Factors affecting the quality of products and organization of its control
Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №9 - 2017
Antipova Olga, Kazakh-American Free University, Kazakhstan
Sarsembaeva Gulnara, Kazakh-American Free University, Kazakhstan
Factor – the driving force, the cause of a process, phenomenon, a
Each enterprise product quality is influenced by many factors, both
internal and external.
External factors in the conditions of market relations contribute to
the formation of product quality. To them in the first place include: the
demands of the market, i.e. customers, competition, etc.
All of these factors are interrelated and affect the quality of the
Internal are those that are linked to the ability of the enterprise
to produce products of good quality, i.e. dependent on the activity of the
enterprise. They are numerous, there are the following groups: technical,
organizational, economic, socio-psychological.
Technical factors most significantly affect product quality, the
introduction of a new technology, the use of new materials, and better quality of
raw – material base for production of competitive products.
Organizational factors associated with improving the organization of
production and labor, production discipline and responsibility for the quality
of products, ensuring the production standards and the appropriate level of
Economic factors caused the costs of production and sales, pricing
and incentives system of staff for the production of high quality products.
Socio-economic factors greatly influence the creation of healthy
working environment, loyalty and pride in the brand of your enterprise, the
moral stimulation of employees – all important components for production of
Forming factors, represent a set of objects and operations that are
specific to particular stages of the technological cycle and is designed to
form set of requirements for commodity research and the production
characteristics. This group includes the demand regulation of commodity
research characteristics of goods, raw materials, formulation or design, production
processes and correction of discrepancies. Forming factors are most important
to pretourney stage and to a lesser extent in the commodity stage.
Demand – the most important factor influencing the formation of all
the characteristics of the goods. It is based on consumer demands, backed by
their ability to pay. This factor is taken into account at all stages
pretourney stage, including the design and development of new products .
Regulation of commodity research characteristics of the product is
at the stage of design and development by translating customer requests into
technical requirements of normative documents. This factor is important in
establishing the essential features of commodity research characteristics by
which to identify them.
Means of regulation of commodity research characteristics are
normative and technological documents, the requirements which must be observed
at all further stages and the stages of the technological life cycle.
Raw materials are one of the fundamental factors shaping the quality
A significant impact on the quality of the products obtained in the
refining process, have the production technology and the quality of work. The
quality of the finished product depends on the level of automation of
production, formulation, observance of technological regime, training, and
quality management throughout the production cycle.
The manufacturer guarantees the product quality, which is confirmed
by the results of the tests performed in the laboratories of QC Department in
accordance with the normative documentation.
Preserving factors represent a set of tools, methods and
environmental conditions affecting the reliability of goods.
The factors that preserve the quality of the food products
containers and packaging materials, the terms and conditions of transportation,
storage and implementation.
Packing – means or a complex of means that provide protection of
product from damage and loss, and the environment from contamination.
The main functions: protection of goods and the environment; minor:
media labeling; contributes to the creation of consumer preferences.
Container – the basic element of packing a product for product
Packing materials are an additional element of packaging, which
protects from mechanical influences.
The system of quality control represented by a set of methods and
means of control and regulation components of external environment that
determine the level of product quality in the stages of strategic marketing, R
& d and production, as well as technical control at all stages of the
Components of the external environment of the system of quality
control for enterprise-level are the results of marketing research, R&d,
raw materials, components, parameters of the organizational-technical level of
production and management system of the enterprise.
One of the conditions of increase of efficiency of control is the
maintenance of regular accounting operation of the management system. Records
should be organized for the implementation of all plans, programs, and jobs on
parameters such as quantity, quality, costs, executors and deadlines.
Accounting of resource consumption it is desirable to organize all types of
resources, manufactured goods, stages of their life cycle and units of an
enterprise. For complex techniques still need to organize automated accounting
failures, costs of operation, maintenance and repair.
Violation of requirements to quality of manufactured products,
leading to increased costs of production and consumption. Therefore, the timely
prevention of possible violations of quality requirements is a mandatory
prerequisite for achieving a specified level of product quality with minimum
production costs. This problem is solved at the enterprises by means of
Technical control is the verification of compliance with technical
requirements to the products quality at all stages of manufacture as well as
production conditions and factors to ensure the required quality.
