The use of innovative approaches and technologies in the modernization of foreign language education
Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №8 - 2016
Author: Zhubanova Sholpan, Kazakh Ablai khan University of International Relations and World Languages, Kazakhstan
Innovation in education may simplify the
process of training specialist and improve the quality of intellectually labor
resources, which can easily be adapted to changeable conditions in professional
spheres. Such specialist usually has a creative ability and is able to
self-development. Moreover, he can work in the conditions of fast
technological, innovative market development.
A pedagogical idea of Kazakhstani education
system, as well as global one identifies the possibility of the usage of
various strategies (techniques) and innovative technologies in the lesson for
successful and effective results in gaining knowledge while learning foreign
languages. Each strategy tends to be a very important in the teaching process,
it is necessary to understand what is appropriate to use in the lesson.
The education system is undergoing
significant changes associated with an active introduction of information and
communication technologies in the educational process that likely give you the
opportunity to prepare specialists that meet the needs of development and self - development in the new socio-cultural situation.
Higher education annually makes high
demands to personal educational outcomes of the graduate, his or her qualifications
for successful adaptation in the conditions of the market economy.
It may include:
• willingness to identify themselves with
the outside world on the basis of critical analysis of information reflecting
different points of view on the meaning and value of life;
• proficiency in the ratio of information
received with the accepted social models, for example, moral and ethical
standards, critical evaluation of information in mass media;
• ability to create and maintain a personalized
information environment, to protect important information and personal
information security, the development of a sense of personal responsibility for
the quality of the surrounding information environment (Jusubalieva &
Estemesova, 2016, p. 73-78).
Today, the process of informatization of
society has become one of the most important global processes of modernization.
Informatization as a consistent pattern is inevitable for any country and
probably one of the conditions for successful socio-economic development of the
On the one hand, the use of ICT in
educational processes may save the time in the classroom, to activate and
motivate cognitive activity of students; provides the opportunity to form
communicative, professional and information competence, so students usually
become active participants in the educational process.
On the other hand, information and
communication technologies have become indispensable for modern education, because
it can promote the increase of informative interest, development of skills of
independent work, search, analysis of objects and phenomena, to identify
sources of information, encourages responsibility in obtaining new knowledge
and developing information culture of individual.
The main objectives of learning (using ICT)
are the formation and development of a wide range of ideas, knowledge, and
skills, in other words, professional competences. To successfully achieve these
objectives, the learning process should be based on the following principles:
• scientific character, systematic
• consciousness and activity of students;
• accounting in education of individual and
age peculiarities of students;
• collective nature of learning;
• the choice of optimal forms, means and
Because of this, ICT allows teaching in new
ways: explain, demonstrate, monitor and especially supervise learners in
various adapted manners. It also allows learning differently by appropriating
the knowledge, in an individualized, interactive, cooperative, collective way
by treating information in the time and in the space, by reducing the distance
and by changing the presence, according to new exciting modalities of
Generally, ICT consists of 3 important
• Equipment (computers + equipment of
• Digital resources (online services, software,
applications, computing contents, authors program, platform, sites, electronic
• Networks (Intranet, Internet: communication
cooperation, educational exchanges of information, organization of program,
management of education content).
Eberhard Heuel (1999) suggests four
qualities of ICT that are important in learning processes:
- Multimedia qualities;
Actually, ICT can motivate the learner to
search for information. Electronic educational resources, new information
technologies, various tools and teaching methods can be any kind of tools, solutions,
mini-labs, mini-collections and suggests a variety of studies and experiments
that are impossible in conventional traditional lessons. The ideology of the
individual project and group work should play a significant role in the
educational space of each student in his growth and development (Nurgaliyeva
& Kadyrova, 2000, p.17-18)
Bibeau (2004) introduces seven categories
of educational projects with the use of ICT that can use in every lesson:
1) TV-correspondence (teleconference, virtual class);
2) Edition (Publishing) and publication (build a website, publish a
newspaper, and produce an online radio or television program);
3) Search and documentary management (retrieval system, orientation and
choice of career, entrepreneurial);
4) Collection, information sharing (mutualization of the information,
5) Problem solving, cyber collection, virtual laboratory;
6) Learning and distance training;
7) Thematic and transdisciplinary projects.
The introductions of educational information
resources tend to be one of directions of modernization of foreign education.
They do not change the ways of acquiring knowledge and skills, but also the traditional
forms of relations between trainers and trainees, i.e. the form of the
educational process and educational environment. Most vivid examples of information
resources in the Internet may include the following:
• information web resources in a particular
subject, field of work;
• network and social services, email
• blogs and forums;
• resources of electronic libraries and
Besides, the teacher should educate a
student to focus on self-development with the help of electronic educational resources.
