Improvement of the employees motivation and assessment system at an enterprise

Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №12 - 2020

Authors:
Ahmad Ozair Mohammadi (Afghanistan), Kazakh-American Free University, Kazakhstan
Mukhamadiyeva Aizhan, Kazakh-American Free University, Kazakhstan

Objective

This is to provide a synthesis of employee motivation theories and offers an explanation of how employee motivation affects employee retention within organizations. In addition to explaining why it is important to retain motivation and assets system for employees. In today's business environment, the future belongs to those managers who can best manage change and keep motivation. To manage change, organizations must have employees committed to the demand of rapid change and as such committed employees are the source of competitive advantage (Dessler, 1993). Commitment is critical to organizational performance, but it is not a panacea. In achieving important organizational ends, there are other ingredients that need to be added to the mix.

Employee performance and their new ideas, as well as their efforts to promote the company in positive ways help build the values of an enterprise. Properly motivated managers, white-collar, and blue-collar workers use their performance to affect the business efficiency, and therefore the success and sustainability of the enterprise. Selecting the right structure of motivation factors, especially those aimed at job category and gender, is the main role of enterprise management. The aim of this study is to analyze and define differences in the perception of the preferred level of motivation in terms of gender and job category.

Introduction

Scholars and practitioners care about cultivating, increasing, and maintaining work motivation. Motivation research has a long history of considering employee motives and needs (Alderfer, 1969; Maslow, 1954; McClelland, 1961). Interest in these areas peaked in the 1970s and early 1980s, and the last fifteen years has seen little empirical or theoretical research. The majority of work on motives and needs in the 1990s falls into three areas: an examination of the job attributes that motivate individuals, research that examines need for achievement, and research on the Protestant work ethic. Employee performance is frequently described as a joint function of ability and motivation, and one of the primary tasks facing a manager is motivating employees to perform to the best of their ability (Moorhead & Griffin, 1998). Pinder (1998) describes work motivation as the set of internal and external forces that initiate work related behavior, and determine its form, direction, intensity, and duration. Work motivation is a middle range concept that deals only with events and phenomena related to people in a work context.

The definition recognizes the influence of both environmental forces (e.g., organizational reward systems, the nature of the work being performed) and forces inherent in the person (e.g., individual needs and motives) on work-related behavior. An essential feature of the definition is that it views work motivation as an invisible, internal, hypothetical construct (Pinder, 1998). We cannot actually see work motivation nor can we measure it directly. We are here to talk and show the effect of motivation and assessment of employee in the enterprise and have the suggestion then.

Literature Review

Motivation

Origin of Motivation

In the early 20th century, money was regarded as the most important input into the production of goods and services (Kreitner, 1995). However, after a series of researches, one known to be the "Hawthorne Studies", conducted by Elton Mayo from 1924-1932 at the Hawthorne Works of the American Western Electric Company in Chicago, it was observed that employees were not motivated solely by money but that employee behavior was linked to their attitudes (Dickson, 1973, in Lindner, 1998).

Definition of Motivation

There have been various definitions of motivation across different disciplines in the academia ranging from the fields of management, psychology to allied sciences. According to Kreitner and Kinicki (1998) and Ramlall (2004), motivation is derived from the Latin word "movere" which means to move. Butkus and Green (1999) also stated that motivation is derived from the word "motivate? which also means to move, push or persuade to act to satisfy a need. However, Mol (1992) differentiated between the terms "movement" and "motivation". Mol (1992) described movement as carrying out a task in order to be compensated or remunerated while motivation is the voluntary involvement, and decision of a person to carry out a task. Page (2008) in his article on non-monetary incentives in the workplace defined motivation as the process that accounts for an individual's intensity, direction and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal. In Cole (1996), motivation is essentially about what drives a person to work in a particular way and with a given amount of effort. Motivation has been defined as 'a decision making process through which the individual chooses desired outcomes and sets in motion the behaviors appropriate to acquiring them' (Huczynski & Buchanan,1991, in Dartey-Baah, 2010). Robbins (2005) defined motivation as the "willingness to exert high levels of effort toward organizational goals, conditioned by the effort's ability to satisfy some individual need". According to Robbins (2005), a need is an internal state that makes certain outcomes appears attractive and an unsatisfied need creates tension that stimulates drives within an individual.

Motivation Process and Strategies

Motivation is explained by various theorists as a process governing choices (Bhattarcharyya, 2009). The motivation process may be internal or external to the individual that arouses enthusiasm, and persistence to pursue a certain course of action. The motivation process starts with a physiological or psychological deficiency or need that activates behavior, or a drive that is aimed at a goal.

According to Palmer (2005), a fundamental part of a motivation strategy must be that the process of achieving the goal is itself motivational. In other words, it is important to ensure that people do not give up during the implementation phase, by designing a process for achieving goals, and to control the motivation strategy. A motivation strategy is necessary for conducting the daily tasks and motivating employees with common goals. It is not only a decision or simple words used to describe the goal, but also using a set of skills to achieve it (Palmer, 2005). From the organizational point of view, the Motivation process follows certain defined steps, which, as a continuum needs to be periodically reviewed and strategized to ensure its proper renewal (Green, 2000). This helps to maintain the motivation of employees.

Types of Motivation

Work motivation is mostly categorized into two types, being intrinsic and extrinsic motivation showing that different incentives have a distinct impact on employee motivation. Whereas intrinsic motivation is concerned with rewards as the activity itself, the source of extrinsic motivation are external controlling variables as explicit rewards (e.g. money, threat) (Herzberg, 2003; Cameron & Pierce, 2002). Hackman and Oldham (1980) argued that strong intrinsic motivation occur when three psychological states are created, and these are:

- experienced meaningfulness of the work,

- experienced responsibility for outcomes of the work,

- knowledge of the actual results of the work activities.

