
for life, it is life itself. You cannot prepare for the future of a child,
since you cannot foresee how his life will turn out. Education should unite
people, it is necessary to educate young people in a spirit of social peace and
harmony [1, p. 10].
Combining the basic
assumptions about the uniqueness of a person, the main goal of his education -
preparation for life, J. Dewey concludes that education should ensure the
growth of a person in the practical sphere, the growth of his experience, the
development of a practical mind and analytical (evaluating) thinking [ibid.].
Modern psychologists and
teachers share the views of John Dewey: A. Maslow, A. Combs, E. Kelly, K.
Rogers, T. Brammeld, S. Hook. They argue that the value of education depends on
the extent to which it contributes to the growth of the person, her
self-consciousness, self-esteem, indicates how to better assess this situation,
adapt to survive in it. In this sense, learning resembles the first stage of
evaluation development, the so-called "natural pedagogy," where
pedagogical activity was an integral part of the life of a child and an adult.
Based on the above, we can conclude that the main goal of education within the
framework of pragmatic pedagogy is self-affirmation of the personality, based
on a correct assessment of oneself, others and the surrounding reality.
Lawrence Kohlberg is an
American psychologist, a specialist in the field of developmental psychology;
one of the founders of the theory of cognitive science, a representative of New
Humanistic pedagogy sees the goal of education in the formation of an
intellectual personality, including the theory of the development of morality.
He led the direction for the development of cognitive and mental orientation
(cognitive - developmental value education) of the personality. Kohlberg argued
that the education system should develop in everyone the ability to make
independent judgments, assessments and decisions [2, p. 11].
Then we should consider
the pedagogy of existentialism, which sets as its main goal the arming of man
with his own experience of existence. Representatives of this area (K. Gould,
Z. Breizach (USA), W. Barrett (Great Britain), A. Fallico (Italy), M. Marcel
(France), T. Morita (Japan), etc., note a general distrust of pedagogical
theory, since upbringing and training claim to know the objective patterns of
the child, and such do not exist. They believe that programs, methods and
techniques of education and training are not needed, as they destroy the
child's personality. Existentialism aims at arming a person with experience of
existence. The goal of the whole process of education is to teach a person to
create himself as a person. A creative person is an active person who longs for
knowledge. The focus of existentialist concepts of education is on the
individual, the assessment of her inner world, which determines the nature of
all actions and actions of a person, his moral choice [3, p. 11].
In the 50-60s of the
last century, new options for existentialist pedagogical goal setting arose in
European countries and the USA. Prominent in them are the ideas of the German
philosopher and teacher O.F. Volnov. The basis of his teaching is the concept
of moral education. The author believed that one of the first and necessary
tasks is the awareness of simple virtues, which in all ethical and political
systems form the necessary basis for human life [1, p. 11].
All the above suggests
that in modern pedagogy of Western countries, the main attention in the process
of education and education is paid to the personality of the student. The main
goal of modern pedagogy is the ability of the individual to survive in modern
conditions, as well as the ability to cope with any situation. Of course, this
is a positive aspect of the process of education and training. The moral side
of learning and education will allow the student to form the right assessment
and self-esteem judgments about himself and about the surrounding reality.
assessments have been abandoned, but not the monitoring and evaluation of
knowledge and skills in general. Evaluation takes an important stage in
learning and education. There is a search for new ways to stimulate the
educational work of students, where the student would be personally interested
in assessing and controlling his work. The process of diagnosing educational
knowledge and skills is very important and helps to clarify the current situation
for both the student and the teacher. In addition, this process contributes to
the self-determination of the individual, which in a competitive society is an
important motivating factor. This diagnosis can and should be performed both
for internal control purposes and for external control purposes.
Obviously, the emergence
of the evaluation problem is rooted in the bias of the teacher and the lack of
evaluation criteria, which is currently being tried to adjust. Pedagogical
subjectivity is the main reason why current students prefer computer and test
forms of control with minimal participation of the teacher. The teacher is
responsible for the mark, which, if necessary, he is obliged to explain in
accordance with the developed criteria for a certain subject.
In foreign schools,
diagnostic tests have been used for a very long time. Edward Lee Thorndike -
American psychologist and teacher identifies three stages of the introduction
of pedagogical testing in the practice of an American school. The first period
from 1900 to 1915 calls it the "search period." Here, the initial
implementation of tests of memory, attention, perception, intelligence takes
place. The next 15 years are years of "noise" in the development of
school testing. Tests were developed and introduced by O. Stone (arithmetic),
B. Zekingham (spelling), E. Thorndike (diagnostics of school subjects), etc.
Since 1931, the modern stage of testing development begins. Creation of a
continuous system of school test diagnostics, creation of improved means of
test presentation and processing, accumulation and effective use of diagnostic
information [4, pp. 12-13].
