Methods of forming grammatical skills of high school students

Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №9 - 2017

Authors:
Borodina Kristina, Kazakh-American Free University, Kazakhstan
Oskolkova Anna, Kazakh-American Free University, Kazakhstan

In a modernized society an important role is international education. Nowadays, the subject "foreign language" due to its characteristics has great potential, rather than the other disciplines studied in school.

In our days there is a need of knowledge of foreign languages. Mastering a foreign language involves several aspects. The most important aspect of a foreign language, of course, is grammar.

In teaching speaking, grammar is one of the most important places, this kind of foundation, which is based on vocabulary.

Learning grammar and the correct formation of this or that utterance, and identifying grammatical forms not only in speech but also in writing takes place through the development of grammatical abilities.

The majority of European teachers noted that educational and training goals in training are not achieved due to the fact that students in the study of classical grammar of a foreign language, according to numerous observations do not understand the practical significance of the study grammatical terms and concepts, or purpose of grammatical analysis. In addition, often teachers at the school prefer to teach grammar through tables, learning structures, exercises the same type, using which the student doesn't fully understand the practical benefits of what he's doing [2].

Theoretical aspects and stages of formation of grammatical skills. The skill is automatically performed the action, achieved by using multiple, targeted exercises. Skill is interpreted by the lack of purposeful mind control, quality and optimum lead time.

Grammatical skill is synthesized by the action performed in habit-forming parameters and provides adequate morphological and syntactic design of speech units at any level in the speech [1].

Grammar skill includes the following:

– selection structure, the most appropriate speech plan of the speaker (in certain situations);

– execution of speech units in which to complete the structure in accordance with the rules of the language and a certain time parameter;

– assessment of the adequacy and correctness of these actions.

One of the important conditions of the creation of active grammatical skill is the possession of a sufficient amount of lexical material which can be formed skill. Grammar the action takes place in the boundaries of certain vocabulary, vocabulary on a certain material. If a student in a particular situation it turns out quickly enough and correct yourself grammatically to make a phrase, there is reason to argue that he is already in some degree fluent in grammatical skill.

Grammatical skills are different from each other as much as themselves the various types of verbal communication (speaking, reading, listening, writing) [3].

The purpose of learning grammar learning a foreign language is the mastery of grammatical skills: productive (speaking and writing) and receptive grammar skills(listening and reading).

Grammatical minimum is a specific set of grammatical phenomena (grammatical forms, structure, rules of change of words and connect them into sentences), which are designed for the proper design of the speech, not only from the point of view of morphology, but also from the point of view of syntax.

Active grammatical minimum includes grammatical phenomena, which are intended for use in speech and writing.

Passive grammatical minimum includes phenomena that students can recognize and understand the text [3].

The study of such units as vocabulary, syntax, phonetics is a necessity, but from a practical point of view, without any knowledge of grammar they are meaningless. If a person has no grammar skills, it can intelligently make your speech, to express their thoughts in written or oral speech, but only can play a certain set of words. The importance of grammar skills is very large, because to avoid obstacles in the dialogue or monologue, it is important to build speech and grammar without certain skills is impossible.

Stages of formation of grammatical skills

Productive assimilation of grammar material involves the following steps:

Stage 1 - Introduction and primary grammatical material.

The purpose of this stage is to create an indicative basis of the grammar of action for the future of skill formation in different communication situations. At this stage it is important to identify the value, formation and use of grammatical structures, to provide control of her understanding of the students and initial consolidation [4].

The introduction of the new grammatical material for the productive absorption is mainly carried out through educational and speech situations that are presented orally or by reading. Familiarization is a teacher, or independently in this order:

1. Installation on the functional orientation of the new grammatical structure (for example: in today's lesson we learn how to respond\to say, if...).

2. The formation and presentation of educational speech situations typical for the full functioning of the new grammatical structure; recognition by students of the structure visually, or by ear; understanding grammatical structures as a result of extralinguistic and linguistic actions.

3. Control understanding the meaning of new grammatical structures and accuracy of its use with a partial translation from a foreign language into the native language, execution, and commenting on physical actions, the use of visual material, conditional transfer and various exercises that do not require playback of the new structure.

4. The choice of a particular rule and its wording.

5. Analysis and comprehension of grammatical phenomena with the help of introductory exercises [4].

Stage 2 - Practice grammar material.

The formation of speech grammar skills involves the development of skill a more accurate reproduction of the phenomenon under study in the typical functioning of speech situations and the development of flexibility due to the varying conditions of communication, requiring adequate grammatical registration of the statement. With this purpose, simulation, wildcard, transformational exercises. Separate group highlighted exercises of the game character [5].

For this step, use the following exercises:

- Simulation exercises;

- Wildcard exercises;

- Transformational exercises.

Stage 3 - The Use of grammar in speech.

