Improvement of the employees motivation and assessment system at an enterprise
Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №12 - 2020
Ahmad Ozair Mohammadi (Afghanistan), Kazakh-American Free University, Kazakhstan
Mukhamadiyeva Aizhan, Kazakh-American Free University, Kazakhstan
This is to provide a
synthesis of employee motivation theories and offers an explanation of how
employee motivation affects employee retention within organizations. In
addition to explaining why it is important to retain motivation and assets
system for employees. In today's business environment, the future belongs to
those managers who can best manage change and keep motivation. To manage
change, organizations must have employees committed to the demand of rapid
change and as such committed employees are the source of competitive advantage
(Dessler, 1993). Commitment is critical to organizational performance, but it
is not a panacea. In achieving important organizational ends, there are other
ingredients that need to be added to the mix.
Employee performance and
their new ideas, as well as their efforts to promote the company in positive
ways help build the values of an enterprise. Properly motivated managers,
white-collar, and blue-collar workers use their performance to affect the
business efficiency, and therefore the success and sustainability of the
enterprise. Selecting the right structure of motivation factors, especially
those aimed at job category and gender, is the main role of enterprise
management. The aim of this study is to analyze and define differences in the
perception of the preferred level of motivation in terms of gender and job
practitioners care about cultivating, increasing, and maintaining work
motivation. Motivation research has a long history of considering employee motives
and needs (Alderfer, 1969; Maslow, 1954; McClelland, 1961). Interest in these
areas peaked in the 1970s and early 1980s, and the last fifteen years has seen
little empirical or theoretical research. The majority of work on motives and
needs in the 1990s falls into three areas: an examination of the job attributes
that motivate individuals, research that examines need for achievement, and
research on the Protestant work ethic. Employee performance is frequently
described as a joint function of ability and motivation, and one of the primary
tasks facing a manager is motivating employees to perform to the best of their
ability (Moorhead & Griffin, 1998). Pinder (1998) describes work motivation
as the set of internal and external forces that initiate work related behavior,
and determine its form, direction, intensity, and duration. Work motivation is
a middle range concept that deals only with events and phenomena related to
people in a work context.
recognizes the influence of both environmental forces (e.g., organizational
reward systems, the nature of the work being performed) and forces inherent in
the person (e.g., individual needs and motives) on work-related behavior. An
essential feature of the definition is that it views work motivation as an
invisible, internal, hypothetical construct (Pinder, 1998). We cannot actually
see work motivation nor can we measure it directly. We are here to talk and
show the effect of motivation and assessment of employee in the enterprise and
have the suggestion then.
Origin of Motivation
In the early 20th
century, money was regarded as the most important input into the production of
goods and services (Kreitner, 1995). However, after a series of researches, one
known to be the "Hawthorne Studies", conducted by Elton Mayo from 1924-1932 at
the Hawthorne Works of the American Western Electric Company in Chicago, it was
observed that employees were not motivated solely by money but that employee
behavior was linked to their attitudes (Dickson, 1973, in Lindner, 1998).
Definition of Motivation
There have been various
definitions of motivation across different disciplines in the academia ranging
from the fields of management, psychology to allied sciences. According to
Kreitner and Kinicki (1998) and Ramlall (2004), motivation is derived from the
Latin word "movere" which means to move. Butkus and Green (1999) also stated
that motivation is derived from the word "motivate? which also means to move,
push or persuade to act to satisfy a need. However, Mol (1992) differentiated
between the terms "movement" and "motivation". Mol (1992) described movement as
carrying out a task in order to be compensated or remunerated while motivation
is the voluntary involvement, and decision of a person to carry out a task.
Page (2008) in his article on non-monetary incentives in the workplace defined
motivation as the process that accounts for an individual's intensity,
direction and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal. In Cole (1996),
motivation is essentially about what drives a person to work in a particular
way and with a given amount of effort. Motivation has been defined as 'a decision
making process through which the individual chooses desired outcomes and sets
in motion the behaviors appropriate to acquiring them' (Huczynski &
Buchanan,1991, in Dartey-Baah, 2010). Robbins (2005) defined motivation as the
"willingness to exert high levels of effort toward organizational goals,
conditioned by the effort's ability to satisfy some individual need". According
to Robbins (2005), a need is an internal state that makes certain outcomes
appears attractive and an unsatisfied need creates tension that stimulates
drives within an individual.
Motivation Process and
Motivation is explained
by various theorists as a process governing choices (Bhattarcharyya, 2009). The
motivation process may be internal or external to the individual that arouses
enthusiasm, and persistence to pursue a certain course of action. The motivation
process starts with a physiological or psychological deficiency or need that
activates behavior, or a drive that is aimed at a goal.
According to Palmer
(2005), a fundamental part of a motivation strategy must be that the process of
achieving the goal is itself motivational. In other words, it is important to ensure
that people do not give up during the implementation phase, by designing a
process for achieving goals, and to control the motivation strategy. A
motivation strategy is necessary for conducting the daily tasks and motivating
employees with common goals. It is not only a decision or simple words used to
describe the goal, but also using a set of skills to achieve it (Palmer, 2005).
