IQ-management - intellectual capital as a source of innovation

Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №12 - 2020

Mamyrbekova Dinara , Kazakh American Free University, Kazakhstan
Ramazanov Zhaslan, Kazakh-American Free University, Kazakhstan
Bogorodskaya Oxana, Kazakh American Free University, Kazakhstan
Oralbekkyzy Ajgerim, Kazakh American Free University, Kazakhstan

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Intellectual capital today is a general system of characteristics, which in turn determines the ability of a person, that is, his quality as a labor force, an individual, an employee of an enterprise, corporation, country that materializes or manifests itself in the process of labor, namely when creating a certain product, service, surplus product for their reproduction based on the personified economic interest of each subject, and their combination. Accordingly, intellectual capital can be attributed to intangible assets of a company that cannot be quantified, unlike such tangible assets as real estate, cash and equipment. Intelligence is a mental ability, a person's mental beginning, which determines his activity, the ability to solve various problems and adapt effectively in society, in a word, this is his accumulated baggage of knowledge in a particular field. There are various types of intelligence, each of which, usually, is the ability to solve problems of a certain type (mathematical intelligence, verbal intelligence, social intelligence). The intellectual capital of a company is the experience and knowledge of its employees accumulated by them during the development of products and services over a certain period of time, as well as its organizational structure and intellectual property.

Intellectual capital is characterized by a higher level of development compared to the already known functional forms of capital, the criterion of which is a more stable level of economic growth of the society, the effectiveness of its structures. Intellectual capital, developing on the basis of previous forms of capital, incorporates their basic properties and at the same time has its own content and functions, such as the very existence of intellectual property and its progressive development; The development and formation of creative thinking among employees, managerial personnel, as well as among scientists and entrepreneurs, which leads to the implementation of basic models of reproduction of a specific economic system and their combination;

The predominant formation in this capital system of an intellectual center, gradually encompassing the entire set of factors of production, distribution, exchange and consumption. As we can see from the examples, in almost any business there are intellectual property objects. Registration of rights to these objects can be one of the key elements for ensuring business security, not only property, but also tax and management.

The accumulated intellectual capital in its broad definition is the share of the innovative economy and its support in the overall economy of the country. This approach allows us to quantify National human capital through the use of integrated country international indicators, which, on the one hand, simplifies calculations, and on the other, makes them more reliable.

At all levels of intellectual capital - personal, corporate and national - everything is based on special, special knowledge, skills and technologies that determine the competitive advantages of human capital at the proper level.

Fig. 1 Sources of the formation of national intellectual capital in a broad definition

At all levels of intellectual capital, it includes additionally qualified labor resources, quality of life, tools and technologies that ensure the realization of the competitive advantages of the nation, the effective functioning of intellectual capital as a dynamic factor in innovation, intellectual work and development.

Since the end of the 40s of the XX century, the countries leading in the level of development have adopted a strategy for the development of science and new technologies. Japan was one of the leaders in this direction. The government of the country as soon as possible developed a new strategy to increase scientific and technical potential, and already in 49, Japan purchased 34 thousand licenses and patents in Europe, which have already been finalized both in the creative and in the manufacturing field, and most importantly, they have very quickly introduced into production. All this cost Japan $ 78 billion and in a short period of time the effectiveness of the strategy was estimated from 400% to 1800% in industries. As a result, in the 70s, Japan created its own R&D base and turned into the most powerful competitor in scientific and technical development and production of high-tech products. This database has accumulated not only research and development of scientists of the country of the rising sun, but also scientists of all countries of the world. Since the mid-twentieth century, Japan, the countries of Europe and Asia have proved that breakthroughs in society are possible only on the basis of intellectual capital.

Strengthening corruption and crime reduces non-profile, suppresses the creativity and creative power of people, reduces the quality, efficiency and accumulated value of intellectual capital.

Currently, on the basis of the theory and practice of intellectual capital, a paradigm for the successful development of the United States and leading European countries is being formed and improved. Based on the theory and practice of IC, backward Sweden modernized its economy and in the 2000s regained its leading position in the global economy. In a short historical time, Finland has moved from a raw material economy to an innovative economy.

All this did not happen, since the theory and practice of IC carried out some kind of magic wand, since it met the challenges of economic theory and practice of innovative economics that arose in the second half of the 20th century, its high level of education economics, as well as the invitations of a scientific venture -technical business. In the context of the globalization of the world economy, in the conditions of the free flow of any capital, including IC, in the face of accelerated international competition from country to country, from region to region, from city to city, accelerated development of high technologies of human capital is the main dynamic competitive factor in the development of the countries of the world , carrying out advanced investment of high-quality intellects, organizes and finances its influx into the country, creates good conditions for work and life of the world's leading experts.

Another element of intellectual capital is emotional capital [9], which is a system of relationships that is based on the interests and desires of a person and forms the basis of his social behavior, which determines his productivity and determines the reproduction of intellectual abilities and the increment of creative potential in the conditions of innovative development of the economy. Emotional capital can be considered the main lever for managing intellectual capital, which is realized in a stimulating effect on other elements of intellectual capital due to the link with the motivational parameters of human life. Based on the foregoing, the structure of intellectual capital can be represented as a combination of four components (see Fig. 2).