The transition from skill to skill happens through exercise, which activated a grammatical phenomenon should be consumed without language prompts in accordance with speech circumstances. Exercises at this stage can be carried out on the basis of oral topics, home reading, slides, film extracts used.

Control of grammar skills may be a witness or to stand out in a separate stage. The teacher implements it in the process of speech activity (speaking, writing, listening) or with the goal to use different type of monitoring exercise [6].

Receptive grammar skills mastering involves 3 stages:

Stage 1 - introduce the new grammatical phenomenon.

Introduce students with new grammatical phenomenon should take place in accordance with the following methodological requirements:

- An explanation of receptive grammar material is carried out successively from the introduction of the signs of grammatical forms to the disclosure of its content with the help of simulating the communicative process of listening, reading.

Most the full meaning of grammatical forms should be reported immediately as students are able to meet any of them, they must learn to relate them to this form.

- You should immediately compare the new grammatical form with its homonymous forms, it is necessary to provide guidance on how to determine its value and distinguish it from other homonymous forms.

- Explanation of data teacher must necessarily be based on text [7].

Receptive grammar teacher reported using:

- a variety of rules; algorithms (receptive);

- in the form of examples;

- through a combination of rules and models;

- in word forms [8].

Stage 2 - Training and automation effects in reading and listening.

Training is designed to teach students to automatically discern the signs of the relevant grammatical phenomena, to be able to separate them from the homonymous and involves the execution of complex, differentiated, wildcard and transformational exercises [7].

Below are a few types of training exercises:

1. To allocate the text with the help of diagrams (provided following the text) contained in this complex sentence and to determine the temporal form of the verb in the subordinate clause:

2. On the basis of the text, students should "encrypt" grammatical phenomena, highlighting their grammatical features; they are given a clue which specific events they need to "encrypt" and then they encrypt. If students work in pairs then they are invited to share their "codes" and based on them choose from the text of the relevant proposals.

3. Exercises of creative character

For example, students are encouraged to write the rules of conduct in the kitchen, using modal verbs must / mustn't, can / can't.

Example: Rules in the kitchen:

You must wash all dishes after eating.

You mustn't play in the kitchen.

You can eat everything you want etc.

In working with passive grammar is easy to give the appearance of search with elements of excitement, so-called language game. Gaming can be regarded the following exercise: students are encouraged to return artificial proposal, which built on the formal elements of the language, its a natural look. All exercises for the assimilation of passive grammar should be at a fast pace, in order to accustom the students to grasp the informative characteristics synchronously with the reading of the text [9].

Stage 3 - Application.

The application involves such skills as the development of an independent analysis of the text while listening and reading. During training, the emphasis is on the ability of students to self-mark various grammatical constructions which are peculiar to the language and to analyze their meaning according to the context. Special effectiveness of different exercises on the selection in the text polysemantic grammatical phenomena and grammatical homonyms, explanation by students of their meaning and application, comments and their suggestions to include these phenomena and the analysis of their semantic functions[9].

Thus, we considered concepts such as skill, grammar skills, the importance of grammar skills. Considered the concept of active and passive grammatical minimum, on this basis identified the main stages of formation of grammatical skills, and identified the main types of exercises for forming grammatical skills.

We have developed the following grammar exercises for students grade 6 high school.

Exercise 1. Use these sentences in Negative and Interrogative tense

Example: Lena likes grape.

Negative form: Lena doesn’t like grape.

Interrogative form: Does Lena like grape?

1. I study in school number 3.

2. He works in the garden very hard.

3. My classmate likes apples.

4. They always watch sad films.

5. We plan to go to the picnic

The goal of this exercise is to develop and consolidate the use of present simple tense.

Progress of work: before starting the exercise the teacher, as a support, gives the students the charts that indicate basic information about the time present simple(formation in the affirmative, negative and interrogative form as well as terms of use). Using these tables the student must transform sentences from affirmative to interrogative and negative form. After that, the students are merged in pairs and compare their sentences.

Exercise 2. Use these regular verbs to complete the sentences. Write them in the Past tense

1. Oleg ______ to USA last summer.

2. Children______ their work yesterday.

3. Before dinner Liza ______computer.

4. Julia ______to go to the cinema, but her friends didn’t want to.

5. Before this year Anton ____ going to the theatre.

6. Yesterday my friend _____ around 30 minutes.

The goal of this exercise is to consolidate the use of regular verbs.

Progress of work: to start the teacher with the students repeat the difference between regular and irregular verbs, then the teacher gives a homework exercise on a piece of paper, in this exercise, students need to make sense to paste in the sentence from the table, using them in the past simple. Before you start doing the task the students must translate the words of signs and writing in a notebook with the translation.

Example: the words finish, walk, travel, love, want, play.

1. Oleg traveled to London last year.

2. Father played computer yesterday.

Exercise 3. Complete the conversation using What? When? Why? How or Which?

