Experience in the study of the culture of tolerant youth relations in the Republic of Kazakhstan in the process of interpersonal interaction

Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №9 - 2017

Author: Nabiyev Ersain, Kazakh American Free University, Kazakhstan

The modern world is characterized by the growing processes of globalization and integration, making it important to preserve peace, harmony and friendliness among people. The ethics of nonviolence, tolerance to each other’s views, cultures, values, the idea of dialogue and mutual understanding, the search for compromises become extremely important. This makes us turn to the phenomenon of tolerance and seek ways of conflict-free coexistence of mankind.

In the international community, Kazakhstan is recognized as the country leading consistent internal policy aimed at ensuring tolerance, interfaith and intercultural harmony among representatives of all nationalities living in the country and representing the single nation of Kazakhstan - the nation that builds a modern, competitive, secular state.

Despite the absence of pronounced manifestations of conflicts in Kazakhstan, where more than 140 ethnic groups and 40 confessions live and work together, a special attention is paid to the harmonization of intercultural relations in the regions where people with different social, domestic, intellectual and confessional cultures live. Preserving national and cultural identity of various nations and ethnic groups is the main factor in the realization of the idea of creating an integral cultural space of Kazakhstan and a part of the national policy of the state.

Accordingly, one of the important components of social, political and pedagogical work with the youth is the task of developing a culture of tolerant youth relations in the Republic of Kazakhstan.

Researchers of the Kazakh American Free University, S. Amanzholov East Kazakhstan State University and Omsk State Pedagogical University (Russia) are conducting a joint study on the theme “Development of a Culture of Tolerant Relations among the Youth of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the Process of Interpersonal Interaction (based on studying East Kazakhstan Region)”.

The goals of the study are: to develop, test and recommend for further implementation in educational institutions a comprehensive program of education and development of a culture of tolerant youth relations of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the process of interpersonal interaction.

To achieve the goal, the following objectives were set:

- to study and analyze the state of the problem under study in theory and practice (evidence from Kazakhstan, Russia, Poland, the USA).

- to carry out an analysis of the state of the culture of tolerance of the youth of Kazakhstan, to evaluate the effectiveness of the implementation of the state youth policy on shaping cultural values in young people and stimulating civic and patriotic self-realization;

- to develop models for the organization of the process of cultivating a culture of tolerant relationships in different spheres (in inter-ethnic, intercultural, inter-confessional and other spheres);

- to develop a comprehensive program for education and development of a culture of tolerant relations among young people integrated with value-oriented, motivational, contextual, pragmatic and eva-luative components;

- to monitor the effectiveness of the developed integrated program, which allows to determine the status of the culture of tolerance among young people at different stages of its implementation; to study its state, dynamics and factors of influence on inter-ethnic and inter–con-fessional relations in the youth environment of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

- to develop recommendations and methods for implementing a comprehensive program for the development of a culture of tolerance among the youth in the process of interpersonal interaction, as well as to relieve tension on the identified problems of preserving public harmony, forming national unity and state-national identity, design measures to prevent xenophobia, extremism and nationalism among young people.

The problem of tolerance has long been the subject of close study of many sciences:

- philosophy (S.M. Bakhtin, V.S. Bibler, A.P. Baudrilin, R.R. Valitova, L.V. Golovataya, L.M. Drobizheva, V.M. Zolotukhin, Y. A. Ishchenko , M.S. Kagan, V.A. Konev, N.V. Kruglova, V.A. Lektorsky, Y.V. Magomedova, V.A. Petritsky, O. Heffe, and others);

- political science (A.S. Bushuyev, V.A. Vassilyev, M.M. Lebedeva, M.P. Mchedlov and others);

- ethnology (M.N. Guboglo, D.V. Zinovyev, N.M. Lebedev, M.S. Mirimanov, G.U. Soldatova, V.V. Shalin, and others);

- sociology (G.G. Abdulkarimov, M.M. Akulich, S.N. Ikonnikova, I. Pan-chenko, Y.V. Shvachko, V. N. Yarskaya, A.B. Zimbuli and others);

- psychology (B.G. Ananyev, A.G. Asmolov, A.A. Bodalyov, L.S. Vygotsky, A.I. Dontsov, A.N. Leontyev, A.A. Kro-nik, V.N. Myasishchev, L.A. Shaigerova, S. Yu. Golovin, K. Rogers, and others);

- pedagogy (V.A. Karakovsky, P.F. Komogorov, N.V. Kukushkin, G.M. Shelamova, Y.Y. Kleptsova, A.A. Pogodina, Y.A. Streltsova).

In Russian psychology and pedagogy, a special attention is now being paid to the problems of development and education of a tolerant personality (K.B. Aldasheva, G. Bardiyer, S.K. Bondyreva, D.V. Kolessov, P.K. Grechko, S.V. Dani-lova., T.V. Makarova, G.F. Larionova, V.F. Petrenko, O.V. Mitina, K.V. Berdni-kov, G.M. Shelamova and others.

