Multimedia technologies in EFL education: new learning strategies in academic listening
Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №9 - 2017
Zhubanova Sholpan, Kazakh Ablai khan University of International Relations and World Languages, Kazakhstan
Tukhtabayeva Assel, Kazakh Ablai khan University of International Relations and World Languages, Kazakhstan
khan University of International Relations and World Languages, Kazakhstan
In the present time the level of the country economic development
mostly depends on the intensity of innovative activity: in global competition
only those countries that provide the most favorable conditions for innovations
can score gains. Consequently, the development of innovative economy is one of
the most effective ways to improve the competitiveness of the country. From the
foreign countries’ experience and on their examples it is possible to make a
conclusion that the national innovation system will be effective and will bring
high incomes only if the country’s society has a high level of culture of
innovations perception. The innovations reflected in the new scientific
knowledge, products, technologies, services, stuff qualification and methods of
management are the key factor of competitiveness in all economically developed
For realization of the following tasks in the educational system,
the best solution is multimedia technology, which provides unique opportunities
for the use of innovative methodology in foreign language education.
Now multimedia technologies called "new media,"
"hypermedia," "integrated media," or more commonly
"multimedia" have been defined in a number of ways (Ekinci D., etc.).
"Multimedia", in its broadest sense, means graphics, music, sound
effects, voice, video, and animation, in any combination, in the same program
or presentation (Blumenfeld, 1991. Fensham, 1990; www.aare.edu.au). It can be
defined as an integration of multiple media elements (audio, video, graphics,
text, animation, etc.) into one synergetic and symbiotic whole that results in
more benefits for the end user than any one of the media elements can provide
For educational technology purposes, multimedia refers to
computer-based systems that use associative linkages to allow users to navigate
and retrieve information stored in a combination of text, sounds, graphics,
video, movies, music, lighting and other media as for education (Meyer, 2001;
www. wps. prenhall.com; Sandholtz, 1997; Vanbuel, 2006).
Multimedia's basic technologies include text, maps, graphic images,
electronic presentations, animation, videoconferencing, digital audio and
video, web learning environment, videoconferencing systems (Lieshout and etc,
2001; Phillips, 1997; Behrens, 1996, 1997; Bijnens 2004, 2005; Cleveland,
Since several years ago, education experts had been proposing a new
style of education involving using multimedia, which differs radically from the
traditional ways. Changing the education systems as a new ways is towards a new
paradigm for teach (Rosenberg, 2001). Today, multimedia technology mainly
comprise of the use of technology in the process of teaching and learning. The
term “technology” does not only include the use of latest tools and techniques
like laptops, interactive whiteboards and smart phones; Internet, Wi-Fi,
YouTube and Skype etc., although they are massively preferred by today's
learners for their learning potential, but also encompasses efficient and
enhanced learning management systems, schema of information dissemination,
effective teaching and management of student masses, feedback mechanisms and
performance evaluation methodologies etc.
Multimedia technologies have a lot of advantages such as widely
available, reusable multimedia and decrease pressure on lecturer, better
individual student engagement, globality (Repman, 1993; West, 2006). In fact,
some students may be better able to learn from multimedia than from any other
format. The possibilities of this medium for students with aural or visual
learning style preferences are unprecedented. Reynolds and Anderson (1992)
describe the relevance of multimedia to three objectives of learning:
- Cognitive objectives. Used to teach recognition or discrimination
of applicable visual stimuli and audio stimuli.
- Psychomotor objectives. An excellent tool to recreate real world
- Affective objectives. Interactive multimedia is very useful in the
affective domain. The strength of detailed portrayal of situations and
interactive participation of the learner increases its usefulness for effective
Academic listening (video / audio / film) in EFL education is
impossible to imagine without the use of multimedia technologies. Listening in
the classroom comprises interviews, talk shows, videoconferencing, lectures and
films. It conveys information through two sensory channels: aural and visual.