Fig. 2 Structure of intellectual capital

The main source of human capital based on domestic and foreign experience is human intellectual capital, which is a combination or combination of knowledge, competence and motivation, skills and experience, managerial, entrepreneurial, creative abilities, as well as moral values. This should include a work culture, know-how and other characteristics that do not differ from an individual. It is a small part of intellectual capital: procedures, technologies, management systems, a combination of hardware and software, the availability of information space, organizational structure, etc. The legal status of intellectual property (patents, license agreements), intangible investments and innovations, intellectual capital, organizational capital, human capital, emotional relationship capital, intellectual property capital, process (operational) assets that are often difficult for innovative growth in the future, and all this to determine the legal status and position of the company.

Today, marketing of the intellectual capital of a territory includes marketing of human capital, which consists of marketing labor and jobs, and marketing knowledge and education. Based on the analysis of the labor market of the region and the republic as a whole, the practice of forming a forecast of personnel hunger and its needs has developed. The modern economy is called the knowledge economy. This is due to the fact that more and more innovations and innovative technologies are being introduced into the sphere of services and production every day. In turn, this requires advanced training, training and constant updating of the knowledge of its and its employees. Knowledge has become a source of determining benefits, and only with their help are innovations created, i.e. completely new specialties are being created, and if earlier this was done at the junction of any sciences, then Now at the junction of different areas of knowledge, for example, "Finance in IT", "Biomedicine", "IT Genetics", etc.

At present, human capital as a high stage in the development of world thought has become the main factor in the formation and development of an innovative economy and a knowledge economy. In developed countries, human capital accounts for more than 70-80% of national wealth and determines the leading position in the world. Studies conducted in the EU countries make an average profit of 14% of enterprises partially using intellectual capital, most actively using it - 39%, and enterprises that consider intellectual capital as a strategic development base - 61%.

According to estimates of the UN development program, today the Republic of Kazakhstan belongs to the category of those countries, the so-called with a high level of human development index. Today in our country there is a clear understanding that science and education in society and the economy of education are acquiring key importance, thereby becoming the leading production force. From this concept, the following can be noted that the future of our countries will not be determined by oil and gas wealth, but by intellectual potential, the level of development of science and education, as well as high technology.

Also, the need to neutralize the revealed negative trends as well as develop ways to approve positive conclusions served as an impetus for the authors to apply for work in the field of intellectual capital, as a result, the processes of reproduction and spatial redistribution of innovations are determined by the behavior of the people who generate and implement them, as well as the availability of intellectual resources, therefore, depending on the development of the innovation economy, it is necessary to ensure the uneven distribution of regional intellectual capital, in other words, the degree of its concentration should be taken into account when analyzing regional inconsistencies. The problem of consolidating intellectual capital is of interest from the point of view of studying the formation and accumulation of intellectual capital in regions.

However, the following point should be noted that today in Kazakhstan active migration of the population is traced both within the country and abroad, and vice versa. Based on this, we can conclude that internal movement in the country, especially young professionals, plays a huge role in the development of the economy of each region. For example, young people who have just received a higher education diploma will not write off to return to their native lands for their development and the beginning of their career, but rather show a desire to stay in the city or regional centers, motivating for low earnings in rural areas and lack of prospects and living conditions. And having remained in big cities, they are forced to look for permanent rental housing, allocating for this a large part of their earned income, as well as exposed to fierce personnel competition, and do not always work in their specialty. Based on this, the conclusion suggests itself that in this way there is a shortage of intellectual personnel in some regions, and a glut in them in others. If the problem with medical workers and teachers was somehow, then it was aligned according to the "With a Diploma to the Village" program, where all young specialists of a narrow and wide profile are guaranteed lifting and housing, then for the remaining layers of humanities, in particular economists and lawyers, this problem still remains relevant.

But the biggest problem at the moment is that young, high-quality specialists go to other countries to receive basic or additional education of their own free will remain abroad, respectively, develop the economy of another country, thereby creating a "brain drain" from the country, and a shortage is created in the country specialists of necessary professions i.e. "Personnel hunger." In this regard, it is necessary to review programs for young professionals and not only, the global battle for talent is in full swing, and the most gifted and mobile are in search of the most profitable contracts and living conditions for themselves. What can be done to stop the leak? For example, Ireland was able to stop the brain drain through major economic reforms and active companies to convince talented young immigrants to return to their homeland. This happened during the Christmas holidays of 1996. Irish employers organized a career guidance company to recruit and retain immigrants who were visiting their homes. The irony is that there are 17.5 million unemployed in the EU. This association has set itself the goal of combining available jobs with a reserve of the working population. Persuading to work in those areas where he grabs skilled workers.

Thus, the following features of intellectual capital can be distinguished:

- priority development of intellectual capital as the main factor in economic growth;

- the accumulation of intellectual capital in the form of knowledge, skills, experience;

- the high cost of the formation and use of intellectual capital;

- a combination of high risks and high profits from the use of intellectual capital;

- Features of investing in intellectual capital are determined by historical, national, cultural features and traditions;

- high efficiency of investing in intellectual capital;

- intellectual capital is a non-current asset;

- the use of intellectual capital is controlled by the individual, regardless of the source of investment in its development.

Thus, intellectual capital is a multifaceted phenomenon that is formed as a result of the interaction of human, organizational, emotional capital and capital relations, which determines the acquisition of new knowledge and the activation of innovative activity at all levels of the economy.


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Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №12 - 2020

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