An overview of general practices in recruitment and selection: factors and sources to consider in developing a recruitment strategy
Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №12 - 2020
Novitskaya Yuliya, Kazakh-American Free University, Kazakhstan
Shirzai Jawad (Kabul, Afghanistan), Kazakh-American Free University, Kazakhstan
Madiyarova Elvira, D. Serikbayev East-Kazakhstan State Technical University, Kazakhstan
Relevance of the
It is important to solve
the problem of lack of professional and transparent recruitment and selection
in all of the organizations but particularly at Marshal Fahim National Defense
University (MFNDU) to boost the performance and operation of the organization
and for many other reasons. First, this organization is the biggest army training
and education facility across Afghanistan. Therefore, it needs to be the center
of excellence, but unfortunately because of unprofessional staff this place has
faced with many problems and challenges one of which is deficiency in
delivering proper training and education for the participant of this
University. This problem is caused because the recruitment process for staff
and participants is not as transparent and professional as it should be. Most
of the personnel have been recruited to this place based on their connection
and references that they have in high ranking Afghan officials. As a result,
they fail to meet the requirement of the university and are unable to deliver
quality training and education for Afghan National Army Officers.
Second, most of Afghan
well trained officers are either in reserve or jobless and the reason is that
they do not know anyone as a reference to be recruited to this important
organization. So, if there is a professional recruitment process and staff is
recruited to this place based on their own knowledge and ability, then two
major problems can be solved. First, the organization will have professional
instructors which will result in quality training and education for the young
Afghan Officers which will strengthen army and we will have a very professional
and strong army. Second, those professional officers who are in reserve or
jobless, they will have jobs as well as the opportunity to use their expertise
for the good of this nation.
selection process requires the HR"s efforts to efficiently search through the
list of applicants to find an applicant who fulfills the job description requirements
and whose qualifications and vision suit that of the position advertised by the
firm. As a rule, the entire application process must be transparent and
available, from ads to interviewing and selection, without any obstacles that
could prevent anyone from applying. When each job description is advertised, it
must concentrate on the qualifications and skills required for the role with a
language that does not suggest that only certain candidates would be
considered. The recruitment must be carried out in evaluation by the selection
panel against the set-out requirements with a question that relates to the job
requirement and does not require the disclosure of personal information that is
irrelevant or insulting to the gender, disability, personal background, ethnicity
or disease of someone (Recruitment and Selection, 2016).
This is the duty of the
HR that the applicants and candidates are handled equally and within the
precepts of all relevant laws in the process, from advertisement to selection.
It is important that the assessments and interviews during the process only
determine the individual's ability to meet the work requirements based on the
criteria set out in advance. HR would maintain the privacy of all applicants
and clarify how details and data of the applicant should be dealt with in
advance to avoid any loss of confidentiality. This is the ethical duty for the
employer to prevent discrimination at all levels of the recruiting process.
Furthermore, this stage is perfect for employers not only to recruit the best
suited candidate for the job but also to find someone that fits the firm's
long-term vision. The HR must know that it is the best time to screen people
who disagree with the company's policies or could possibly be a "negligent
employee" that would eventually annoy others or cause more damage to the
organizations could not begin by informing their employees or chosen applicants
that their personal and professional lives would be under constant scrutiny,
they should set the organizational policies and code of conduct to which all employees
Recruitment is the
method of recruiting persons to apply for employment with an organization in a
timely manner, in sufficient numbers and with required qualifications.
Recruitment is the process of recruiting people to apply for a position.
Recruitment is the process of finding sources for job candidates. When the HR
department anticipates the need for extra staff, then there are a range of
options for the organizations. It may be the first step in the recruiting and
selection process, but hiring new workers often isn't the easiest way to get
additional staff. An organization may consider alternatives to recruitment,
such as outsourcing or conditional labor, instead of hiring regular employees.
If this is a temporary variation in work volume, the easiest solution may be
part-time labor or overtime by existing employees. Recruitment and selection
costs can be incredible; recruiting new employees will only occur after careful
consideration and only when the company anticipates a need for additional staff
in the long term. Cost estimates to replace supervisory, technical and
management employees vary from 50 percent to several hundred percent of wages
for workers. Careful HR preparation has to consider the organization's overall
growth outlook and accurate prediction of potential labor needs. Recruitment
planning only begins when considering and eliminating other alternatives
(Recruitment and Selection, 2016).
Recruitment and Selection
The factors affecting
recruitment and selection are grouped into categories of internal and external.
The internal factors are reported as follows:
Organization Size - One
of the most important factors influencing the recruiting process is the size of
the organization. Recruitment preparation is necessary for recruiting more
people to expand sector, which will be critical for managing future operations.
