Trilingual policy through the lenses of bloom's revised taxonomy
Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №7 - 2015
Author: Oskolkova Anna, Kazakh American Free University, Kazakhstan
strategy of Kazakhstan
in the context of State Development Program, its modernization implies
realization of the following principles, one of which is to recognize the
crucial significance of society education. The government and the people are
responsible for the qualitative and quantitative results of the very mission.
appropriate and modern the conditions to get proper education are, the more
successful and developed the country would become on a global scale.
president of the country, Nursultan Nazarbayev, reviewed the requirements for
current elementary, secondary and higher education. The main requirements must
be competitive and high-qualitative. The graduates of Kazakhstani schools must
be able to continue their education in foreign universities .
one of the various educational strategies we should keep the best educational
traditions in the country and equip our graduates with globally-accepted
qualifications and developed linguistic behavior that consists of acquisition
of a state, native and foreign language. In this context our understanding of
the influence of languages in a modern world causes great debates among
teachers and professors talking about the results of language teaching and
improvement of students' language proficiency.
is the basics of polylingual students' model formation.
of polycultural and polylingual education are:
- polycultural education, formation of competitive students,
who are ready for sociocultural interaction while speaking a state and other
development of a person who holds an active life in multinational and polycultural
environment, a person who is tolerant and respectful to representatives of
different cultures, who can live in the peace and friendship with people of
different nationalities, races and beliefs .
are to create the conditions for school students to speak the Kazakh language
as a state one, the Russian language as a cross-cultural language and the
English language as a foreign one; to teach school
students various ways of verbal communication and develop the skills of
also take into account the aspects of developing a polycultural personality.
While learning a foreign language, a student learns a foreign culture so that
the person develops, improves and increases his / her outlook. We teach and
learn foreign languages to use them in everyday life.
reasons for success in educating a polycultural and trilingual personality are
- complete development of students' individuality;
consideration of their feelings, emotions and affections, stimulation of their
verbal, cognitive and creative abilities;
- creation of the environment where a child feels comfortable
and free, development of their desire to apply their polycultural features;
a student-centered context where he /she can actively interact with other
participants of educational process;
- creation of situations where a teacher serves as a
supervisor and facilitator.
things cause good conditions for efficient organization of students' activity
in terms of innovative development .
teaching of foreign languages on the elementary level leads to a qualitative
learning of different languages in the future that helps to continue the
education in foreign countries and make a choice in a global educational context.
to the educational standards of Kazakhstan,
the elementary level is the most favorable opportunity to form and develop
students' communicative and learning needs. Teaching languages at this level
improves students' sense of belonging to global culture and sense of
that the more languages you learn, the more mentalities you may represent. The
more languages a student learns the more complicated their thinking process
becomes. A good teacher should always remember about the main stages of
cognition. Bloom's Revised Taxonomy can be of great help here. One of the most
important dilemmas or choices for me was a career choice. So now we can
describe the general aspects of our students' thinking process by means of Bloom's
(aka Knowledge): A language is learned only when a learner is spoken to. The
learner acquires thousands of facts, news, materials, information every day and
every minute. The volume of learned words, grammar and syntax depends on his
/her attention, memory and cognition peculiarities. The teacher also plays a
main role in the process of presentation, revision and assessment of students'
Understand (aka Comprehension): We start from the easiest topics to the most
difficult ones in order to build a solid system of knowledge. Besides the
linguistic aspect of information we also include the cultural aspect. We
prepare both future leaders and future teachers of a new generation. We also
can present the material starting from the rules and then doing the tasks, or
we can start from the examples and then formulating the rule that can be later
compared with an original one. Peer teaching is also supposed to be successful
in explaining and understanding the information by students.
The greatest praise for a teacher is to see their students successfully
practice the knowledge outside the school. When the real life practice is
concerned, it can turn out that students can perfectly work with people, negotiate
with them and learn something new from them.
While learning three languages students compare them and figure out their
differences and similarities. Teachers give explanations paying attention to
language differences and emphasizing the similarities to ease the whole
language teaching and learning processes.
(aka Synthesis): Language proficiency framework helps both students and
teachers to assess and improve the existing level of language command.
Especially in translation or interpretation made by students in or outside the
classroom make them aware of all possible gaps in language knowledge. The gaps
can be filled in the future.
