Motivation: the essence, forms and significance for improving the effectiveness of the organization
Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №12 - 2020
Gul Ahmad Adib (Kabul, Afghanistan), Kazakh-American Free University, Kazakhstan
Kaigorodtsev A., Kazakh-American Free University, Kazakhstan
The goal of the study is
to explore what means motivation from employee's perspectives, what do they
expected from their employers to make them motivate and explore the level of
their motivation on their current jobs, because researcher believe which
motivation only it-self is a vital and very important at workplace, which employee's
motivation impacting their work performance as well as insure retaining their
work with the organization.
The word "motivation"
originates from a Latin word "movere". "Movere" means to move. Therefore, it
forms a reflection of something going up, keeping us working and facilitating
us to succeed our goals . It is an act or a process that contributes a
person a reason to do something in a particular way, or a description for the
repetitive behaviors, desires, and needs . There is no exact definition for
motivation, but it refers to why a person does something with high potential,
dedication and more enthusiasm but other person at the same situation or same
work, does not. It is a feeling that you are making a difference, changing the
world in a positive way, and making it a better place to live .
In other words,
"Motivation is psychological powers that define the way of a person's behavior
in an organization, a person's level of effort and a person's level of persistence"
. When an employee is motivated, he or she demonstrations enthusiasm and
willingness towards the work and a strong determination to implement and
accomplish the responsibilities . There for motivation is itself a vital
power for the benefit of both employee and employer, because motivated
employees are more innovative as they are always looking for better ways to
complete an assignment. They are self-direct and goal-oriented. They can
produce high-quality work with more or maximized efficiency and productivity
 which leads any company to maximization of its productivity and profits.
There are two different
types of motivation, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, Intrinsic motivation
is motivation that comes from inner or within yourself, individual's motivation
is shown by the needs of employees to feel self-determination in their environment
as well as capability to be great motivators, and we need to look at human behavior
Intrinsic motivation is
in fact an example of self-directed motivation; this is when people become
engaged within an activity because they find it interesting. In contrast, being
controlled includes acting with a feeling of pressure or a sense of having to engage
in the actions .
Extrinsic motivation is
when a person's behavior is influenced by the values and benefits of an action,
he or she also adds extrinsically motivated behaviors are to receive
organizational rewards or benefits. Organizational rewards are often used to
encourage workers to perform to their full potential. Such rewards include
monetary incentives, promotion and so on, for example, bonuses and salary
increases, or non-monetary awards including promotions and job security. A
number of organizations have introduced reward systems to motivate employees
presented that when rewards were given independently of certain task engagement
or when the rewards weren't anticipated, physical extrinsic awards did not
weaken intrinsic motivation .
Why to motivate
employees? It is very important to keep employees motivated, because "If
employees are motivated and happy with their job and work environment they will
do to the work to the best of their ability and with full potential instead of
just doing it because they have to" .
Business and company's
succession are really depending on motivated employee; because they can make
all the differences in the company's ability not to just survive but also to
succeed . Motivated people and their commitment are vital to the productivity
of the work as they will perform with their full potential and with high
quality, so Michael and Crispen  indicated that having a motivated
workforce provides the competitive advantage that the organization seeks and
better employee performance helps the organization achieve higher productivity.
There is no any unique
approach to keep all employees motivated, the motivator factors are totally
different for each employee even for the same employee it is depend on the
situation, but researchers suggested most common approaches which by applying
them management can keep their staff motivated and satisfy, as example the
healthy relationship between an employee and an employer can create more job
satisfaction and can motivate the employee. An employee with a healthy
relationship amongst other employees and their employers can result in a larger
level of satisfaction which can result in an increased productivity. The
workplace becomes a much happier and motivated place, where employees tend to
concentrate more on their work tasks. Motivation plays a larger part in a
healthy employee relationship . Likewise Keeping a strong employee
relationship can be a major part in the success of an organization .
With healthy employee
relations in place, there's a greater chance of having an efficient, motivated
and productive employee which can then further influence the outcomes of
organizational performances .
An organization works on
the effective relationships built amongst employees and their managers. Kuvaas
 insinuates that the motivation behind behaviors of employees is strongly
influenced by the quality of the employees' relationships.
Through maintaining a
strong relationship within the workplace you're able to achieve high levels of
productivity and increase employee motivation .
is very important as well, because good communication can help encourage these
relationships, as well as strengthen them, which can result in employees
reaching their maximum productivity . An example of this is an organization's
manager maintaining an effective relationship with their employees by carrying
out regular meetings with employees, helping them along with their development,
and assisting their progress .
Financial aspects like
payments, allowances, salaries and bounces increase and affect employee's
productivity positively as a result of a study which has been done by Locke,
Feren, McCaleb, Shaw and Denny, they have concluded that introducing of individual
pay, increase productivity rate from 9% to 17%. So, it is obvious that when
employees are motivated and satisfied, their productivity increases which adds
value to the whole business .
Also, Guzzo, Jette, and
Katzell , have done analysis on motivation programs and productivity, they
found that financial aspects and payments are the largest effect on employee's
productivity. Furthermore, Judiesch  stated that paying and salary increments
for individuals from the organizations, increases the productivity.
Employers often use
extrinsic incentives to motivate their employees however in recent years'
incentives in behavioral mediations have become very popular. Supporters of the
use of incentives argue that monetary incentives can be an advantage when getting
individuals to study or work harder. It's believed that using incentives in
this area can backfire, however as extrinsic incentives could cancel out
intrinsic motivations that were initially in place to produce a desired
When employees get high
performance rate and a very good appraisal, they appear to be sensitive to
whether their performance will be rewarded by money and pay increase or not.
So, money concerns are always there and it is important for employees to work
and give .
With motivation programs
and incentives, such as bonuses, flexible working, awards and so on, the HR
team should seek to get the most out of their employees, and encourage a sense
of togetherness among the organization and its workers .
Staff development and
capacity building are also causes motivation, not only does training and
development initiate the development of skills and behavioral scripts, but also
motivates individuals to apply those skills and behaviors within their role in
work related activities .
Figure 1. Different
factors which motivate employees
In 2014, the employee
engagement firm TINY pulse carried out a survey "The seven key Trends Impacting
Today's Workplace" which involved over 200 000 employees in more than 500
organizations, the aim of the survey was to discover the factors that motivate
employees to excel and go for an extra mile in the organization. The results
came out were surprising. Money, which often seems to be the major contributor
to motivation, was the seventh on the list. On the contrary, peer motivation/camaraderie
was ranked first (20%), followed by the intrinsic desire to a good job (17%)
and feeling encouraged and recognized (13%). This result had pointed out the
paramount importance and huge influence of intrinsic motivation towards a
person's viewpoint and accordingly made concrete the perspective of intrinsic
motivator has surpassed extrinsic motivator .
Thirty percent of
employees which interviewed agreed which appreciation and encouragement
motivates them, 22% of them agreed which friendly working environment motivates
them and 15% of the employees said which technical support motivates them.
So the study proves
which appreciating employees, providing them friendly working environment and
support the staff makes them motivates. And motivated employees are the
lifeblood of each organization.
Likewise, the employees
who attended for this study reflected their views and their expectation from
employers, 28% of the employees expected from their employers to build a
friendly working environment, 24 % of the expected appreciation and recognition
from their employers and 20 % expected support from their employers" side.
Staff engagement is also
very critical issue in management, the employees who participated in this study
reflected their views in terms of engagement as: 19 % of the employees said
which they expected that organization should engage them in decision making,
15% of the employees expected which their employers should delegate tasks for
them and share the important organization information to them.
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Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №12 - 2020