Job Satisfaction

Job satisfaction has been defined in different ways and a definitive designation for the term is unlikely to materialize. Job satisfaction is a psychological concept that refers to job related attitudes and characteristics such as pay and reward, policies, leadership behaviors, management styles and co-workers (Dartey-Baah, 2010). A general way to define it therefore is as an attitudinal variable which is defined below: Job satisfaction is simply how people feel about their jobs and different aspects of their jobs. It is the extent to which people like (satisfaction) or dislike (dissatisfaction) their jobs (Spector, 2000). Armstrong (2010) also draws the attention that job satisfaction refers to the attitudes and feelings people have about their work. This implies that positive and favorable attitudes towards the job indicate job satisfaction while negative and unfavorable attitudes towards the job indicate job dissatisfaction.

Employees Motivation

Among financial, economic and human resources, the latest are more essential and have the capability to endow a company with competitive edge as compared to others (Rizwan et al, 2010). Employee Performance fundamentally depend on many factors like performance appraisals, employee motivation, Employee satisfaction, compensation, Training and development, job security, Organizational structure and other, but the area of study is focused only on employee motivation as this factor highly influence the performance of employees. Employee motivation is one of the policies of managers to increase effectual job management amongst employees in organizations (Shadare et al, 2009). A motivated employee is responsive of the definite goals and objectives he/she must achieve, therefore he/she directs its efforts in that direction. Rutherford (1990) reported that motivation formulates an organization more successful because provoked employees are constantly looking for improved practices to do a work, so it is essential for organizations to persuade motivation of their employees (Kalimullah et al, 2010).

Getting employees to do their best work even in strenuous circumstances, is one of the employees most stable and greasy challenges and this can be made possible through motivating them [1-3].

Organizational Effectiveness

Composition of people which formulate independent business identity for some specific purpose is commonly known as organization and getting desired outcome within defined resources is treated as effectiveness.

Organizational effectiveness is the notion of how effectual an organization is in accomplishing the results the organization aims to generate (Muhammad, et al, 2011). It plays an important role in accelerating organizational development (Bulent et al, 2009). It is the net satisfaction of all constituents in the process of gathering and transforming inputs into output in an efficient manner (Matthew et al, 2005).

Organizational effectiveness is defined as the extent to which an organization, by the use of certain resources, fulfils its objectives without depleting its resources and without placing undue strain on its members and/or society (Mary et al, 1996). It is the maximum combined utility of the primary constituents (Matthew et al, 2005).

The goal model describes organizational effectiveness in terms of the extent to which an organization attains its objectives. The legitimacy model regards organizational effectiveness in terms of a background evaluation "of component preferences for performance and natural limitations on performance from an external environmental perspective" (Zammuto R.F, 1982).

The constituency model considers organizational effectiveness "as a set of several statements, each reflecting the evaluative criteria applied by the various constituencies" involved with the organization being evaluated with an emphasis on means criteria (Connolly T, 1980).

The systems resource model defines organizational effectiveness "in terms of its (the organizations) bargaining position, as reflected in the ability of the organization, in either absolute or relative terms, to exploit its environment in the acquisition of scarce and valued resources and how they utilize these resources (Yuchtman E, 1987).

The study is aimed to determine the factors that increase employee motivation and the relationship of organizational effectiveness with employee motivation [4-6].

Discussion and conclusion

As have mentioned motivation is a tool of performance empowerment and improvement for individual and team work in a better manner and surely have the money or work facilitation more in use for common uses in enterprises.

We informed the techniques of motivations for organizations and are on our suggestion for having more secure and healthier enterprise and more stable. These motivation techniques has long been acknowledged as an important personnel work with the potential to improve employee motivation and hence performance, and to deliver management with the control needed to achieve organizational objectives. Training, monetary incentives, promotion, and working conditions has been met and for reason the efforts made to motivate are bound to succeed. This conclusion is built on the emphasis made by earlier researchers to motivate people, organizations need to first have the baseline in place; in the absence of the baseline, motivation is not possible to achieve.

There are many areas that have not been investigated that may be useful for further study in employee motivation improvement measures. The study can be conducted to analyze useful incentives analysis of different types of enterprises. This research can be also extended to the effectiveness of employee motivation improvement measures in order to provide more insights into employee motivation improvement measures.

REFERENCES

1. Adam, M. G., Elizabeth, M. C., Grace, C., Keenan, C., David, L., Karen, L. Impact and the art of motivation maintenance: The effects of contact with beneficiaries on persistence behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. 2007, 10: 53-67.

2. Aydin, B., & Ceylan, A., (2009). Does Organizational learning capacity impact on organizational effectiveness? Research analysis of the metal industry. Development and Learning in Organizations, 23 (3), 21-23.

3. European Journal of Business and Management www.iiste.org ISSN 2222-1905 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2839 (Online) Vol 3, No.3

4. 2011 International Conference on Sociality and Economics Development IPEDR vol.10 (2011) - (2011) IACSIT Press, Singapore

5. International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management United Kingdom Vol. V, Issue 12, December 2017 Licensed under Creative Common Page 662 http://ijecm.co.uk/ ISSN 2348 0386

6. International Journal of Engineering Technology, Management and Applied Sciences www.ijetmas.com November 2014, Volume 2 Issue 6, ISSN 2349-4476



Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №12 - 2020

  
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