In schools, diagnostic
tests of school performance are widespread, which use an alternative of the
correct answer from several presented, comparisons, filling out passes, etc.
In the field of
determining the system of assessments (marks) in foreign countries, there is a
wide variety in both principles and specific approaches, the choice of methods
for evaluating and putting marks. Various systems of estimation of knowledge,
abilities, and skills practice in foreign schools, various scales of marks,
including hundred - twelve - ten - two-point, etc. are accepted.
Let us give you the
following example. The highest rating is 1, the lowest - 6. Each score
corresponds to a certain number of points, taking into account the so-called
"rating trend." For example, scores 15/14/13 reflect an excellent
score - "1"; 12/11/10 correspond to a good rating - "2";
09/08/07. They say that the student is doing satisfactorily. 06/05/04 reflect
an estimate of "4"; 03/02/01 correspond to the estimate -
"5". Finally, 00 signals a complete lack of knowledge of the subject
and means a score of "6." In the evaluation, the ratings are issued
only in points [5, p. 11].
Or a 100 system: A
(93-100) - excellent; In (85-92) - above average; C (75-84) - satisfactory; D
(65-74) - bad; E (0-64) - not counted [1, p. 13].
In some countries,
students are tested when entering primary school, determining their mental
giftedness. Depending on the established level of giftedness, children are
divided into different streams: stream A - for capable,flow B - for medium,
flow C (sometimes D and E) for less capable. Marks are set 2 times a year (at
the end of the 1st and 2nd half of the year). The English school has a 6-point
mark system, in high school - 15-point [5, p. 13].
There is also an
evaluation system in which S (very good), A (good), B (satisfactory), C (bad),
D (very bad). This system resembles the assessment system until recently in our
country from 1 to 5, where 1 means "very bad," 5 means (very good).
All of these systems
represent internal learning control. External evaluation is rarely carried out
centrally, since there is a free choice of curricula and programs by the
school, and subjects by students, and centralized inspections and assessment of
knowledge and skills are rarely carried out. Or the function of practical
control over the quality of academic training is assumed by university
commissions, to which all grammatical and privileged schools are attached for
the period of passing the final exams, which focus on preparing their graduates
for further university education [6, p. 14].
In general, in foreign
schools, there is the principle of individualization of education and each student
overcomes his curriculum in his own way and pace and learns to the best of his
capabilities, needs and realities of the world around him. At the end of the
training, diagnosis is a statement of the results. At the same time, training
in foreign countries does not imply concern for universal learning.
A characteristic feature
of assessing the training of countries of the post-Soviet space, including our
country, was in a five-point evaluation system, where 5 is "excellent,"
4 is "good," 3- "satisfactory," 2- "bad," 1-
"very bad." Nevertheless, in fact, only a three-ball evaluation
system was used. "1" and "2" were used more for educational
purposes. Putting the full-time score had a positive and negative side. The
positive was that the student had to actively participate in the lesson and
perform all the tasks, since he did not know whom the teacher would evaluate;
he had to be constantly ready to answer the teacher's questions. The teacher
exhibited the score at the end of the lesson for the knowledge and skills shown
and the student's educational activity throughout the lesson. Many teachers in
our country have applied the full-time score, as one of the effective ways to
energize all students in the classroom [7, p. 16].
At the same time, there
was subjectivity in the assessment of students by the teacher. Overstatement of
marks to students was by no means an isolated character. Therefore, the issue
of deficiencies in the evaluation system arose. There were various criticisms
of the existing evaluation practice, including the lack of clear criteria.
In schools, there has
been a transition to a new content of education for all levels. This transition
was determined by the cultural, political, economic development of the country,
the achievements of scientific and technological revolution. Improving the
evaluation component of training has become one of the most pressing challenges
[1 page 16].
In the Plan of the
Nation "100 concrete steps," the Head of State pointed out as a
fundamental basis for economic growth the improvement of the quality of human
capital based on the standards of OECD countries.
The implementation of
this direction provided for the updating of standards and an assessment system
for the development of functional literacy of students.
In the OECD report
"National Education Policy Review. Secondary Education in Kazakhstan "(2014) proposed a number of measures aimed at improving the quality,
relevance and periodicity of the assessment in the classroom. In particular,
implementation criteria-based assessment systems, definition of evaluation
criteria for high-level thinking skills, teacher training, national
standardized testing at the end of each stage of education, creating a system
efficient and reliable data collection, etc. This indicates the need to use the
results of the evaluation effectively.