From the organizational point of view, the Motivation process follows certain
defined steps, which, as a continuum needs to be periodically reviewed and
strategized to ensure its proper renewal (Green, 2000). This helps to maintain
the motivation of employees.
Types of Motivation
Work motivation is
mostly categorized into two types, being intrinsic and extrinsic motivation showing
that different incentives have a distinct impact on employee motivation.
Whereas intrinsic motivation is concerned with rewards as the activity itself,
the source of extrinsic motivation are external controlling variables as
explicit rewards (e.g. money, threat) (Herzberg, 2003; Cameron & Pierce,
2002). Hackman and Oldham (1980) argued that strong intrinsic motivation occur
when three psychological states are created, and these are:
meaningfulness of the work,
- experienced responsibility
for outcomes of the work,
- knowledge of the
actual results of the work activities.
Job satisfaction has
been defined in different ways and a definitive designation for the term is
unlikely to materialize. Job satisfaction is a psychological concept that
refers to job related attitudes and characteristics such as pay and reward,
policies, leadership behaviors, management styles and co-workers (Dartey-Baah,
2010). A general way to define it therefore is as an attitudinal variable which
is defined below: Job satisfaction is simply how people feel about their jobs
and different aspects of their jobs. It is the extent to which people like
(satisfaction) or dislike (dissatisfaction) their jobs (Spector, 2000).
Armstrong (2010) also draws the attention that job satisfaction refers to the
attitudes and feelings people have about their work. This implies that positive
and favorable attitudes towards the job indicate job satisfaction while
negative and unfavorable attitudes towards the job indicate job
economic and human resources, the latest are more essential and have the
capability to endow a company with competitive edge as compared to others
(Rizwan et al, 2010). Employee Performance fundamentally depend on many factors
like performance appraisals, employee motivation, Employee satisfaction,
compensation, Training and development, job security, Organizational structure
and other, but the area of study is focused only on employee motivation as this
factor highly influence the performance of employees. Employee motivation is
one of the policies of managers to increase effectual job management amongst
employees in organizations (Shadare et al, 2009). A motivated employee is
responsive of the definite goals and objectives he/she must achieve, therefore
he/she directs its efforts in that direction. Rutherford (1990) reported that
motivation formulates an organization more successful because provoked
employees are constantly looking for improved practices to do a work, so it is
essential for organizations to persuade motivation of their employees
(Kalimullah et al, 2010).
Getting employees to do
their best work even in strenuous circumstances, is one of the employees most
stable and greasy challenges and this can be made possible through motivating
Composition of people
which formulate independent business identity for some specific purpose is
commonly known as organization and getting desired outcome within defined
resources is treated as effectiveness.
effectiveness is the notion of how effectual an organization is in
accomplishing the results the organization aims to generate (Muhammad, et al,
2011). It plays an important role in accelerating organizational development
(Bulent et al, 2009). It is the net satisfaction of all constituents in the
process of gathering and transforming inputs into output in an efficient manner
(Matthew et al, 2005).
effectiveness is defined as the extent to which an organization, by the use of
certain resources, fulfils its objectives without depleting its resources and
without placing undue strain on its members and/or society (Mary et al, 1996).
It is the maximum combined utility of the primary constituents (Matthew et al,
The goal model describes
organizational effectiveness in terms of the extent to which an organization
attains its objectives. The legitimacy model regards organizational
effectiveness in terms of a background evaluation "of component preferences for
performance and natural limitations on performance from an external
environmental perspective" (Zammuto R.F, 1982).
The constituency model
considers organizational effectiveness "as a set of several statements, each
reflecting the evaluative criteria applied by the various constituencies"
involved with the organization being evaluated with an emphasis on means
criteria (Connolly T, 1980).
The systems resource
model defines organizational effectiveness "in terms of its (the organizations)
bargaining position, as reflected in the ability of the organization, in either
absolute or relative terms, to exploit its environment in the acquisition of
scarce and valued resources and how they utilize these resources (Yuchtman E,
The study is aimed to
determine the factors that increase employee motivation and the relationship of
organizational effectiveness with employee motivation [4-6].
As have mentioned
motivation is a tool of performance empowerment and improvement for individual
and team work in a better manner and surely have the money or work facilitation
more in use for common uses in enterprises.
We informed the
techniques of motivations for organizations and are on our suggestion for
having more secure and healthier enterprise and more stable. These motivation
techniques has long been acknowledged as an important personnel work with the
potential to improve employee motivation and hence performance, and to deliver
management with the control needed to achieve organizational objectives.
Training, monetary incentives, promotion, and working conditions has been met
and for reason the efforts made to motivate are bound to succeed. This
conclusion is built on the emphasis made by earlier researchers to motivate
people, organizations need to first have the baseline in place; in the absence
of the baseline, motivation is not possible to achieve.
There are many areas
that have not been investigated that may be useful for further study in
employee motivation improvement measures. The study can be conducted to analyze
useful incentives analysis of different types of enterprises. This research can
be also extended to the effectiveness of employee motivation improvement
measures in order to provide more insights into employee motivation improvement
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Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №12 - 2020