Motivation: the essence, forms and significance for improving the effectiveness of the organization

Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №12 - 2020

Gul Ahmad Adib (Kabul, Afghanistan), Kazakh-American Free University, Kazakhstan
Kaigorodtsev A., Kazakh-American Free University, Kazakhstan

The goal of the study is to explore what means motivation from employee's perspectives, what do they expected from their employers to make them motivate and explore the level of their motivation on their current jobs, because researcher believe which motivation only it-self is a vital and very important at workplace, which employee's motivation impacting their work performance as well as insure retaining their work with the organization.

The word "motivation" originates from a Latin word "movere". "Movere" means to move. Therefore, it forms a reflection of something going up, keeping us working and facilitating us to succeed our goals [1]. It is an act or a process that contributes a person a reason to do something in a particular way, or a description for the repetitive behaviors, desires, and needs [2]. There is no exact definition for motivation, but it refers to why a person does something with high potential, dedication and more enthusiasm but other person at the same situation or same work, does not. It is a feeling that you are making a difference, changing the world in a positive way, and making it a better place to live [3].

In other words, "Motivation is psychological powers that define the way of a person's behavior in an organization, a person's level of effort and a person's level of persistence" [4]. When an employee is motivated, he or she demonstrations enthusiasm and willingness towards the work and a strong determination to implement and accomplish the responsibilities [5]. There for motivation is itself a vital power for the benefit of both employee and employer, because motivated employees are more innovative as they are always looking for better ways to complete an assignment. They are self-direct and goal-oriented. They can produce high-quality work with more or maximized efficiency and productivity [6] which leads any company to maximization of its productivity and profits.

There are two different types of motivation, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, Intrinsic motivation is motivation that comes from inner or within yourself, individual's motivation is shown by the needs of employees to feel self-determination in their environment as well as capability to be great motivators, and we need to look at human behavior differently [7].

Intrinsic motivation is in fact an example of self-directed motivation; this is when people become engaged within an activity because they find it interesting. In contrast, being controlled includes acting with a feeling of pressure or a sense of having to engage in the actions [8].

Extrinsic motivation is when a person's behavior is influenced by the values and benefits of an action, he or she also adds extrinsically motivated behaviors are to receive organizational rewards or benefits. Organizational rewards are often used to encourage workers to perform to their full potential. Such rewards include monetary incentives, promotion and so on, for example, bonuses and salary increases, or non-monetary awards including promotions and job security. A number of organizations have introduced reward systems to motivate employees presented that when rewards were given independently of certain task engagement or when the rewards weren't anticipated, physical extrinsic awards did not weaken intrinsic motivation [9].

Why to motivate employees? It is very important to keep employees motivated, because "If employees are motivated and happy with their job and work environment they will do to the work to the best of their ability and with full potential instead of just doing it because they have to" [10].

Business and company's succession are really depending on motivated employee; because they can make all the differences in the company's ability not to just survive but also to succeed [11]. Motivated people and their commitment are vital to the productivity of the work as they will perform with their full potential and with high quality, so Michael and Crispen [13] indicated that having a motivated workforce provides the competitive advantage that the organization seeks and better employee performance helps the organization achieve higher productivity.

There is no any unique approach to keep all employees motivated, the motivator factors are totally different for each employee even for the same employee it is depend on the situation, but researchers suggested most common approaches which by applying them management can keep their staff motivated and satisfy, as example the healthy relationship between an employee and an employer can create more job satisfaction and can motivate the employee. An employee with a healthy relationship amongst other employees and their employers can result in a larger level of satisfaction which can result in an increased productivity. The workplace becomes a much happier and motivated place, where employees tend to concentrate more on their work tasks. Motivation plays a larger part in a healthy employee relationship [14]. Likewise Keeping a strong employee relationship can be a major part in the success of an organization [15].

With healthy employee relations in place, there's a greater chance of having an efficient, motivated and productive employee which can then further influence the outcomes of organizational performances [16].

An organization works on the effective relationships built amongst employees and their managers. Kuvaas [33] insinuates that the motivation behind behaviors of employees is strongly influenced by the quality of the employees' relationships.

Through maintaining a strong relationship within the workplace you're able to achieve high levels of productivity and increase employee motivation [15].

Similarly communication is very important as well, because good communication can help encourage these relationships, as well as strengthen them, which can result in employees reaching their maximum productivity [14]. An example of this is an organization's manager maintaining an effective relationship with their employees by carrying out regular meetings with employees, helping them along with their development, and assisting their progress [14].

Financial aspects like payments, allowances, salaries and bounces increase and affect employee's productivity positively as a result of a study which has been done by Locke, Feren, McCaleb, Shaw and Denny, they have concluded that introducing of individual pay, increase productivity rate from 9% to 17%. So, it is obvious that when employees are motivated and satisfied, their productivity increases which adds value to the whole business [17].

Also, Guzzo, Jette, and Katzell [18], have done analysis on motivation programs and productivity, they found that financial aspects and payments are the largest effect on employee's productivity. Furthermore, Judiesch [19] stated that paying and salary increments for individuals from the organizations, increases the productivity.

Employers often use extrinsic incentives to motivate their employees however in recent years' incentives in behavioral mediations have become very popular. Supporters of the use of incentives argue that monetary incentives can be an advantage when getting individuals to study or work harder. It's believed that using incentives in this area can backfire, however as extrinsic incentives could cancel out intrinsic motivations that were initially in place to produce a desired behavior [20].

When employees get high performance rate and a very good appraisal, they appear to be sensitive to whether their performance will be rewarded by money and pay increase or not. So, money concerns are always there and it is important for employees to work and give [21].

With motivation programs and incentives, such as bonuses, flexible working, awards and so on, the HR team should seek to get the most out of their employees, and encourage a sense of togetherness among the organization and its workers [23].

Staff development and capacity building are also causes motivation, not only does training and development initiate the development of skills and behavioral scripts, but also motivates individuals to apply those skills and behaviors within their role in work related activities [28].

Figure 1. Different factors which motivate employees

In 2014, the employee engagement firm TINY pulse carried out a survey "The seven key Trends Impacting Today's Workplace" which involved over 200 000 employees in more than 500 organizations, the aim of the survey was to discover the factors that motivate employees to excel and go for an extra mile in the organization. The results came out were surprising. Money, which often seems to be the major contributor to motivation, was the seventh on the list. On the contrary, peer motivation/camaraderie was ranked first (20%), followed by the intrinsic desire to a good job (17%) and feeling encouraged and recognized (13%). This result had pointed out the paramount importance and huge influence of intrinsic motivation towards a person's viewpoint and accordingly made concrete the perspective of intrinsic motivator has surpassed extrinsic motivator [29].

Thirty percent of employees which interviewed agreed which appreciation and encouragement motivates them, 22% of them agreed which friendly working environment motivates them and 15% of the employees said which technical support motivates them.

So the study proves which appreciating employees, providing them friendly working environment and support the staff makes them motivates. And motivated employees are the lifeblood of each organization.

Likewise, the employees who attended for this study reflected their views and their expectation from employers, 28% of the employees expected from their employers to build a friendly working environment, 24 % of the expected appreciation and recognition from their employers and 20 % expected support from their employers" side.

Staff engagement is also very critical issue in management, the employees who participated in this study reflected their views in terms of engagement as: 19 % of the employees said which they expected that organization should engage them in decision making, 15% of the employees expected which their employers should delegate tasks for them and share the important organization information to them.


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Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №12 - 2020

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