Factors affecting the quality of products and organization of its control

Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №9 - 2017

Authors:
Antipova Olga, Kazakh-American Free University, Kazakhstan
Sarsembaeva Gulnara, Kazakh-American Free University, Kazakhstan

Factor – the driving force, the cause of a process, phenomenon, a significant circumstance.

Each enterprise product quality is influenced by many factors, both internal and external.

External factors in the conditions of market relations contribute to the formation of product quality. To them in the first place include: the demands of the market, i.e. customers, competition, etc.

All of these factors are interrelated and affect the quality of the products.

Internal are those that are linked to the ability of the enterprise to produce products of good quality, i.e. dependent on the activity of the enterprise. They are numerous, there are the following groups: technical, organizational, economic, socio-psychological.

Technical factors most significantly affect product quality, the introduction of a new technology, the use of new materials, and better quality of raw – material base for production of competitive products.

Organizational factors associated with improving the organization of production and labor, production discipline and responsibility for the quality of products, ensuring the production standards and the appropriate level of personnel qualification.

Economic factors caused the costs of production and sales, pricing and incentives system of staff for the production of high quality products.

Socio-economic factors greatly influence the creation of healthy working environment, loyalty and pride in the brand of your enterprise, the moral stimulation of employees – all important components for production of competitive products.

Forming factors, represent a set of objects and operations that are specific to particular stages of the technological cycle and is designed to form set of requirements for commodity research and the production characteristics. This group includes the demand regulation of commodity research characteristics of goods, raw materials, formulation or design, production processes and correction of discrepancies. Forming factors are most important to pretourney stage and to a lesser extent in the commodity stage.

Demand – the most important factor influencing the formation of all the characteristics of the goods. It is based on consumer demands, backed by their ability to pay. This factor is taken into account at all stages pretourney stage, including the design and development of new products [1].

Regulation of commodity research characteristics of the product is at the stage of design and development by translating customer requests into technical requirements of normative documents. This factor is important in establishing the essential features of commodity research characteristics by which to identify them.

Means of regulation of commodity research characteristics are normative and technological documents, the requirements which must be observed at all further stages and the stages of the technological life cycle.

Raw materials are one of the fundamental factors shaping the quality of goods.

A significant impact on the quality of the products obtained in the refining process, have the production technology and the quality of work. The quality of the finished product depends on the level of automation of production, formulation, observance of technological regime, training, and quality management throughout the production cycle.

The manufacturer guarantees the product quality, which is confirmed by the results of the tests performed in the laboratories of QC Department in accordance with the normative documentation.

Preserving factors represent a set of tools, methods and environmental conditions affecting the reliability of goods.

The factors that preserve the quality of the food products containers and packaging materials, the terms and conditions of transportation, storage and implementation.

Packing – means or a complex of means that provide protection of product from damage and loss, and the environment from contamination.

The main functions: protection of goods and the environment; minor: media labeling; contributes to the creation of consumer preferences.

Container – the basic element of packing a product for product placement.

Packing materials are an additional element of packaging, which protects from mechanical influences.

The system of quality control represented by a set of methods and means of control and regulation components of external environment that determine the level of product quality in the stages of strategic marketing, R & d and production, as well as technical control at all stages of the production process.

Components of the external environment of the system of quality control for enterprise-level are the results of marketing research, R&d, raw materials, components, parameters of the organizational-technical level of production and management system of the enterprise.

One of the conditions of increase of efficiency of control is the maintenance of regular accounting operation of the management system. Records should be organized for the implementation of all plans, programs, and jobs on parameters such as quantity, quality, costs, executors and deadlines. Accounting of resource consumption it is desirable to organize all types of resources, manufactured goods, stages of their life cycle and units of an enterprise. For complex techniques still need to organize automated accounting failures, costs of operation, maintenance and repair.

Violation of requirements to quality of manufactured products, leading to increased costs of production and consumption. Therefore, the timely prevention of possible violations of quality requirements is a mandatory prerequisite for achieving a specified level of product quality with minimum production costs. This problem is solved at the enterprises by means of technical control.

Technical control is the verification of compliance with technical requirements to the products quality at all stages of manufacture as well as production conditions and factors to ensure the required quality.

Objects of technical control of materials and semi-finished products coming on the enterprise side, the company's products in finished form, and at all stages of production, technological processes, tools, technological discipline and General culture of production. Technical control is designed to provide output that meets the requirements of design and technological documentation, to promote the manufacture of products with the least expenditure of time and resources, to provide basic data and materials that can be used to develop measures to improve product quality and reduce costs. Technical control is a set of interrelated and carried out in accordance with the established procedure of control operations. The vast majority of them is an integral and indispensable part of the production process and therefore lies with the workers, performing the appropriate operation. However, in order to ensure the production of adequate quality and avoiding losses in the production of a series of control operations are performed by team leaders, supervisors and specialized personnel – employees of factory of technical control Department (TCD) [2].