Since 2016, a new assessment system has already been used to evaluate first-graders. This was a very
difficult period of implementation of this system. There were many disputes
among teachers, but teachers unequivocally agreed on one thing - it is
impossible to return to the old, in fact 3 point system. The methodology of the
benchmarking system provided new standards and assessment mechanisms comparable
to those of the lead countries. A criterion evaluation system was introduced.
Previously, there was an
assimilation of factual knowledge, the level of which was assessed through
retelling and reproduction of small fragments in lessons, testing and a system
of control sections. Students were offered recycled and finished material.
The new evaluation
system strengthened the requirements for evaluation tools to ensure
objectivity. The developed criteria and tasks made it possible to determine not
only the level of knowledge, but also the ability to apply knowledge and
thinking skills of a higher level (as a student speaks and argues whether he
knows how to highlight the main thing and draw conclusions, whether he can make
decisions, apply the acquired knowledge in life).
Summative assessment for
the unit (hereinafter referred to as SAU) and Summative assessment for the term
(hereinafter referred to as SAT) are previously used thematic and quarter
control works. The frequency of their implementation remained almost unchanged.
Evaluation of the performance of these works is determined by accumulating
points, and not by subtracting them as before. The accumulative system stimulates
the self-activity of students and ensures the mastery of the curriculum, that
is, it contributes to the improvement of the quality of knowledge. Formative
evaluation is carried out throughout each lesson through commenting on the
activities of the student. In this evaluation system, there are both positive
and negative aspects. Students are not afraid to receive poor grades. In fact,
they simply do not know what the concept of "assessment" is. Instead
of assessment, students hear comments from the teacher on the work performed
and that they did not succeed.
Worse adaptation in the
assessment occurs in children who were trained and evaluated first in the old
system and now have moved to the new one. A teacher relates their difficulties
to the fact that they are used to seeing a specific result of work as a lesson
in the form of an assessment, rather than verbal comments. Parents who have studied
under the old assessment system also have trouble and often do not understand
how successfully or unsuccessfully their child learns the curriculum. The
Kundelik information system is introduced, where the teacher must write a
detailed comment on each student on the material studied, which significantly
complicates the work of teachers. In addition, work began on improving the
qualifications of teachers through courses, seminars, trainings to explain the
features of the new assessment system.
The process of reforming
the evaluation system is ongoing. In addition, now, in connection with the
coronavirus pandemic and distance learning, formative assessment in the form of
teacher comments does not give an objective assessment of the student's knowledge.
It is decided to put points on the formative assessment and these points will
affect the final assessment for the term and half year. At the same time, the
formal assessment does not depend on the form of training. This can be distance
learning and full-time training. That is, there is a certain return to
evaluation in the form of "assessment." However, this is no longer an
grade, it is a score from 1 to 10 with existing criteria. Moreover, here again
there is a positive and negative side of this point system. Now we are trying
to compare 5-point evaluation system and 10-point evaluation system.
A five-point rating
system demonstrates how a student has learned educational material. In this
case, each quantitative assessment corresponds to a certain semantic
1. A Five-Point Rating System
The positive side is
that this system is traditional and familiar, and therefore understandable to
both students and parents. Moreover, the negative side is not the ability to
accurately and objectively understand the knowledge of the student; the
student's educational progress is not objectively determined; the subjectivity
of the teacher plays a very important role.
The main difference of
the 10-point system is a deeper classification and detailing of the student's
achievements. In addition to the level of assimilation of material, such a
scale shows the qualitative characteristics of educational activities.
2. A Ten-Point Rating System
The positive side is
extended gradation, which allows a clearer and more objective determination of
the current level of knowledge; It is possible to analyze the mental abilities
of the student, assess the involvement in the educational process and detect
his weaknesses; the system is psychologically comfortable - scores from 5
points are already positive.
However, the system does
not solve the traditional problems of schooling: psychological trauma of
"academically weak" students, subjective attitude of teachers, etc.;
teachers are not just getting used to the new assessment system; parents are
confused in new scores and do not always understand what a particular score
Obviously, both systems
have both positive and negative points, but still, the 10-point scale is still
more detailed for evaluation by the teacher and is comfortable for students.
The transition to a system without assessments in our country is not yet
possible now, as in Finland, for example. The learner's awareness of learning
to apply it has not yet reached a level where assessments are not required .
Thus, we can conclude
that the issue of assessing the educational achievements of students occupies
an important place in the training and education of students from both foreign
countries and countries of the post-Soviet space, especially our country. In
addition, now, the evaluation system is still being formed.
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Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №12 - 2020