In schools students practice different projects, reports, creative essays
composed in three languages. Teachers motivate their students to participate in
different international culture and language exchange programs, workshops,
seminars and other sessions .
One of the
main things is to set proper relationships between teachers and students and
relationships among students. Today we use a new term of pedagogical
technologies. “Technology is a compilation of approaches applied in some
business, craft...” Pedagogical technology is a systematic method of creation,
application and definition of the whole process of teaching and getting
So, one of
the main technologies is a person-oriented technology, which puts a learner's
personality in the center of the whole education system as well as comfortable,
conflict-free and safe conditions of his / her development, realization of his
of partnership or cooperation is also referred to student-centered
technologies. We mean the relationships between teachers and students. While
working together, they work out the common goals, plan the work and assess the
search technology implies the creation, under teacher's supervision, of problem
situations and students' active work over their settling. As a result, we get
creative knowledge, skills, abilities and development of cognition .
of teachers and students provide a practical acquisition of polycultural
language activity, even under limited conditions. The application of any
technology starts with motivation or phase of challenge. We gain an opportunity
to make the students interested. The situations make a student play a role.
Here we mean another method of game technology (i.e. simulations of real life
goal of this technology use is:
- didactic - increase of outlook, formation of knowledge,
abilities and skills in practice;
- educational - education of independence, partnership,
collectivism and communication skills;
- developing - development of attention, memory, speech,
thinking, abilities to compare and match;
- socializing - adaptation to environmental conditions,
By means of
computer technologies we present scanned images, video films, PowerPoint
presentations and musical demo to elementary students.
to the new State Standard, the main mission of elementary education is to
reveal the personality of student and completion of education. Students are too
sensitive to an educational process, their mental work
is likely to intake and output the learned actions and statements. Meanwhile,
the juniors have abstract thinking and they need visuals. Computer in this case
serves as a tool that can reproduce any necessary visual materials to overcome
the obstacles. When the junior students see picturesque images, schemes,
animated characters, they perceive and remember difficult information better.
The use of
information - communicative technologies let a teacher broaden the limits of
the classroom, create an atmosphere of foreign linguaculture and absorb the
values of other cultures. The efficiency has already been proved in practice.
Multimedia resources are much more applicable than we think. In most cases
information technologies are used as an illustrative or visual method of
teaching different disciplines. The unique opportunities of the Internet are
out of question. The task for schools is to teach students how to use World
Wide Web resources.
means are an interactive way of audio-visual information presentation by means
of modern technical tools which can help to combine a text, sound, photo and
video in one digital format. All this creates the conditions to increase the
efficiency of education, present a qualitative imitation of reality and
linguistic context, and improve the perception of authentic language
information by provoking students' emotions and feelings and being able to
apply them on any level of teaching.
instance, educational websites are really useful in language teaching and
learning. They contain authentic audio materials, starting from
tongue-twisters, poems and songs for elementary school and finishing with video
clips, news reports, and podcasts dedicated to current events and burning
issues, electronic editions of books and journals in which senior students are
interested. The very resources are effective in the formation of students'
universal academic activities, their development of listening, speaking,
reading and writing skills. Audio and video materials can be used on both
stages of material presentation, practice and production.
gives a teacher new opportunities to enjoy the process of cognition. The new
technologies help to perceive a colorful world of "live"
of any teacher is to modernize an educational process by means of up-to-date
information technologies. It is necessary to find out effective ways of
multimedia technology integration in educational process.
computerization of educational process implies an interesting new approach to
teaching that is entertaining for children and time-saving for teachers .
the role of languages in a modern world leads to a question of the expected
results of language teaching and improvement of students' language proficiency.