A: _____did you move to Ust-Kamenogorsk?

B: in 2005.

A: ____was your favorite book in childhood?

B: “The Turnip”.

A: ____did you study English before?

B: In a language centre.

A: ______song did you like in childhood?

B: “Antoshka”, of course.

A: _____did you move to Ust-Kamenogorsk?

B: because my grandparents lived there.

The goal of this exercise is to train usage of question words what? when? how? which? where?

Progress of work: for beginning students together with the teacher learn the value of question words, then the teacher divides the students into pairs and they are given exercise. In this exercise, they need to insert question words to questions and then read them one by one, or invent independently the short answer to these questions.

Example: A: How old are you? B:I am thirteen.

Exercise 4. Choose one card and make up a short dialogue with using past time questions and short answers.

Example:

A: where did you find your first friend?

B: in school.

A: how old were you?

B: Iwasseven.

The goal of this exercise is to practice the use of question words and developing the ability to give a short answer.

Progress of work: to begin, students are divided into pairs, then each pair draws a card which shows a place (school, cafe, beach). Pulling a card, students must compose a short dialogue on the subject. Be sure to use question words and give short answers.

Learning English grammar at the middle stage is an integral part of the educational process and should occupy a key position. Mastering grammar skills promotes correct speech of students, since grammatical skill is one of the main components of speech [1].

In turn, speaking is considered one of the important components of learning a foreign language. Without speaking, the student would not be able to correctly formulate and construct my speech, couldn't read any text, it is especially important that all language processes are closely interrelated.

The purpose of learning grammar learning a foreign language is the mastery of grammatical skills: productive (speaking and writing) and receptive grammar skills (listening and reading).

The study of vocabulary, phonetics and syntax is necessary, but without grammar knowledge they are meaningless. If a person has no grammar skills, it can intelligently make your speech, to express their thoughts in written or oral speech, but only can play a certain set of words. The importance of grammar skills is very large, because to avoid obstacles in the dialogue or monologue, it is important to build speech and grammar without certain skills is impossible

 To increase students' interest in studying such a complex section of the language like grammar, it is first necessary to set, that is, in front of the teacher, clear objectives. Students need to know and understand why they do a particular task or learning certain rules.

The next thing to consider is the variety of tasks. All tasks that are given to students should be carefully selected by the teacher.

No less important in the grammar is clarity. Students should have a clear example or a rule, which are then quickly absorbed students.

Games must also be present in the classroom. So-called games help children to relax, and thus each task can have a clear goal.

Therefore, the study of grammar in high school is absolutely necessary; these exercises developed by us facilitate easy learning grammar. In conclusion, it should be noted that the goal and objectives were fulfilled.

REFERENCES

1. Galskova N.D., Gez N.I. Teoriya obucheniya inostrannym yazykam. Lingvodidaktika i metodika [Theory of foreign languages teaching. Linguodidactics and methodology]. – M.: Izdatelstvo "Akademiya", 2006. – 336 p.

2. Vitlin, Zh. A. Sovremennyie problemyi obucheniya grammatike inoyazyichnyih yazyikov [Modern problems of teaching the grammar of foreign languages] // Inostranniye yaziki v shkole.- 2000. - No. 5. – pp. 36-39.

3. Solovova Y. N. Metodika obucheniya inostrannyim yazyikam: Bazovyiy kurs lektsiy [Methods of foreign languages teaching: basic course of lectures]. – 4th ed. – M.: Obrazovaniye, 2006. – 239 p.

4. Gurevich V.V. Prakticheskaya grammatika angliyskogo yazyika. Uprazhneniya i kommentarii [Practical grammar of the English language. Exercises and comments]. – M.: Flinta, Nauka, 2013. – 296 p.

5. Kurbatova M.Yu. Igrovyie priyomyi obucheniya grammatike angliyskogo yazyika na nachalnom etape. [Game techniques of teaching grammar of the English language] Inostrannyie yazyiki v shkole. - M.: Drofa, 2006, 187 p.

6. Shchukin A.N. Obuchenie inostrannyim yazyikam. Teoriya i praktika [The teaching of foreign languages. Theory and practice]. - 3rd ed. - M.: Filomatis, 2007, 200 p.

7. Severina L.G Formirovaniye grammaticheskikh navykov [Grammatical skills formation] retrieved from https: // multiurok.ru/ files/stat-ia-po-anghliisko-mu-iazyku-formirovaniie-ghram.html. (November 20, 2017)

8. Weichman G.A. Novoye v angliyskoy grammatike [New in modern English language grammar]. – Moscow: AST, Astrel, 2014. – 544 p.

9. Konysheva A.V. Sovremenniye metody obucheniya [Modern methods of teaching English]. - Tetrasystems. - Moscow, 2011. - 304 p.



Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №9 - 2017

  
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