The richness of these forms of information [images, motion, sound, and, at
times, text] benefits learners, by enabling them “…to learn through both verbal
and visual means, to view actual objects and realistic scenes, to see sequences
in motion, and to view perspectives that are difficult or impossible to observe
in real life” (Wetzel, 1994). In addition, Marshall (2002) details three theories
that explain how learning may occur via well-selected video/audio “based on the
ability of the entertaining media to engage the learner, activate emotional
states, initiate interest in a topic, and allow for absorption and processing
For students, learning English as a second language, video / film / TV/
audio demonstrates communicative language within a language environment and cultural
context (Wood, cited in Aiex, 1999). Video, especially film, provides a social
context for English language learners; it can be played either with the sound
on, so that students hear the language being spoken, or alternatively, with the
sound off, so that learners can use their own language skills to provide the
dialogue or narrative.
Effectively integrating video into classroom instruction involves
preparation and activities before, during and after viewing. Selecting
effective video/audio is an essential component of integrating this medium into
practice and realizing the promise of multimedia in the classroom.
Analyzing the researcher’s works on video / film / audio usage in
educational process, we suggest an innovative technology of Academic Listening
based on requirements of the modern foreign language education, considering
basic principles on using an effective listening and outcomes received from
aural and audio-visual reception.
Instructional planning of academic listening considers the following
- Interactivity principle;
- Language progression principle;
- Teaching listening strategies (predicting, inferring, monitoring,
clarifying, responding, and evaluating);
- The use of different types of listening;
- Variety of tasks.
Within these principles, students should develop the skills of
listening for gist: specific information; detailed understanding; implications;
etc. Educational video / film/ audio can be taken from one of the most exciting
new paths- Video-on-Demand (VOD) systems that make videos available to
classroom teachers, which can be stored on a computer server, where they can be
assessed at any time by teachers or students.
In fact, the ability of VOD systems to assist teachers in locating
and presenting short targeted clips of no more than two to five minutes in
length dovetails exactly with expert recommendations for video usage: “Most educational
experts agree that video is best shown in short segments so as to maximize
learners’ concentration” (Shephard, 2003).
It is clear that this new technology opens many new opportunities
for learning that are just beginning to be explored. As the documented
strengths of film, television and video are made more and more available and
accessible through Video-on-Demand systems, the potential for learning and
exploration opens up before us.
At recent times, the most used linkages and software tools for downloading
movies; creating animated videos; creating a video-based discussions; tools
that allows users to record their speaking on a given topic; creating a high
quality and professional video; creating a video with clips or photos;
recording and editing a 9 minute screen cast videos; creating fun movies;
hosting a video chat with people; setting up collaborative audio discussions;
web walls where students can post videos, images, audio, or text notes;
watching TV, video, or a film with subtitles; listening to media (radio, TV,
recordings, cinema) - ORORO, fmovies, vialogues.com, www. voxopop.com,
Powtoons, Animoto, Magisto, Popcorn Maker, GoAnimate and etc. [See Table 1]. As
for teaching listening to public announcements; listening as a member of a live
audience (public meetings; public lectures) and listening to overhead
conversations- TED talks is an effective form of media that has selected videos
of different talks on various topics (historical, political, economic contexts
etc.) and concludes one of the most significant factors in the success of
language progression. The language user as a listener receives and process a
spoken input proceeded by one or more speakers.
Listening is a language skill that can be acquired with the help of
training as well as any other skills. Students get vital information not only
about grammar and vocabulary but also about pronunciation, rhythm, intonation,
pitch and stress. Moreover, listening to spoken language lets students hear
different varieties and accents of it.
According to Common European Framework of Reference for languages
(CEFR) the following certain requirements for listening materials must be corresponded:
it should be authentic or at least realistic for beginners; depending on the
level of learners the length of the text and the topic of it should be
well-selected, as long tapes on subjects which students are not interested in
will be demotivating and will result in lost comprehension making listening
value less. J. Harmer considers, listening can be effective when it follows a
number of principles: use of pre-listening tasks: listening to every text
twice; making students be encouraged to respond to the content of a listening,
not just to the language; applying different listening tasks for different
listening stages; exploiting listening texts to the full.
The logical framework of our Academic Listening comprises various
tasks designed in the combination within reading, writing and speaking skills
i.e. listening tasks derived on reproduction writing or essay writing;
retelling (monologue) or discussion (dialogue); FCE/PET tests or
derivatives/event details [See Table 2].