Objects of technical control of materials and semi-finished products
coming on the enterprise side, the company's products in finished form, and at
all stages of production, technological processes, tools, technological
discipline and General culture of production. Technical control is designed to
provide output that meets the requirements of design and technological
documentation, to promote the manufacture of products with the least
expenditure of time and resources, to provide basic data and materials that can
be used to develop measures to improve product quality and reduce costs.
Technical control is a set of interrelated and carried out in accordance with
the established procedure of control operations. The vast majority of them is
an integral and indispensable part of the production process and therefore lies
with the workers, performing the appropriate operation. However, in order to
ensure the production of adequate quality and avoiding losses in the production
of a series of control operations are performed by team leaders, supervisors
and specialized personnel – employees of factory of technical control
Department (TCD) .
General principles of rational organization of technical control are
– technical inspection should cover all elements and stages of the
– techniques, methods and organizational forms of control must fully
comply with the characteristics of technology, technology and organization of
– the effectiveness of the rational organization of technical
control in General and its separate elements must be justified on sound
– the control system needs to provide a clear and reasonable
distribution of duties and responsibilities between the individual artists and
the various divisions of the enterprise;
– the control system should use efficient methods of statistical
control of motivation .
Depending on the specific challenges facing technical control, there
are the following main types: prevention, acceptance, integrated and special.
Preventive control aims to prevent the emergence of marriage in the
process of production.
Acceptance control is carried out with the aim of identifying and
Integrated control solves both tasks: the prevention and acceptance.
Special control solves specific tasks, e.g. inspection control,
control the operation of products, etc.
Along with the above classification of types and methods of control
used and the classification of control operations according to the following
Depending on the characteristics of the monitored parameters are
– control of geometric shapes and sizes;
– control the appearance of the product and documentation;
– control of physical-mechanical, chemical and other properties of
materials and semi-finished products;
– control of internal defects in products (sinks, cracks, etc.);
– control of technological properties of materials;
– control and acceptance testing;
– control of observance of technological discipline.
Depending on the stage of production release:
– pre - (input) control;
– intermediate control;
– final inspection.
Depending on the extent of the coverage control of manufacturing
operations are distinguished:
– functional control;
– group control to be performed after several manufacturing
The place of execution of the control operations are divided into:
– sliding control operations performed directly on the workplace.
Depending on the object, allocate operations to verify:
– source materials;
– purchase of intermediate products and components;
– products at different stages of production;
– the means of production;
– technological processes;
– documentation, methods, and systems (management) of quality
In terms of competition to win the corresponding market segment can
only imagine the potential consumers with reliable information about product
quality. Based on the need of providing a consumer with objective and
sufficient information about the quality, began to spread this kind of control,
Certification is an activity on acknowledgement of conformity
production to the established requirements. It is an independent organization.
In almost all countries of Western Europe, USA and Japan mandatory certification
is already widespread and is associated generally with safety, health and
environment. In many countries, certification is based on safety laws, product
certification, potentially dangerous to humans and the environment .
Certification is based on the following basic principles:
– ensure public and state interests when assessing the safety of
products and reliability of information about its quality;
– voluntary or mandatory;
– objectivity, i.e. independence from the manufacturer and the
– reliability, i.e. the use of professional testing facilities;
– exclusion of discrimination in the certification of products of
domestic and foreign manufacturers;
– giving the manufacturer the right choice of certification body and
– establishment of responsibility of participants of certification;
– legal and technical support, as well as the versatility of use of
results of certification (certificates and marks of conformity) manufacturer,
trade, consumers, regulators, customs authorities, insurance companies, stock
exchanges, auctions, court;
– openness of information about the positive results of
certification or termination of validity of the certificate;
– a variety of forms and methods of certification of products,
taking into account its specificity, the nature of production and consumption.
Certification involves two stages: the provision and realization of
conditions for the creation and production of products subject to
certification; organization and conducting of product certification as confirmation
of its compliance with the requirements of normative-technical documentation.