Recruiting policy - An
organization's recruitment policy involves hiring from the organization's
internal or external sources. It's an important element in the recruiting
process and is very affective. It defines recruiting goals and offers a basis
for hiring programs to be introduced.
Organization Image -
Companies with a strong positive market picture will quickly recruit
professional and skilled workers. Maintaining strong public relations,
delivering public services and contributing to the organizations credibility
undoubtedly helps an organization boost its image in the market, while
attracting the best human capital possible.
Image of the Jobs - The
image of jobs play a vital role in recruiting and selection processes much as
the organization's image does. Jobs with a positive picture in terms of better
wages, promotions, recognition, and sociable working environment with career
development opportunities are the characteristics that are considered to create
interest and excitement in the workplace
The external factors are
listed as follows:
Demographic factors -
demographic factors are linked to the characteristics of potential workers,
such as their age, ethnicity, educational qualifications, gender, occupation,
economic status and location.
Labour market - Labour
market exercises control of labour demand and labour supply. For instance, if
the availability of individuals with unique skills and abilities is less than
the demand, then the hiring process may require more effort. At the other hand,
the recruiting cycle would be much more manageable if the demand is smaller
than the supply.
Unemployment rate - If
the unemployment rate is high in a given region, recruiting human resources
would be easy and manageable, as the number of applicants and potential
candidates would increase. A significant number of candidates will apply for
multiple job openings in all forms of organizations. At the other hand, if the
unemployment rate is small, then it appears that the recruiting cycle to be
difficult due to less number of resources.
Labour laws - the
market's social and political environment is expressed in labor laws
established by both central and state governments. Such laws are the pay, work
environment, safety and health rules, and employee job responsibilities, for
various types of workers. There are changes coming as the governments undergo
changes that come about in the labour laws.
Legal considerations -
The best examples of legal considerations are work quotas for specific groups,
such as Scheduled Tribes, Scheduled Castes and Other Backward Groups. Such
requirements that the government passes will either have a positive or negative
effect on the organizations 'recruitment policies.
Competitors - As
companies in the same market compete for the best available skilled talent, it
is important to evaluate the competition and offer the resource packages that
are best in terms of industry standards.
Equal opportunity - As
workers are hired and chosen, it is important to consider equal opportunity for
individuals. Equal opportunity results when all candidates are viewed on an
equal basis and regularly at each recruitment stage. There should be no
discrimination against anyone, such as caste, sex, color, religion, ethnicity,
gender and socio-economic background, against anyone. Justice and fairness is
the important principal of recruitment and selection procedures (Klug, 2017).
Sources of Recruitment
There are two sources of
recruitment, internal and external.
Internal source of
recruitment means hiring employees from within the current organization, or
those applicants that are trying to find a different position in the organization
that they are currently employed. The employees that are currently working in
the organization should be considered first while recruiting, because they are
the main source of recruitment that provides the opportunities for the
development and utilization of the existing resources within the organization.
Internal sources of recruitment are the best and the easiest way of selecting
resources as performance of their work is already known to the organization.
Let us now discuss more on the various internal sources of recruitment. The
internal sources of the recruitment can be counted as the best and the easiest
way of recruitment resource since the performance and appraisals of the employees
is already know to the organization (Beardwell, 2004).
Disadvantages of Internal Sources of Recruitment
Internal sources of
recruitment which means hiring employees from within the organization, has its
own set of advantages and disadvantages.
The advantages are as
- It is simple, easy,
quick, and cost effective.
- It does not need any
additional training and induction, because the employee is already aware of the
responsibilities that he/ she might have in the future.
- It is a good reason of
motivation for the internal employees to work hard and improve the relationship
within the organization.
- It helps to develop
employee's loyalty towards the organization.
The disadvantage of
hiring candidates through internal sources are as follows:
- It prevents new hiring
of potential resources. Sometimes, new resources bring innovative ideas and new
thinking onto the table.
- It has limited scope
because all the vacant positions cannot be filled.
- There could be issues
in between the employees, who are promoted and who are not.
- If an internal
resource is promoted or transferred, then that position will remain vacant.
- Employees, who are not
promoted, may end up being unhappy and demotivated.
External sources of
It applies to actively
hiring staff outside the organization. In other words, in this situation, the
candidates seeking job opportunities are those who are outside the organization.
External personnel offer the company flexibility, resourcefulness, ingenuity
and new thinking and ideas. Although recruiting from external sources is an
expensive and daunting operation, it has great potential to drive the company
towards achieving goals and objectives.
Disadvantages of External Sources of Recruitment
External sources of
recruitment, which means hiring employees outside an organization, has both its
benefits and drawbacks. The benefits are as follows:
- Encouragement of new
opportunities for job seekers.
- The branding of the
organization increases through external sources.
