Time management and competitiveness of the organization

Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №9 - 2017

Kenzhetayev Kanat, Kazakh American Free University, Kazakhstan
Bordiyanu Ilona, Kazakh-American Free University, Kazakhstan

In the 21st century, the management of such an intangible and at the same time irreplaceable resource, as time, becomes extremely important. The rational use of time occupies a special place in the activity of the head.

This is due, firstly, to the need, to be able to focus on solving strategic issues, and secondly, the desire to respond quickly to changes in the environment, which is highly dynamic. One of the tools to increase the adaptability is the corporate implementation of time management technologies as an element of the organization's management system.

Traditionally, "time management" is a division of general management. However, at present, time management is experiencing a period of its formation as one of the special disciplines of the administrative sphere of scientific and practical knowledge.

D. Litvak considers time management as a concept. According to him, the management of these four things is carried out with time management. Thus, the techniques used are not aimed at achieving more, but in order to achieve more [1].

Effective time management implies carefully planned planning of each day, which should be made before this day in the evening. It is planning, if, of course, it is adhered to, will save a lot of time. The plan is better to write down on a piece of paper, and then, as the implementation of a particular item, delete it and, if necessary, add a new one.

According to the principles of time management, it is desirable to divide all matters in terms of three groups. The first of these includes the primary, non-susceptible, cases and alleged problems that may arise in the day to be planned. Problems for effective time management, you need to define no more than two. All these questions, no matter what feelings they cause, must be decided on the exact date on which they are scheduled.

The second group of the plan is important, but important, but not immediately required. They can be done if a part of something timed for something else is suddenly released on the scheduled day. If you do something important, but not urgent, this day will not succeed, eventually it will move from the second group of the plan to the first.

The third group of the plan for personal time management consists of small routine cases. These little things need not only be taken into account in planning, but also eliminated as quickly as possible - they have the peculiarity of bringing discord into any, even very well organized, activity.

The composition of such groups is especially important if time management is applied in the organization of medium and more scale. It helps to determine the most significant moments of work of all employees of this organization, including their management team. However, to increase the productivity of the team, one grouping will not be enough. According to the rules of time management, every major business in the planning should be divided into several subparagraphs. In these subparagraphs, the objectives of the performance of a particular work, ways of achieving the goals and the main tasks of this work should be described in detail. Then for each group of cases it is necessary to determine the optimal time, when they will be performed, and the approximate duration of execution [2].

Any activity within the organization is subject to normalization and accounting. The labor of personnel connected with obtaining a material and material result is easier to normalize and study the costs of work, and consequently it is easier to identify losses and to reduce these losses, as a result, to increase labor productivity. The work of management personnel, service providers, to a lesser extent, can be measured and evaluated.

Methods for reducing the loss of working time:

1. The Pareto principle;

2. ABC analysis;

3. The Eisenhower Principle;

The Pareto principle (Figure 1).

This principle can be called universal, that is, applicable to many spheres of public life. In general terms, the Pareto principle says: 20% of efforts give 80% of the result, and the remaining 80% of efforts give only 20% of the result. This applies to the company's customers, and the goods sold by the enterprise, and the time it takes to accomplish the tasks set.

The conclusion suggests itself: first to think, to take a balanced, meaningful decision, and only then to get down to business, not shying from side to side and not simultaneously grasping at all the business at once. Urgent matters should either be done, or entrusted to others, but also immediately, without delaying their decision. Those things that can wait should not just be put aside, but you must set a time, specific and precise, when they are done, and the corresponding item should be written down in your plan.

Картинки по запросу the pareto principle

Figure 1

ABC analysis

ABC-analysis - a method that allows you to classify the firm's resources in terms of their importance. This analysis is one of the methods of rationalization and can be applied in the sphere of activity of any enterprise.

The essence of this method is that all tasks are divided by letters in accordance with their significance.

In accordance with this figure, we can trace the following pattern:

- A - the most important category, account for 15% of the total tasks, have a significance of 65%;

- B - not a particularly important category, account for 20% of common cases, significance at 20%;

- C - insignificant cases, account for 65% of all tasks, the significance is only 15%.

The technique of using the ABC analysis consists of the following steps;

1. Create a list of tasks;

2. Set the order of cases in accordance with their importance;

3. Number the tasks;

4. Evaluate in accordance with categories A, B, C;

5. Decide whether to transfer tasks belonging to categories B and C.

The Eisenhower Principle

The Eisenhower Principle is a fairly effective method for obtaining prioritization skills. The method is simple enough. At the same time, all priorities are ranked according to the criteria of importance and urgency. Based on this, all tasks can be divided into 4 groups:

- Urgent and important matters. These cases must be carried out immediately.

- Urgent and unimportant matters. Since they are urgent, the manager can stop all their attention on them. But since it is not important, it must be delegated to a subordinate.

- Unordinary and important matters. These types of tasks must also be delegated to their subordinates.

- Unremitting and unimportant. Tasks of this category should be "thrown into the basket", as their implementation will not bring any result, but in return it takes a lot of time.

The technique of using the Eisenhower method:

1. Make a list of tasks for the day, that is, all the cases that need to be performed during the working day need to be written out either on paper or in electronic form;

2. Prioritize each task, that is, each task should be ranked according to the criterion of importance and urgency;

3. All the tasks should be written in the quadrant of the matrix in accordance with the group, that is, it is necessary to construct the Eisenhower matrix and, in accordance with the prioritized priorities, make a suitable quadrant of the matrix.