The educational process requires competent trainer-developer, creative teacher,
who is able to use personal electronic learning tools in the correlation of
Modern e-learning tools such as electronic
textbooks, training programs, simulators or testing programs have the important
• adaptation of training material to the
specific learning needs and abilities of students;
• interactive, multimedia resources;
• informative, scientific, feasibility;
• the ability to network usage and other.
On a more positive tack, a systematic use
of electronic multimedia textbooks in the educational process in combination
with traditional teaching methods and pedagogical innovation significantly
increases the efficiency of teaching students with different levels of training
(Nurgaliyeva & Kadyrova, 2000, p.17)
The use of computers and electronic
educational resources in the classroom allows you to make the learning process
attractive and truly modern, to individualize learning, objectively and in a
timely manner to control and summarizing. Developing effect depends on the
design of the program, its availability to students, matching his level of
development and interest.
According to Nurgaliyeva (2000), the
education is directly linked with the use of digital educational content: electronic
textbooks, multimedia learning programs and digital educational resources. So,
it may give the student not only theoretical material, but also the opportunity
to see a video lecture, to check their knowledge through the interactive
Modern electronic textbook enables to
conduct any laboratory or practical class in virtual mode, with interactive
control of parameter changes. (Nurgaliyeva, 2005).
Moreover, Nurgaliyeva (2005) points out in
her research, “Electronic textbooks occupy an increasing place in our lives.
Today, there is an active process of creation of electronic textbooks in hypertext
form and their implementation in the educational process”. In some cases, the
electronic book also called a tutorial, because it may design for independent
learning. Illustrative electronic textbook consist of text, graphics, audio and
video information, unlike a traditional textbook, that allows for
individualized learning. Unlike a traditional textbook, it can involve young
people much more successfully than traditional ones.
In fact, electronic educational resource
(EER) of a new generation is an interactive multimedia product that may suggest
a variety of interactive exercises, types of grammar and lexical tests, range
of vocabulary, topic-related texts and many other options, that can be easily
checked for errors and may include time management. In addition, EER has wide
possibilities for individual approaches in educational process.
Furthermore, a good e-learning resource
should include the following new pedagogical tools:
• interactivity (gives the opportunity to
receive responses on the realistic representation of objects and processes);
• multimedia (provides a realistic representation
of objects and processes);
• modeling (simulation with audio-visual
aids that may change the form, qualities and processes);
• communication (direct contact, prompt
reporting, remote condition monitoring process, online communication with remote
users, when performing collective tasks)
• user productivity (search operations of
the necessary information, creative components, the effectiveness of training
activities) (Nurgaliyeva, 2005).
The application of EER in educational
process may increase the efficiency of teaching forms in the lesson through:
• explaining the material to his own
presentation, with the use of movies, paintings, drawings, diagrams, other media
objects and animations.
• using interactive, innovative methods of
teaching: training mini-project, rational information search on the Internet,
use of EER materials to confirm proposed educational and scientific hypotheses
(Serbin, 2010; Zakharova & Zakharova, 2011, p. 85).
Informatization has a great impact on
foreign language education too. The concept of foreign language education development
of the Republic of Kazakhstan defines as the formation of specialists in
foreign language in accordance with the European level system of foreign
In these circumstances, Kunanbaeva (2005)
points out that one of the main directions of improvement teachers approaches
is "the mastery of modern methods, such as information and computer-based
technologies in foreign language teaching".
Kazakhstani, Russian and foreign scientists
have conducted numerous studies in the field of Informatization, use of ICT in
education, development of e-textbooks and digital educational resources for
The researchers determine the process of
teaching foreign languages with the use of ICT as a new, integrative process,
characterized by the actualization of a meaningful significant components and
operations due to the applied progressive teaching methods and approaches.
These approaches may lead to strengthening the effectiveness using multimedia
teaching materials as the highest form of clarity, suggesting the multi-touch
response from the students and promotes better learning/knowledge. In addition,
the interactive nature of ICT allows for constant interaction between participants
of educational processes, which is extremely important in foreign language
education, which forms a language, communication and speech skills.
Other important strategies in the learning
process, which also motivate students to study foreign language is a dialogic
teaching and group work.
Dialogic teaching is one of the most
essential problems in the modern pedagogical science. To confirm this, there
are many research articles, manuals of such scientists as N. Mercer (2012),
L.S. Vygotsky (1978) and R.J. Aleksander (2004). This problem requires new ways
of finding more rational strategy of dialogic teaching, in which practical
results will be achieved in a short period, with minimal time and efforts, and
the process of teaching will be interesting and amazing for learners.
Another way of teaching is a group work.