The concept of education development in the Republic of Kazakhstan
is designed for effective renovation of forms and methods of teacher's training
that face the global requirements.
focus is on polylingual education that is viewed as an active way of preparing
a young generation for the future of collaboration, network and mutual
should create the environment for appropriate learning of universal, global
values, students' development of skills to communicate and interact with representatives
of neighboring cultures in the world context.
polycultural personality will be able to self-realize in social and
professional spheres, know the history of native land and people, command a few
languages, deal with people by speaking three languages in different life
situations and strive for self-actualization and self-improvement.
these goals we carry out elementary teaching and learning of the English
language and its intensive practice on senior levels. We work with reference books
and textbooks of the new generation.
system of 12 years of school preparation will provide much deeper and much more
intensive teaching and learning of three languages and proper professional
training. We should not miss out the importance of vocational and elective
courses in seniors grades. The courses can meet the
needs of senior schools students. School teachers are willing to design extra
language clubs for students. The clubs will be able to let the students
practice the language in various settings. Teachers are also qualified to
design multilevel test assignments and activities for all graders by taking
into account their mental abilities, psychological and physiological features.
intensive learning of three languages will help them to be more successful and
competitive in local, regional and state language contests. Every school is
responsible for keeping language sessions, workshops, quizzes, educational
games and other events.
of Kazakh, Russian and English has become an integral part of personal and
professional life. In this case the sphere of work demands the employees who
are proficient in a number of languages and who can gain a more prestigious
status both in society and at work. We must be sure that a rational,
appropriate and correct introduction of trilingual policy in our schools will
make our graduates mobile and flexible in any world settings .
thinking over the prospects, advantages and disadvantages of trilingual
education we can figure out 8 common problems and challenges that we, both
teachers and students, may face. They are:
System (e.g. dealing with sources. First of all, it concerns students' sincere
attitude towards reading the given references at home and being ready to
reflect on them. Students may lie and swear that they have read them all (but
actually, they haven't) and then just summarize the main idea without deep
thinking over the concepts in the text). Honesty is one of intellectual
virtues. If students do not value it in their private and academic lives, so
they will not be courageous enough to admit this fault.
Plagiarism (For example, when students are given a written assignment, they can
copy another author's work and put their name at the bottom of the page. As an
excuse they might say - "I completely agree with an author, so why should
I change anything in the text?"). Plagiarized thought won't help students
in decision-making and reporting issues. How can they improve their work if the
work is not theirs?
leaders (one for all and all for one) - one person can let others do the work
and then present the result as his/her only original idea. Another case can be
when a group has got one lazy member who just does not care and, in the end,
they reveal the truth or "give" him / her some menial task / work.
When we have a group and one presenter, it can become difficult to check
everyone's contribution to the assignment.
for the test results. There are students who do not focus on learning, but on
the result of the tests, quizzes, other tasks, both formative and summative.
Such students become a real challenge for a teacher. Their academic eagerness
can be reasoned by external driving forces (parents' wish or threat, material
value, etc.). "Good grades must result in good learning";
pre-school preparation/mental disorder: upbringing in the family, relationships
with relatives and friends, physical and mental diseases are of great
significance and value for teachers and students. For example, high school
students can be unprepared for thesis writing on lectures (they do it like
writing a dictation) or mental disorders can be revealed only on senior
Teacher's traditional assessment criteria: it concerns conservative teachers
who feel comfortable to use the same work sheets and tasks to assess her/his
students. They can work with new text books but the tests they give to their
students can be designed in the first year of their teaching career;
second chance for failures: such a statement is supported by those who do not
want to diminish their egocentricity or sociocentricity. They are not walking
in the shoes of their "not so brainy or quick-minded" peers; they
cannot stand their slowness and trying hard. Those who excel they may
"rebel" out loud;
for a mentor/coach. This final point is more challenging than problematic.
After having held a successful affective and cognitive assessment for a number
of years, teachers can work with their students as mentors or coaches during
their academic life and even after graduation .
1. Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
2. Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan
"About Education" issued on July 22, 2011: "Kazakhstanskaya
Pravda" issued on August 6, 2011.
3. The State Program of Education Development
in the Republic
of Kazakhstan till 2020.
4. Polat Y.S., Bukharkina М.Y.,
Moisseyeva М.V., Petrov А.Y. (2000). New Pedagogical Technologies
in Education System. Moscow:
5. Bondarevskaya Y.V. (2000). Value Basics of Person-Oriented Education. Rostov-on-Don.
6. Sololova Y.N. (2002). The Methods of
Teaching Foreign Languages: Basic Course of Lectures. Moscow: Prosvetscheniye.
7. Align Assessment with Objectives. Carnegie
Mellon, from http: // www. cmu.
edu/ teaching/ assessment/ howto/ basics/
Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №7 - 2015