Directed development of
motives and needs as a factor of active inclusion of students of high school
students in the process of physical education
Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №9 - 2017
Uanbayev Erkin, Kazakh-American Free University, Kazakhstan
, Doctor of pedagogical sciences, Professor of the Department of Theory and Methodology of Physical Education and Sports, S. Amanzholov East Kazakhstan State University, Kazakhstan
Over the recent years, an increased
attention has been paid to the health of children, which, first of all, is
associated with the increase in their disease incidence during schooling and
the subsequent decline in performance efficiency in their higher education
training and professional activities. At the same time, the most significant
increase in the incidence of diseases occurs in the age periods coinciding with
students’ school years, when they spend more than 70% of their wakeful state in
schools which are supposed to preserve and strengthen students’ health.
Preservation and strengthening of
health, raising the level of physical preparedness of the younger generation is
the most important task of the modern school. The school is one of the most
important educational institutions, which should lay the fundamentals of
students' health should, developing the needs for active PE training as a vital
At the present time, this work is
most often characterized by an unsystematic character, insufficient use of
modern means and methods of physical education, new technologies for recovery,
diagnostics, treatment and rehabilitation poor sports facilities. All this is
exacerbated, in the majority of cases, by disorder and chaotic organization of
students' life: untimely food intake, systematic lack of sleep, low exposure to
fresh air, insufficient physical activity, lack of procedures developing
resistance to cold, smoking, etc. .
Among the factors that ensure the
preservation and strengthening of students' health, raising the level of their
physical and functional preparedness, the leading role belongs to physical education
and sports. Here, the use of physical exercises, natural forces, hygienic
factors develop a positive attitude of high school students to a healthy
lifestyle, a habit of constant motion, a conscious attitude to their physical
and moral health and personal physical culture.
At the same time, an analysis of the
results of research carried out over the recent years has shown that modern
students are characterized by low indicators of the development of structural
elements of physical education: knowledge, skills, physical development and
physical preparedness [2, 3]. The main reason for this situation, in our
opinion, is the contradiction between the complexity of solving problems of
developing the motivational and value-related attitude of students to PE
classes and unsuccessful attempts to solve them with the generally accepted
The strategic task of the
development of physical education and sports in Kazakhstan, at the present
stage is the development by the younger generation of the basic values of
physical culture that ensure the strengthening of students’ physical and moral
health, increase in their mental and physical performance.
Experience shows that with the help
of the traditional organization of physical education in school, these goals are
not fully achieved due to the fact that the PE classes are not always
interesting for students and often do not correspond to their desires, needs
In this connection, the question of
the need to search for new approaches to physical education of the younger
generation and, first and foremost, new approaches in
the methodology of planning PE classes as the main form of the educational
process become relevant.
To solve this problem, we
interviewed 25 school PE teachers in Ust-Kamenogorsk, who were unanimous in
their answers claiming that the main task of physical education is to increase
students’ physical fitness, expand the range of their
physical skills and instill in students the need for regular PE classes, so
that they became an organic part of their way of life. This, in their opinion,
will ensure that students preserve their mental and physical health, increase
the adaptive capacity of the body to overcome the risk of various diseases.
At the same time, they pointed out
that one of the main problems of school physical education lies in poor
preparedness and low motivation of most students to apply knowledge in the
field of physical education for their health improvement and physical
Thus, there is a reasonable question
whether it is possible to develop the need for physical self-improvement in
schoolchildren by methods of coercion. All previous experience in this area
shows that this is impossible. And if we do not use a fundamentally new
approach to planning and conducting PE classes, the situation is unlikely to
The main task here is to raise the
schoolchildren from the level of the passive performers of the school PE
curriculum to the level where they actively shape their bodies, improve health,
motivation and interest in physical education.
In order to approach the solution of
this problem objectively, we also interviewed high school students, who were
actively involved in the process of physical education, i.e. students with the
well-developed personal physical culture, to find out the main factors that
prompted them to do so. The results of the survey showed that out of a rather
large number of factors the overwhelming majority of schoolchildren (85-93%)
chose the following:
level of theoretical knowledge in the field of physical education and sports;
extensive set of various motor and physical skills necessary for independent
health and good physical training.
The results of this study served as
the basis for the development and experimental substantiation of the program
for the development of the need for active PE classes in high school students
through the practical implementation of the identified factors in classes and
The high school students of Ust-Kamenogorsk secondary
schools #17 and #26 (26 boys and 22 girls) participated in the experiment. At
the time of the study, they were not motivated to take active PE classes.
The two-year approbation (2015-2017)
of this program showed a significant increase (by 32-35%) in the number of
students who actively joined the process of physical education. High school
students demonstrated a higher level of theoretical knowledge, the range of
their physical skills and expanded, their physical activity and physical
preparedness have considerably raised.
It is very important that during the
experiment the schoolchildren significantly strengthened their health and this
behavior (they became more energetic, goal-oriented, they developed a feeling
of their physical and psychological and emotional attractiveness, etc.);
state (they were generally well-balanced, neurologically and-psychologically
resistant, they became more purposeful, persistent in achieving their goals,
resolute, self-reliant, etc.);
- physical and functional
development - in improving adaptation processes, increasing efficiency and
training; reduction of morbidity; more rapid and full recovery processes after
physical and mental activity, etc.
