Directed development of motives and needs as a factor of active inclusion of students of high school students in the process of physical education

Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №9 - 2017

Authors:
Uanbayev Erkin, Kazakh-American Free University, Kazakhstan
Russanov Vassiliy , Doctor of pedagogical sciences, Professor of the Department of Theory and Methodology of Physical Education and Sports, S. Amanzholov East Kazakhstan State University, Kazakhstan

Over the recent years, an increased attention has been paid to the health of children, which, first of all, is associated with the increase in their disease incidence during schooling and the subsequent decline in performance efficiency in their higher education training and professional activities. At the same time, the most significant increase in the incidence of diseases occurs in the age periods coinciding with students’ school years, when they spend more than 70% of their wakeful state in schools which are supposed to preserve and strengthen students’ health.

Preservation and strengthening of health, raising the level of physical preparedness of the younger generation is the most important task of the modern school. The school is one of the most important educational institutions, which should lay the fundamentals of students' health should, developing the needs for active PE training as a vital value.

At the present time, this work is most often characterized by an unsystematic character, insufficient use of modern means and methods of physical education, new technologies for recovery, diagnostics, treatment and rehabilitation poor sports facilities. All this is exacerbated, in the majority of cases, by disorder and chaotic organization of students' life: untimely food intake, systematic lack of sleep, low exposure to fresh air, insufficient physical activity, lack of procedures developing resistance to cold, smoking, etc. [1].

Among the factors that ensure the preservation and strengthening of students' health, raising the level of their physical and functional preparedness, the leading role belongs to physical education and sports. Here, the use of physical exercises, natural forces, hygienic factors develop a positive attitude of high school students to a healthy lifestyle, a habit of constant motion, a conscious attitude to their physical and moral health and personal physical culture.

At the same time, an analysis of the results of research carried out over the recent years has shown that modern students are characterized by low indicators of the development of structural elements of physical education: knowledge, skills, physical development and physical preparedness [2, 3]. The main reason for this situation, in our opinion, is the contradiction between the complexity of solving problems of developing the motivational and value-related attitude of students to PE classes and unsuccessful attempts to solve them with the generally accepted ways.

The strategic task of the development of physical education and sports in Kazakhstan, at the present stage is the development by the younger generation of the basic values of physical culture that ensure the strengthening of students’ physical and moral health, increase in their mental and physical performance.

Experience shows that with the help of the traditional organization of physical education in school, these goals are not fully achieved due to the fact that the PE classes are not always interesting for students and often do not correspond to their desires, needs and interests.

In this connection, the question of the need to search for new approaches to physical education of the younger generation and, first and foremost, new approaches in the methodology of planning PE classes as the main form of the educational process become relevant.

To solve this problem, we interviewed 25 school PE teachers in Ust-Kamenogorsk, who were unanimous in their answers claiming that the main task of physical education is to increase students’ physical fitness, expand the range of their physical skills and instill in students the need for regular PE classes, so that they became an organic part of their way of life. This, in their opinion, will ensure that students preserve their mental and physical health, increase the adaptive capacity of the body to overcome the risk of various diseases.

At the same time, they pointed out that one of the main problems of school physical education lies in poor preparedness and low motivation of most students to apply knowledge in the field of physical education for their health improvement and physical perfection.

Thus, there is a reasonable question whether it is possible to develop the need for physical self-improvement in schoolchildren by methods of coercion. All previous experience in this area shows that this is impossible. And if we do not use a fundamentally new approach to planning and conducting PE classes, the situation is unlikely to improve.

The main task here is to raise the schoolchildren from the level of the passive performers of the school PE curriculum to the level where they actively shape their bodies, improve health, motivation and interest in physical education.

In order to approach the solution of this problem objectively, we also interviewed high school students, who were actively involved in the process of physical education, i.e. students with the well-developed personal physical culture, to find out the main factors that prompted them to do so. The results of the survey showed that out of a rather large number of factors the overwhelming majority of schoolchildren (85-93%) chose the following:

- optimal physical activity;

- sufficient level of theoretical knowledge in the field of physical education and sports;

- an extensive set of various motor and physical skills necessary for independent exercising;

- good health and good physical training.

The results of this study served as the basis for the development and experimental substantiation of the program for the development of the need for active PE classes in high school students through the practical implementation of the identified factors in classes and extra-curricular activities.

The high school students of Ust-Kamenogorsk secondary schools #17 and #26 (26 boys and 22 girls) participated in the experiment. At the time of the study, they were not motivated to take active PE classes.

The two-year approbation (2015-2017) of this program showed a significant increase (by 32-35%) in the number of students who actively joined the process of physical education. High school students demonstrated a higher level of theoretical knowledge, the range of their physical skills and expanded, their physical activity and physical preparedness have considerably raised.

It is very important that during the experiment the schoolchildren significantly strengthened their health and this positively affected:

- their behavior (they became more energetic, goal-oriented, they developed a feeling of their physical and psychological and emotional attractiveness, etc.);

- mental state (they were generally well-balanced, neurologically and-psychologically resistant, they became more purposeful, persistent in achieving their goals, resolute, self-reliant, etc.);

- physical and functional development - in improving adaptation processes, increasing efficiency and training; reduction of morbidity; more rapid and full recovery processes after physical and mental activity, etc.