- There will not be any
biasing or prejudice between the employees.
- Because of the large
number candidates appearing, the scope for selecting the right candidate is
The disadvantages of
recruiting through external sources are as follows:
- As the selection
process is very lengthy, this process consumes more time.
- In comparison to
recruiting through internal sources, the cost incurred is very high.
- External candidates
demand more remuneration and benefits (Thomas, n.d).
Recruitment Process at
Like many other things
in my country Afghanistan, the recruitment process which is used for many of
the organizations is not a standard and professional process. In other words,
the recruitment process of our organization is a mixture of all the methods
used for the recruitment. But particularly, most of the recruitment is done
based on nepotism, referrals and Transfers which is accepted as internal
sources of recruitment. Here is a brief explanation of these three types of
A. Nepotism- By fact
nepotism is the recruiting of relatives. Before one of your employees asks you
about recruiting a member of his or her family, make sure you know your
organization's policy on nepotism. When you employ relatives of workers (or if
you don't), be careful about violations of civil rights, as in many states it
is illegal to discriminate on the basis of a person's marital status. And when
your administrative assistant asks you to hire her husband, refusing to hire
him only because he is married to her could be an unethical and unlawful
decision for employment. Most companies have policies on nepotism, so find out
where the employer stands on the matter. When recruiting relatives, most
employers allow family members to work in different areas of the company to
prevent favoritism issues and other potential moral problems among employees.
Family members should not be in supervisory roles where they are expected to
handle their own relatives. On the other hand, nepotism in most of the
organization in Afghanistan means hiring relatives regardless of their
qualification, skills, and education.
B. Transfers - In
reality, transfers applies to the method of interchanging from one position to
another without altering the workers 'status and obligations. This can also be
the transfer of staff from one department to another or from one place to
another, depending on the job requirement. Transfers are typically based on the
employee's job requirements and competencies. If the company has two branches,
then there could be changing from one branch to other branch. The employee's
internal change from one division to the next is known as transfer.
C. Employee referrals -
Employee referrals are a low cost way of recruiting the right applicants. It's
the method of recruiting new workers via employee referrals, who are already
working within the company. The current employees will refer their friends and
relatives to fill out the vacant positions in this process. Organizations
encourage employee referrals the reason is lucrative and saves time compared to
recruiting outsourced candidates. In most situations, by giving them benefits,
bonuses and promotions for their success, workers are empowered and motivated
towards the performance of duties.
These are the most
common sources of recruitment that are used in the organization that I work
which to some extent blocked the ways of improving the organization. The
suggestion that I would recommend is to hire and recruit professional staff by
using the external sources of recruitment and to bring new and professional
staff to the workplace. I have provided and investigated in different sources
of recruitment, and for many organizations it is important to use different
sources of recruitment than only suing one or two sources. For example, to
boost the performance of the organization one of the best sources that I
recommend is hiring through professional associations. Professional
associations may be effective in recruiting skilled, technical and administrative
workers for the organizations; however, they concentrate on recruiting
mid-level and top-level employees. There are many specialist groups doing the
facilitator tasks between the organizations and job seekers. There are many
other sources that we can for recruiting professional staff (Klug, 2017).
Human resources are
considered essential to every organization. Competent and professional
personnel will perform the jobs, roles, duties, and operations appropriately.
Therefore, it is important to incorporate successful recruitment practices
and selection procedures within the organizational framework. When the
organization's members are aware of proper recruiting and selection procedures,
then they are able to make sufficient selection of human capital. There are
various tasks and functions within the company and efficiency of all forms of
tasks and operations that involve expertise and abilities that can be enhanced
by making adequate provision training to the personnel. Hired employees may be experienced
and professional, but they undergo changes and transitions within organizations
with respect to different factors such as working environment conditions,
performance of employers" job duties, employer attitudes and behavioral
characteristics, methods of maximizing efficiency, use of creative techniques
and methods, and so on. When selecting the employees, it is critical to have
them loyal and committed to the organizations. We should be committed to
carrying out job duties and possess the qualities of resourcefulness,
dedication and conscientiousness. Finally, it can be said that organizations
need to bring recruitment and selection processes into action with consistency,
precision and truthfulness.
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2004. Human Resource Management: A Con-temporary Approach. 4th ed. Pearson
2. Bratton, J. & Gold, J. 2012. Human Resource
Management theory & practice. 5th ed. Palgrave Macmillan. Hampshire.
3. Recruitment and Selection. (2016). Tutorials
Point. Retrieved November 21, 2017 from www.tutorialspoint.com
4. Klug, D. (2017). Recruitment and Selection
Handbook for University Staff Positions.
5. Thomas R. (n.d) Employees recruitment and
Selection: How to Hire the Right People: NY Cornell University
Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №12 - 2020