Separate aspects of interethnic and inter-confessional relations in the context of the culture of tolerance are considered in their studies by M.P. Mchedlov, A.B. Weber, N.M. Lebedeva, G. Vitkovskaya, A.Malashenko, L.S. Ruban, G.U. Soldatova, A.A. Petrusevich.

In the modern Kazakhstan science the problem of tolerance is studied in the social and philosophical contexts (A.N. Nyssanbayev, V.I. Golikova, Z.G. Dzha-lilov, P.I. Mamedova, A.K. Mamyrbeko-va, E.L. Tugzhanov, A.A. Abdakimov., N.A. Saitova, F.T. Mukanova, L.M. Ulda-rinova, etc.) and in its psychological and pedagogical aspects (Y.A. Nabiyev, G.K. Belgibayeva, R.M. Aitzhanova, N.N. Podobed, G.K. Iskakova, M.A. Kucherova, Z. Martbaev, Y.D. Suleimenov, B.A. Ty-rynbayev, M.N. Shayakhmetov, S. Amirghazina, and others).

Research shows that over the last few years the range of works devoted to various aspects of the problem of tolerance in modern society is quite wide. At the same time, there has been no comprehensive study of the development of the culture of tolerance among the youth of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the process of interpersonal interaction.

Socio-psychological conditions for the development of tolerance in the social maturation of youth were studied, structural and content components for optimizing the development of tolerance culture in the process of interpersonal interaction were developed, and programs for effective social and pedagogical support for the development of tolerant qualities of the younger generation were developed.

In the course of the study, the Program for the Development of a Culture of Tolerance for Young People was developed, which is being tested in a number of educational institutions in Eastern Kazakhstan (Ust-Kamenogorsk, Ridder, Ula-nsky District).

The program is developed in accordance with the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Law on the Assembly of Peoples of Kazakhstan, the Doctrine of National Unity, developed by the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, and in accordance with the Declaration of Principles on Tolerance and the Declaration on a Culture of Peace adopted by the United Nations. The program is aimed at consolidating the values of civic solidarity, ensuring harmonious coexistence and constructive interaction of all ethnic and confessional youth groups of East Kazakhstan, preventing any manifestations of xenophobia, forming effective mechanisms of social integration and cultural adaptation of various youth groups.

The goal of the Program is the development and strengthening of a culturally tolerant environment based on values of a multinational Kazakhstan society, a common Kazakhstani civil identity and socio-cultural identity, creating conditions for successful intercultural interaction, social and professional adaptation of young people.

The objectives of the Program are:

1. Ensuring the constructive interaction of all ethnic and confessional youth groups existing in East Kazakhstan, the establishment of values of civic solidarity.

2. Creating conditions for the prevention of interethnic and intercultural conflicts, eradicating manifestations of xenophobia, migrantophobia, racism.

3. Implementation of integrated integrative and adaptive measures aimed at the inclusion of all groups of young people in a culturally tolerant environment and the system of social relations.

4. Development in young people positive values and attitudes of respect, understanding and acceptance of diversity of cultures concentrated in the East Kazakhstan area.

5. Creating a favorable atmosphere of intercultural and inter-confessional interaction, expansion of forms of ethno-cultural cooperation.

The main directions of achieving the goal and solving the tasks of the Program are:

1. Further improvement of the legal framework and law enforcement practice in ethno-confessional relations.

2. Development and implementation of preventive measures to prevent xenophobia based on national and religious discord.

3. Improvement of existing mechanisms of youth policy.

4. Development and implementation of projects aimed at developing intercultural interaction among young people.

5. Strengthening the role of the media community in the process of spreading the ideas of civic solidarity, mutual respect and counteracting negative stereotypes and attitudes.

6. Use of proven global practices in creating a culturally tolerant urban and rural environment and the successful inclusion of young people in the processes of intercultural interaction.

7. Systematic collection and analysis of data on the implementation of the Program.

The program is largely aimed at creating conditions for the linguistic and socio-cultural integration of different ethnic groups of young people into a single civil society. At the same time, the Program proceeds from the fact that the formation of cultural tolerance is a counter process and respect for the personality of each person; mutual tolerance should be cultivated both among the residents of the cities of the region and in the youth of rural areas.

The main condition for the successful implementation of the Program is effective inter-institutional cooperation of all parties involved in its implementation, as well as the orientation of all the activities of the Program on achievement of concrete and verifiable results.

The basis for the practical implementation of the Program in the lives of the young people is the development and implementation of a set of cultural and educational programs into teaching and educational process aimed at strengthening attitudes of tolerant consciousness and behavior among young people; establishment of research and educational activities in the field of education to create a culturally tolerant environment in Eastern Kazakhstan for young people of different age and ethnic groups; ensuring access of various groups of young people to objective information about ethnic and religious organizations operating in the East Kazakhstan region; organization of a number of ethno-cultural and interethnic events at the city and district levels of the East Kazakhstan region.

Within the framework of the Program, notebooks-diaries with information on issues of interethnic relations and tolerance were developed for high school students of urban and rural schools of the East Kazakhstan region. The diary, along with its purpose, is designed to unobtrusively inform young people about the problems of intolerance, respect for the principles of equality and human rights.