Картинки по запросу eisenhower matrix

Figure 2

The Eisenhower matrix is four quadrants, based on two axes - the axis of importance (vertically) and the axis of urgency (horizontally). As a result, it turns out that each quadrant differs in its quality indicators. In each of the quadrants all tasks and deeds are recorded, thanks to which an extremely clear and objective picture of what should be done in the first place is formed, than - in the second, and what not to do at all.

To facilitate the processing of observation results, we will use the typical indexation of time spent using the symbols of the elements of the production process and the various positions of the worker when performing labor activities [3].

The following types of indexing are distinguished:

1. Indexing the costs of working hours by types:

- VR - operating time;

- OLT - time to rest;

- PNR - the time of breaks due to violations of operating modes or shortcomings in the organization of production;

- HDPE - time of breaks due to violations of labor discipline.

2. Indexing the cost of working time on the content of labor:

- О - time of the basic work;

- PZ - preparatory-final time;

- ORM - time for servicing the workplace.

We will analyze the costs of working hours in the following areas:

1. Extent of use of working time.

To assess the effectiveness of the use of working time, you can apply the coefficient of extensiveness, reflecting the use of the fund of working time:

Extent of use of working hours

Without taking into account the time for rest and personal needs:

Index = (F - (PNR + OLT + HDPE)) / Ф = 1 - (PNR + OLT + HDPE) / F;

Index = 1 - (5 + 85) / 570 = 0.84;

The normative value of index without taking into account the rest time is 0.94, so the workflow is organized inadequately rational, the deviations are -0.1.

2. Rational use of working time is reflected in the following indicators, presented in Table 1.

After analyzing the data presented in the table, it can be noted that the estimated value of the time factor of the preparatory work and the time factor for servicing the workplace is 4.3% and 6.6%, respectively, above the normative value. The coefficient of rationality of using the main working time is lower than the normative value by 6.6% [4].

To implement the reserve for the use of working time management needs to strengthen work on monitoring the labor discipline of personnel, as well as to organize the organizational and technical supply of jobs. The implementation of these measures will increase the efficiency of the use of working time and increase the productivity of staff.

The main consequences of ineffective use of working time are that the effectiveness of the organization suffers because of the improper distribution of employee time, there are constant braking of work due to lack of time, the probability of "losing" tasks or their late execution increases, the "management capacity" Department, the stress of the staff, which leads to diseases, is increased, and this, in turn, is sick days. Therefore, it is necessary to rationalize the working day in the company, in the department or at individual employees.

Proposals for improving time management.

Step 1. List of tasks. In the formed plan of the day are listed all the tasks that are necessary or important for the next day. In the "tasks" column, you must specify the following information:

1. Cases from the plan for a week or a month.

2. Tasks that were not fulfilled the day before.

3. Periodically arising goals.

4. Added tasks.

Step 2. Estimate the duration of the task. A realistic plan should contain a list of tasks that can be truly achieved. Therefore, before you start to manage time, you should estimate the estimated duration of the necessary measures. In assessing the duration of cases, it is impossible to achieve complete accuracy. However, experience allows us to state - enough a week's experience in this technique to achieve accuracy of 85-90%. When the time interval appears, the performer will be more precise in keeping within the allotted time, effectively coping with the assigned tasks.

An important condition - when determining the time limit for solving problems, you need to specify not only the time for a particular task, but also specify when you plan to start it and when to complete it.

Step 3. Reservation of time. When drawing up a plan, the first main council should be taken into account - it should cover no more than 60% of the working time. The rest of the time becomes a reserve for important cases, not planned initially, but still arising in the work of everyone. If the working tasks in the completed table exceed 60% of your working time, you can recommend the following steps:

- Give up one of the items or postpone it the next day;

- Identify your priorities, the importance is given to the delegation of tasks, reducing the time spent for these tasks;

- Reduction of time expenditures for each item in its schedule;

- If the tasks are beyond the time frame, they should be canceled or transferred to the next day.

Step 4. Setting priorities and delegating tasks. When planning the time, you should determine the priorities of the tasks, taking up delegation - to save time for each task. Three types of priorities are set - a (important and urgent tasks), b (something one - urgent or important), c (current day-to-day tasks). For each day should be planned no more than 3 tasks a, no more than 6 tasks b and not more than 7 c.

As a result, you will be able to avoid unnecessary tasks, saving your time, saving only important goals from your area of responsibility.

Step 5. Monitoring the results. Based on this scheme, we begin the execution of tasks, controlling the result and observing the allocated time. Tasks that they did not manage to cope with are being carried over to the next day.

The benefits of these events are enormous: first, it becomes possible to plan the work accordingly and prioritize in all areas.

Despite the fact that each method can exist separately, the greatest effect will be achieved only when all recommendations are implemented.

The application of these methods does not require large financial investments and a long time to prepare for implementation, but in this case it requires self-monitoring and systematic implementation [5].


1. Litvak D. (2013). Time management and achievement striving for sale. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81, 821-826.

2. Xiting, H., & Zhijie, Z. (2015). The compiling of adolescence time management disposition inventory. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 33, 338-343.

3. Macan, T.H. (2014). Time management: Test of a process model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79 (3), 381-391.

4. Hojer V. (2015). Management in organizations. - M.: Publishing house "Progress".

5. Orlikowsky, W.J. & Yates, J. (2013). Its about time: Temporal structuring in organizations. Organization Science, 13, 684-700.

Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №9 - 2017

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