The research revealed that attitudes
toward physical training in schoolchildren had changed only after their
functional and physical performance indicators had improved and when they had
acquired the necessary theoretical knowledge. Interviewed students noted that
they began to enjoying physical exercises (87.6%), they became ill less often
(45.3%), became physically stronger (89.8%), their academic performance
improved (35.7%), etc.
One of the fundamental conditions
for the development of motivations and needs for physical education classes in
schoolchildren is the optimization of their physical activity. It has long been
known that one cannot force a student to engage in any physical activity and
take care of one's health. We need certain incentives, motives, which are
mostly absent in modern schoolchildren. The students should want to change
attitudes toward themselves, and a PE should help them in this [4, 5].
To maintain the optimal level of
physical activity (PA) of schoolchildren, their correct physical development
and physical preparedness, various means and methods of physical education were
used. Thus, the school PE class (45 minutes) compensates on average 11-20% of
the necessary daily physical activity.
When physical activity of a PE class
is high, this indicator can increase to 35-40%. During the days when there are
PE classes on the students’ schedule, the deficit of their PA is 30%on average;
when there are no PE classes scheduled, PA deficit increases to 70% [6, 7].
The key element in solving the
problem of activating PA of high school students is the question of the purpose
and content of a school PE class and the selection of appropriate methods for
its organization. The most realistic approach here is the use of a
sports-oriented approach in physical education aimed at mastering the values of
popular sports .
The sports orientation of
physical exercises relied, first of all, on the principle of consistency, which
provides for the use of PE sessions 4-5 times a week (both curricular and
extracurricular), which made it possible to provide:
- Increase in the physical activity
of schoolchildren through using means and methods of sports training acceptable
for achieving the goals of physical education in school;
- Full development of the basic
physical qualities and the formation of a wide- range set of different physical
skills and abilities.
It is important that sports-oriented
activities had a health-saving orientation associated with the use of
moderate-intensity physical loads of locomotion, which stimulate mental
activity of schoolchildren, increase their motivation and value attitude to the
process of physical education. All this turned out to be possible only when we
focused on the interests, needs and motives of schoolchildren in building a
healthy, strong body, when they received knowledge and practical skills of
self-control and self-management of their physical condition and psyche.
To optimize PA, PE classes were
accompanied by sports and health and health-improving events in the school
daily routine (gymnastics before classes, PA breaks, etc.), as well as
extra-curricular forms of exercise: General Physical Preparedness groups,
school sports sections, classes in the Youth Sports School, etc. All of these
measures fit into the daily 2-3-hour PA requirement and compensated for the PA
deficit in students [9, 10].
Of great importance for the
optimization of schoolchildren's PA were independent physical exercises: in the
yard, in the family, out of doors, etc. It was also important to teach students
during their PE class various physical skills (especially sports and active
games) that they could use for their physical perfection in their free time.
An important direction in the
development of motives and needs for the active PE sessions is the theoretical
training of students in the field of physical education. Theoretical knowledge
of the positive physical and functional changes occurring in the human body
during physical exercises, which were received by schoolchildren during their
PE classed, encouraged them to actively engage in physical activities and
sports, helped them to use physical exercises to promote health and physical
Also, to maintain an active interest
in physical education and sports, we systematically gave the students
information that revealed the importance of performing a given exercise or a
training task. For example, when we started training in a base jump, we explained
that jumping over a wooden horse strengthens the strength of muscles, develops
coordination of movements, etc.
During the research, it was revealed
that the formation of effective motives is an indispensable condition for the
successful formation of active, sustainable interest of students in physical
education. School-based internship and scientific research show that interest
in PE significantly increases when the student achieves significant changes in
physical development in a fairly short period of time. The student has a
feeling of “inspiration by success”, which contributes to the development of an
active interest in physical education and sports [12, 13].
Also, it was revealed that one of
the main conditions in the successful formation of motivation and the need
physical activities and sports in students is the availability of appropriate
abilities skills from different sports. This allowed the students to have
freedom of action in the process of independent physical exercise .
This was also promoted by the proper
level of development of physical qualities in students: strength, speed,
endurance, agility and flexibility. Only a sufficient level of development of
these qualities allowed the students to actively engage in the process of physical
education, to be equal among peers in PE classes, sports competitions, etc.
One of the main means of forming a
value-oriented attitude to the physical education in schoolchildren is the
regular organization of sports events, which were mostly of recreational and
entertaining character and focused on the participation of the maximum possible
number of students. High school students enjoyed participating in these
competitions satisfied their need for movements, strengthened their health,
etc. It is important, however, that these competitions were well organized and
didn’t last too long, so that the participants and spectators did not lose
interest in them.
Thus, it can be stated that the
development of the need for active physical exercise is a completely manageable
process. Achievement of the set goals here was possible through the creation of
certain conditions (strong health, optimal physical activity, a sufficient set
of motor skills and developed physical qualities) that motivate and stimulate
this activity. Through acquired knowledge and active physical exercises,
schoolchildren, found a personal meaning in PE training sessions and
consciously joined in this process.
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Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №9 - 2017