General principles of rational organization of technical control are as follows:

– technical inspection should cover all elements and stages of the production process;

– techniques, methods and organizational forms of control must fully comply with the characteristics of technology, technology and organization of production;

– the effectiveness of the rational organization of technical control in General and its separate elements must be justified on sound economic calculations;

– the control system needs to provide a clear and reasonable distribution of duties and responsibilities between the individual artists and the various divisions of the enterprise;

– the control system should use efficient methods of statistical control of motivation [3].

Depending on the specific challenges facing technical control, there are the following main types: prevention, acceptance, integrated and special.

Preventive control aims to prevent the emergence of marriage in the process of production.

Acceptance control is carried out with the aim of identifying and isolating marriage.

Integrated control solves both tasks: the prevention and acceptance.

Special control solves specific tasks, e.g. inspection control, control the operation of products, etc.

Along with the above classification of types and methods of control used and the classification of control operations according to the following criteria.

Depending on the characteristics of the monitored parameters are distinguished:

– control of geometric shapes and sizes;

– control the appearance of the product and documentation;

– control of physical-mechanical, chemical and other properties of materials and semi-finished products;

– control of internal defects in products (sinks, cracks, etc.);

– control of technological properties of materials;

– control and acceptance testing;

– control of observance of technological discipline.

Depending on the stage of production release:

– pre - (input) control;

– intermediate control;

– final inspection.

Depending on the extent of the coverage control of manufacturing operations are distinguished:

– functional control;

– group control to be performed after several manufacturing operations.

The place of execution of the control operations are divided into:

– stationary;

– sliding control operations performed directly on the workplace.

Depending on the object, allocate operations to verify:

– source materials;

– purchase of intermediate products and components;

– products at different stages of production;

– the means of production;

– technological processes;

– documentation, methods, and systems (management) of quality products.

In terms of competition to win the corresponding market segment can only imagine the potential consumers with reliable information about product quality. Based on the need of providing a consumer with objective and sufficient information about the quality, began to spread this kind of control, certification.

Certification is an activity on acknowledgement of conformity production to the established requirements. It is an independent organization. In almost all countries of Western Europe, USA and Japan mandatory certification is already widespread and is associated generally with safety, health and environment. In many countries, certification is based on safety laws, product certification, potentially dangerous to humans and the environment [4].

Certification is based on the following basic principles:

– ensure public and state interests when assessing the safety of products and reliability of information about its quality;

– voluntary or mandatory;

– objectivity, i.e. independence from the manufacturer and the consumer;

– reliability, i.e. the use of professional testing facilities;

– exclusion of discrimination in the certification of products of domestic and foreign manufacturers;

– giving the manufacturer the right choice of certification body and testing laboratory;

– establishment of responsibility of participants of certification;

– legal and technical support, as well as the versatility of use of results of certification (certificates and marks of conformity) manufacturer, trade, consumers, regulators, customs authorities, insurance companies, stock exchanges, auctions, court;

– openness of information about the positive results of certification or termination of validity of the certificate;

– a variety of forms and methods of certification of products, taking into account its specificity, the nature of production and consumption.

Certification involves two stages: the provision and realization of conditions for the creation and production of products subject to certification; organization and conducting of product certification as confirmation of its compliance with the requirements of normative-technical documentation.

Certification includes economic and organizational-technical aspects. Along with certification of production and products International organization for standardization (ISO) certification or accreditation of test centers to certify products. These centers are ISO issues a license for certification.

Certificate of conformity (further – the certificate) – the document issued by rules of system of certification for confirmation of conformity of certified products with the established requirements. Mark of conformity – registered in established order mark, which according to the rules adopted in this system of certification, confirms conformity of production marked certain requirements.

The system of certification of homogeneous production applies to certain products, processes or services which use the same specific standards, and the same procedure. The system of certification of homogeneous products covers various kinds of products, if they are certified according to the same rules for compliance with the same requirement.

As a normative model shall, as a rule, such standards as ISO 9001. The preliminary stage is provided for the management of the enterprise, for example, in the form of "Indicative programme of works to bring corporate quality system to the level of compliance with the requirements of international standards ISO 9001".