Certification includes economic and organizational-technical
aspects. Along with certification of production and products International
organization for standardization (ISO) certification or accreditation of test
centers to certify products. These centers are ISO issues a license for
Certificate of conformity (further – the certificate) – the document
issued by rules of system of certification for confirmation of conformity of
certified products with the established requirements. Mark of conformity –
registered in established order mark, which according to the rules adopted in
this system of certification, confirms conformity of production marked certain
The system of certification of homogeneous production applies to
certain products, processes or services which use the same specific standards,
and the same procedure. The system of certification of homogeneous products
covers various kinds of products, if they are certified according to the same
rules for compliance with the same requirement.
As a normative model shall, as a rule, such standards as ISO 9001.
The preliminary stage is provided for the management of the enterprise, for
example, in the form of "Indicative programme of works to bring corporate
quality system to the level of compliance with the requirements of
international standards ISO 9001".
Can be the following stages of development and implementation of the
Stage I: the Organization works to improve corporate quality system.
The objective of this phase is to provide the most comprehensive and effective
cooperation of all performers and subcontractors involved in the creation and
implementation of quality system in the enterprise. Institutional works include
the following main activities:
– the organizational structure of the quality system at the time of
its development, implementation and operation;
– formation of a preliminary model of the quality system and
methodological approach to its implementation;
– an order for the development and implementation of the program;
– development and approval of the calendar plan of works;
– development and approval of enterprise policy in the field of
– the study of the theory and best practices in quality management;
– the distribution of power and responsibilities among departments
for the quality of products by components of the quality system;
– acquisition of initial data for the pre-project analysis;
– development of methodical documents of the quality system related
to this phase .
Stage II: Survey of specific product, and the analysis of
normative-technical documentation (NTD) in quality. The objective of this phase
is to define the actual implementation of the objectives of the quality system
based on the requirements of the international standards ISO 9001 as well as
identify bottlenecks in the production process and establishing the degree of
their influence on the stability of the quality of the product. The survey of
production condition includes:
– development of methodological materials;
– analysis and assessment of the production elements in a
technological chain of manufacture of the product;
– analysis and assessment of the conformity of the actual results in
the field of quality policy of the enterprise management, quality and quality
requirements of products at different stages of its life cycle.
Comparative analysis of the NTD quality system include: the development
of teaching materials; examination of NTD enterprises according to the existing
quality system; evaluation of the actual implementation of tasks to improve the
quality through implementation of the requirements of international standards
ISO series 9001.
The results of the survey production and analysis of NTD is
developing a technical report with conclusions and proposals. The final stage
of developing a comprehensive programme for improving the current quality
system in relation to the production of specific products based on the
requirements of international standards ISO series 9001.
Stage III: Development of quality system elements. This stage
involves the formation of part of the documentary quality system and includes
the following work:
– development of methodical documents in accordance with the
– development of the project of the basic document of the quality
system, "quality Manual";
– development of source materials to the quality system;
– preparation, coordination and approval of technical tasks for the
development of the quality system documents;
– development of the target scientific and technical program (CNTP)
ensure product quality;
– development of the quality system documents in accordance with the
– completion scientific-methodical assistance to the specialists who
develop the quality system documents;
– examination of documents of the quality system;
– revision of the quality system documents, their coordination and approval.
Stage IV: Practical training elements of the quality system. The
goal of this stage is the organization of work on introduction of the quality
system documents and create the necessary (from the point of view of the
quality system) preconditions the stable manufacture of products in accordance
with established requirements. Practical training elements of the quality
system include the following works:
– practical trainings on the introduction in the production of
certain documents of the system;
– implementation of production system elements;
– validation of a document production system;
– implementation of priority measures CNTP ensure product quality;
– factory training of experts-auditors for internal audit of the
Stage V: Preparation of quality system certification, provides:
– development of the questionnaire (taking into account the
specifics of production of specific products) to evaluate the readiness of the
– automated check of conformity of the developed system of quality
to requirements of international standards ISO 9000 based on the questionnaire;
– internal audit of the quality system;
– evaluation of the results of internal audit of the quality system
and the preparation of recommendations on improvement of separate elements of a
developed quality system;
– revision of the quality system (appropriate changes in the
documents of the system);
– the decision on the timing of the certification (application for
– presentation of quality system to certification .
In the next Chapter of the thesis will analyze the financial
condition and the quality system of the company's products on a specific object
of study - "Kramds-IMT".
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Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №9 - 2017