Practical classes are organized for teachers. An important place in this matter is given to working with students of secondary schools to expand their knowledge and understanding of the multinational nature of our country, to additional (extra-curricular) classes to study the cultural heritage of the peoples of Kazakhstan, the history and culture of the East Kazakhstan region, conferences, creative competitions, and games. It is planned to create a regional “Ethnic calendar” of the East Kazakhstan region. This calendar can be used by teachers as a project for extra-curricular activities related to the promotion of ideas of tolerance.

The program envisages creation and implementation of a project of creating a virtual library of national literatures on the Internet, renewal of the book collections for the implementation of the Library of National Literature Project on the basis of one of the libraries of Ust-Kamenogorsk, organization of museum educational programs “Let's Know the Peoples of Kazakhstan and the World to learn ourselves” and “My Kazakhstan”, within the framework of which regular practical classes for students will be organized.

The development of a culture of tolerant relations in the process of interpersonal interaction suggests that the historical memory of ethnic and religious groups of the youth represented in the region is based on the conviction that human life and freedom are the highest values. Under conditions of increasing ethnic and religious diversity, legal means and mechanisms should be maintained that will ensure peaceful coexistence of representatives of different ethnic groups and denominations in East Kazakhstan and will not endure manifestations of religious intolerance.

Over the centuries, all the leading world religions represented in the region have developed their own approaches to how to interact with representatives of other views or with people having neutral ethnic and religious views. Through a direct dialogue between public associations of citizens, representatives of the authorities and representatives of all faiths, the Program envisages the use of conditions for the implementation of a set of measures that can effectively provide youths with common to all faiths views that create the foundation for an ethno-con-fessional peace and cooperation.

In the course of the implementation of the Program, it is planned to implement a project to create a virtual library of national literatures on the Internet, update the book stock for the project “Library of National Literatures” on the basis of libraries in Ust-Kamenogorsk, organize museum educational programs “Let's Know the Peoples of Kazakhstan and Know Ourselves” and “My Kazakhstan”, within the framework of which regular practical classes for students will be organized.

The program involves the organization of cooperation with cultural institutions to develop and organize cultural and educational projects (concerts, lectures, field trips, film screenings, etc.) for young people, as well as children's programs and holidays in museums.

Within the framework of the Program implementation, it is envisaged to organize refresher courses for teachers of schools, colleges, institutions of higher professional education, develop general recommendations on the organization of the educational process and the use of its opportunities for the development of a culture of tolerant relations.

To popularize the ideas of tolerance in the minds of children and young people, it is planned to develop and disseminate information materials (stickers, booklets, leaflets and posters) in educational institutions aimed at fostering a culture of tolerance, mutual respect and mutual understanding oriented to different age groups of children and youth.

In order to monitor the audience's reaction to the projects implemented in general education institutions in the field of tolerance (educational, information, etc.), it is planned to organize sociological monitoring on issues of multicultural education, the effectiveness of introducing educational and methodological recommendations and materials, and the distribution of souvenirs and information products in general education institutions. To organize the monitoring, a questionnaire will be developed, statistical data will be collected and information will be analyzed by sociologists.

The experience gained in the implementation of the Program will allow us to more accurately assess the key needs in the field of strengthening culturally tolerant relations, and the observance of the principle of consistency in the formation of a tolerant environment among urban and rural youth will ensure active and balanced implementation of activities of all sections of the Program.

The practical value of the study is determined by the fact that its results allow to reduce the level of conflict and aggression, as well as manifestations of all forms of intolerant behavior of young people in the process of various situations of interpersonal interaction. The revealed social and pedagogical technologies allow increasing the level of cohesion of youth groups.

The results can be used by the state bodies and institutions in developing guidelines for cultural policy and developing programs for the upbringing of the younger generation, as well as in the development of pedagogical systems and educational programs to organize the socio-cultural activities of youth in the structures of the Assembly of Peoples of Kazakhstan, Friendship of Peoples' Houses, committees for youths affairs; in the system of retraining and advanced training of personnel in the sphere of education and culture.

REFERENCES

1. The Concept of the State Youth Policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan till 2020. “Kazakhstan 2020: the way to the future”. - Astana, 2013. - 48 p.

2. Bodrilin, A.P., Problemy razvitiya tolerantnosti. [Problems of Tolerance Development] // М.: Nauka, 2016. – 345 p.

3. Bondyreva, S.K. Tolerantnost (vvedeniye v problemu) [Tolerance (introduction to the problem)] - М.: MPSU Publishing: Изд-во NPO “MODEK” Publishing, 2011. - 240.

4. Zavalko, N.A., Nabiev, Y.A., Petru-sevich, A.A. Razvitiye kultury tolerantnykh otnosheniy molodyozhi Kazakhstana: problem i perspectivy [Development of a culture of tolerant youth relations in Kazakhstan: problems and perspectives: monograph] – Ust-Kamenogorsk, , “VKPK ARGO”, 2017. - 217 p.



Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №9 - 2017

  
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