Can be the following stages of development and implementation of the mentioned programme:

Stage I: the Organization works to improve corporate quality system. The objective of this phase is to provide the most comprehensive and effective cooperation of all performers and subcontractors involved in the creation and implementation of quality system in the enterprise. Institutional works include the following main activities:

– the organizational structure of the quality system at the time of its development, implementation and operation;

– formation of a preliminary model of the quality system and methodological approach to its implementation;

– an order for the development and implementation of the program;

– development and approval of the calendar plan of works;

– development and approval of enterprise policy in the field of quality;

– the study of the theory and best practices in quality management;

– the distribution of power and responsibilities among departments for the quality of products by components of the quality system;

– acquisition of initial data for the pre-project analysis;

– development of methodical documents of the quality system related to this phase [5].

Stage II: Survey of specific product, and the analysis of normative-technical documentation (NTD) in quality. The objective of this phase is to define the actual implementation of the objectives of the quality system based on the requirements of the international standards ISO 9001 as well as identify bottlenecks in the production process and establishing the degree of their influence on the stability of the quality of the product. The survey of production condition includes:

– development of methodological materials;

– analysis and assessment of the production elements in a technological chain of manufacture of the product;

– analysis and assessment of the conformity of the actual results in the field of quality policy of the enterprise management, quality and quality requirements of products at different stages of its life cycle.

Comparative analysis of the NTD quality system include: the development of teaching materials; examination of NTD enterprises according to the existing quality system; evaluation of the actual implementation of tasks to improve the quality through implementation of the requirements of international standards ISO series 9001.

The results of the survey production and analysis of NTD is developing a technical report with conclusions and proposals. The final stage of developing a comprehensive programme for improving the current quality system in relation to the production of specific products based on the requirements of international standards ISO series 9001.

Stage III: Development of quality system elements. This stage involves the formation of part of the documentary quality system and includes the following work:

– development of methodical documents in accordance with the approved program;

– development of the project of the basic document of the quality system, "quality Manual";

– development of source materials to the quality system;

– preparation, coordination and approval of technical tasks for the development of the quality system documents;

– development of the target scientific and technical program (CNTP) ensure product quality;

– development of the quality system documents in accordance with the approved program;

– completion scientific-methodical assistance to the specialists who develop the quality system documents;

– examination of documents of the quality system;

– revision of the quality system documents, their coordination and approval.

Stage IV: Practical training elements of the quality system. The goal of this stage is the organization of work on introduction of the quality system documents and create the necessary (from the point of view of the quality system) preconditions the stable manufacture of products in accordance with established requirements. Practical training elements of the quality system include the following works:

– practical trainings on the introduction in the production of certain documents of the system;

– implementation of production system elements;

– validation of a document production system;

– implementation of priority measures CNTP ensure product quality;

– factory training of experts-auditors for internal audit of the quality system.

Stage V: Preparation of quality system certification, provides:

– development of the questionnaire (taking into account the specifics of production of specific products) to evaluate the readiness of the quality system;

– automated check of conformity of the developed system of quality to requirements of international standards ISO 9000 based on the questionnaire;

– internal audit of the quality system;

– evaluation of the results of internal audit of the quality system and the preparation of recommendations on improvement of separate elements of a developed quality system;

– revision of the quality system (appropriate changes in the documents of the system);

– the decision on the timing of the certification (application for certification);

– presentation of quality system to certification [6].

In the next Chapter of the thesis will analyze the financial condition and the quality system of the company's products on a specific object of study - "Kramds-IMT".

REFERENCES

1. Nagle T., Holden R. Strategiya i taktika tsenoobrazovaniya. Rukovodstvo dlya prinyatiya resheniy, prinosyashchikh pribil [The Strategy and Tactics of Pricing: A Guide to Growing More Profitably]. – SPb.: "Piter", 2015. – p. 410.

2. Damari R. Finansy i predprinimatelstvo: finansoviye instrumenty, ispolzuyemiye zapadnymi firmami dlya rosta i razvitiya organizatsiy [Finance and Entrepreneurship: Financial Tools Used by Western Companies for Their Growth and Development]. - Yaroslavl: "Elen", 2016. – p. 170.

3. Kovalev V.V. Vvedeniye v menedzhment [Introduction to Management]. – M.: "Finansy i Statistika", 2014. – p. 560.

4. Nikolaeva T. P. Bizness ekonomika: uchebno-metodicheskoye possobiye [Business Economics: Teaching Material]. – M.: EOI. 2014. – p. 311.

5. Andreev A.N. Kachestvo produkta [Product Quality]. – Penza: Publishing house of PIROU, 2015. – p. 188.

6. Dyussembayev K.Sh. Analiz finansovoy otchetnosti [Analysis of the Financial Reports]. - Almaty: Ekonomika, 2015. – p. 184.



Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №9 - 2017

  
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