It guarantees the students’ better perception of information and
formation of intercultural communicative competence. Moreover, we applied
listening tasks in correspondence within listening stages and activities
before, during and after viewing/ watching/ listening [See Table 3].
The most important factor that should be emphasized is the
significance of listening outcomes (CEFR) depending on the level of learners.
We have taken only two levels B1, B2 as we teach LAP for the 1-2 year students
[See Table 4].
Combination of four skills in one logical framework on the formation
of listening skills guarantees the students’ better perception of information
and formation of intercultural communicative and professional competences in
the easiest way.
Our interactive e-course handout on Academic Listening combining
communicative skills such as writing, reading, speaking (Table 2) is presented
in Moodle at KazUIR&WL. Moodle is a Learning Management System (LMS),
Course Management System (CMS), or Virtual Learning Environment (VLE), which
has a goal to give teachers and students the tools they need to teach and
Instructional techniques being used creatively to develop an
engaging and motivating learning experience. It is a full-length semester
interactive course handout for students of non-linguistic specialties by the
level B1 (II-HC), B2 (III-HC) [See Table 5].
The interactive e-course handout aim to develop a comprehensive
range of competencies in a systematic and coherent way.
1. Intercultural communicative
competence (Kunanbayeva S.S., 2010):
- complicated personal formation, including knowledge of native and
- skills of practical application of the knowledge;
- a set of personality traits that contribute to the realization of
their knowledge, skills;
- practical experience of their use in the interaction with
Intercultural communicative competence includes the following
Cognitive subcompetence provides the
language development as an essential part of cognition process. The humans
perceive the outer world through the cognition development. It gives the opportunity
to step in the second world conceptualization.
Communicative subcompetence - the
ability and willingness to implement the student communicative intentions
Socio-cultural subcompetence, forming a
students’ "secondary cognitive consciousness" as a concept and image
of the world and the formation of another lingua-society in its cognitive
system "secondary structure - knowledge", correlated with knowledge
about the world and language of “textual thematic units".
Lingua-cultural subcompetence, forming a
students’ primary "conceptual picture of the world" on the basis of
their culture as a reflection of the national language lingua-cultural
consciousness and mentality.
2. Digital competence. According to
the European Commission (2006) and the Adecco Institute (2008) technological
and digital competences are among the major skills requirements for future
‘talents’. Digital competence implies a real understanding of many aspects of
the digital workplace and classroom, including hardware, software and
communication. It also includes the ability to find, select, judge and evaluate
good quality online content.
3. Multilingual competence is the ability to communicate in one or more foreign or local languages and to
understand and deal with the diversity of languages.
4. Social competence is the ability
to identify social dilemmas and to achieve a level of social understanding.
5. Civic competence - to develop the
knowledge and skills appropriate to enable effective study, work and leisure
within this context. The new learning generation needs to be equipped with the
skills to “fully participate in civic life, based on knowledge of social and
political concepts and structures and a commitment to active and democratic
Interactive e-course handout is an effective interactive educational
technology for all students, but its positive effect on special populations of
students is gaining greater attention all the time. Interactive e-course
handout may help to promote learning in students with high aural / visual orientation
in their learning styles; it can also provide important learning opportunities
to students working in a second language.
There are numerous advantages for such students when instruction is
supplemented by the use of interactive e-course handout:
First, [video-based contexts] provide rich sources of information
with opportunities to notice sensory images, dynamic features, relevant issues,
and inherent problems. Second, they give students the ability to perceive
dynamic moving events and to more easily form rich mental models. This
advantage is particularly important for lower achieving students and for
students with low knowledge in the domain of interest. Third, interactive
e-course handout allows students to develop skills of pattern recognition which
are related to visual and auditory cues rather than to events labeled by the
teacher. In sum, interactive e-course handout is ideal for creating a common
experience for the teacher and learner that can be used for ‘anchoring’ new
It is clear that new technologies and innovative way of teaching
opens many new opportunities for learning that are just beginning to be
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8. Kunanbayeva S.S. (2010) Theory and practice of
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Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №9 - 2017