The research revealed that attitudes toward physical training in schoolchildren had changed only after their functional and physical performance indicators had improved and when they had acquired the necessary theoretical knowledge. Interviewed students noted that they began to enjoying physical exercises (87.6%), they became ill less often (45.3%), became physically stronger (89.8%), their academic performance improved (35.7%), etc.

One of the fundamental conditions for the development of motivations and needs for physical education classes in schoolchildren is the optimization of their physical activity. It has long been known that one cannot force a student to engage in any physical activity and take care of one's health. We need certain incentives, motives, which are mostly absent in modern schoolchildren. The students should want to change attitudes toward themselves, and a PE should help them in this [4, 5].

To maintain the optimal level of physical activity (PA) of schoolchildren, their correct physical development and physical preparedness, various means and methods of physical education were used. Thus, the school PE class (45 minutes) compensates on average 11-20% of the necessary daily physical activity.

When physical activity of a PE class is high, this indicator can increase to 35-40%. During the days when there are PE classes on the students’ schedule, the deficit of their PA is 30%on average; when there are no PE classes scheduled, PA deficit increases to 70% [6, 7].

The key element in solving the problem of activating PA of high school students is the question of the purpose and content of a school PE class and the selection of appropriate methods for its organization. The most realistic approach here is the use of a sports-oriented approach in physical education aimed at mastering the values of popular sports [8].

 The sports orientation of physical exercises relied, first of all, on the principle of consistency, which provides for the use of PE sessions 4-5 times a week (both curricular and extracurricular), which made it possible to provide:

- Increase in the physical activity of schoolchildren through using means and methods of sports training acceptable for achieving the goals of physical education in school;

- Full development of the basic physical qualities and the formation of a wide- range set of different physical skills and abilities.

It is important that sports-oriented activities had a health-saving orientation associated with the use of moderate-intensity physical loads of locomotion, which stimulate mental activity of schoolchildren, increase their motivation and value attitude to the process of physical education. All this turned out to be possible only when we focused on the interests, needs and motives of schoolchildren in building a healthy, strong body, when they received knowledge and practical skills of self-control and self-management of their physical condition and psyche.

To optimize PA, PE classes were accompanied by sports and health and health-improving events in the school daily routine (gymnastics before classes, PA breaks, etc.), as well as extra-curricular forms of exercise: General Physical Preparedness groups, school sports sections, classes in the Youth Sports School, etc. All of these measures fit into the daily 2-3-hour PA requirement and compensated for the PA deficit in students [9, 10].

Of great importance for the optimization of schoolchildren's PA were independent physical exercises: in the yard, in the family, out of doors, etc. It was also important to teach students during their PE class various physical skills (especially sports and active games) that they could use for their physical perfection in their free time.

An important direction in the development of motives and needs for the active PE sessions is the theoretical training of students in the field of physical education. Theoretical knowledge of the positive physical and functional changes occurring in the human body during physical exercises, which were received by schoolchildren during their PE classed, encouraged them to actively engage in physical activities and sports, helped them to use physical exercises to promote health and physical self-improvement [11].

Also, to maintain an active interest in physical education and sports, we systematically gave the students information that revealed the importance of performing a given exercise or a training task. For example, when we started training in a base jump, we explained that jumping over a wooden horse strengthens the strength of muscles, develops coordination of movements, etc.

During the research, it was revealed that the formation of effective motives is an indispensable condition for the successful formation of active, sustainable interest of students in physical education. School-based internship and scientific research show that interest in PE significantly increases when the student achieves significant changes in physical development in a fairly short period of time. The student has a feeling of “inspiration by success”, which contributes to the development of an active interest in physical education and sports [12, 13].

Also, it was revealed that one of the main conditions in the successful formation of motivation and the need physical activities and sports in students is the availability of appropriate abilities skills from different sports. This allowed the students to have freedom of action in the process of independent physical exercise [14].

This was also promoted by the proper level of development of physical qualities in students: strength, speed, endurance, agility and flexibility. Only a sufficient level of development of these qualities allowed the students to actively engage in the process of physical education, to be equal among peers in PE classes, sports competitions, etc.

One of the main means of forming a value-oriented attitude to the physical education in schoolchildren is the regular organization of sports events, which were mostly of recreational and entertaining character and focused on the participation of the maximum possible number of students. High school students enjoyed participating in these competitions satisfied their need for movements, strengthened their health, etc. It is important, however, that these competitions were well organized and didn’t last too long, so that the participants and spectators did not lose interest in them.

Thus, it can be stated that the development of the need for active physical exercise is a completely manageable process. Achievement of the set goals here was possible through the creation of certain conditions (strong health, optimal physical activity, a sufficient set of motor skills and developed physical qualities) that motivate and stimulate this activity. Through acquired knowledge and active physical exercises, schoolchildren, found a personal meaning in PE training sessions and consciously joined in this process.

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Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №9 - 2017

  
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