Group work allows students of higher education actively be involved in creative
research activity, it also allows group members to find answers on the discussed
problem and finally to come to general conclusions. However, the task of a
group work is to exchange opinions, solve the problem through discussing and
define the outcomes in-group. There are different theories, based on necessity
of the usage group work in lessons. The physiologist, philosopher Gizela
Konopka (1963) in the research claimed, “Social group work is one of the
methods of social work, which allows to every individual to raise his meaning
in society through the experience of the aimed group and allows more
effectively overcoming personnel, group and social problems”. The same opinion
keeps the lecturer of the university Bristol, Brown (1992), “Group work creates
context, in which individuals help each other, and it is a method of mutual
assistance that allows to group and individuals to influence or change
personnel, group, organizational and social problems”. The research works of
Smith (2008) and Shulman (1999) has also influenced on the theory of
investigating a group work.
Moreover, you should not forget that
dialogic teaching and group work are the most effective approaches if you use
them within critical thinking of the learners. This approach makes learners to
think, to access, to analyze and to choose information, getting the result of
observation, skills, thinking and discussion, that in further can be the base
to do the actions.
Firstly, the ideas of development of
critical thinking were introduced by Dewey (1999) on educational system in the
USA in terms of conception of reflective thinking, then were realized into
pedagogical process as “Critical thinking” by Lipman (1991). The most known theorists
of critical thinking are Paul (2010), Klooster (2001, p. 36), Halpern (2003), Stancato (2000) who
define critical thinking as the construction of ideas about the truth of the statements
or answers in solving problem. According to Stancato (2000), “critical thinking
is a type of defining values, ideas, process without an opportunity for
individual decisions. Fundamental to critical thinking is to be open to
contradictions and to opposing opinions. Without contradiction, it is impossible
to gain knowledge and furthermore, a lack of contradiction reflects
self-satisfaction and lack of realistic alternatives to the existing
The popular method of critical thinking includes
three stages. There is “Challenge-Comprehension-Reflection”. These three stages
- to actualize and generalize present
knowledge of the learner about given theme or problem;
- to make provocative interest to the given
theme, to motivate the learner to educational activity;
- to motivate the learner to active work in
the lesson and activity at home;
- to get new information;
- to comprehend and generalize given
- to acquire new knowledge and information
by the learner;
- to form own attitude to the given
Nevertheless, how is it possible to adopt
these skills of critical thinking to learning processes? There are various approaches
and methods of the usage of critical thinking in the lesson: cluster, insert,
brainstorming, prediction tree, diaries and journals, thick and thin questions,
traffic light, zigzag discussion, fishbone, six hats, bloom chamomile, the
basket of ideas, explanations and names, sink vein, essay writing, association
method and task with notes.
Every planned lesson should include
elements and even approaches of critical thinking, through setting of goals and
tasks, creating problem tasks to the topic, interpretation and generalization
on the given problem, introducing concepts (theories, models, principles),
usage of critical thinking skills in the lesson, defining barriers and
difficulties, and come to the definite opinion. Indeed, more effective and
successful ways of teaching critical thinking is the usage of different
strategies, not repeating techniques that are known to everyone and often used
in the lesson. Methods may use in accordance with the plan and theme of the lesson,
providing different exercises for effective perception of the lesson theme and
memory training, sharing time for the usage of Information Communication Technologies
in the lesson, which will assist consolidating the topic and analyzing the
information through visual aids.
In fact, there are many various approaches
in educational process, which were mentioned above, but there is no definite
concept and strategies how to define gifted and talented students among other
learners. In this case, you need to use techniques, based on research, i.e.
dialogic forms of teaching, case study, debates, projects and intellectual
tasks. However, there are some barriers in the usage of these techniques: lack
of time, lack of infrastructure and psychological stereotypes. To define gifted
student is not as easy as it seems, you need special pedagogical intuition
(parent or teacher talent), or professional psychological training. Gifted and
talented students able to do all tasks faster than other learners, able to
explain opinions about the task clearly and are differ from others by a wide
range of interests and by expressing their own leadership skills creatively.
Gagné (2008) provides research-based
definitions of giftedness and talent that are directly and logically connected
to teaching and learning. According to Gagné, gifted students are those
whose potential is distinctly above average in one or more of the following
domains of human ability:
Gagné’s model recognizes that giftedness
is a broad concept that encompasses a range of abilities; it also recognizes
that giftedness is only potential and that it must go through a transformative
process in order to become a talent. As such, Gagné makes it clear that
adequate school support is necessary if students are to develop their gifts or
high abilities into talents or high achievements.
Another important issue, that should be
clearly work out in the lesson is how to define students, who understood the
theme of the lesson? Feedback gives us an image how the learning process goes
on, it informs us about achievements and knowledge gap of every student, it gives
atmosphere of self-respect and hospitability, it gives time to students to
answer correctly, to change the way of thinking and correct their mistakes, it
provides the success of teaching.
Practice shows, working out criteria, make
the process of assessment open and understandable for everybody:
- correct criteria of assessment allows
understanding of material more deeply;
- criteria demonstrate to learner, how they
will be accessed and what is expected.
The usage of formative assessment is a base
of effective teaching; it can be a strong instrument for improving learning
processes. Formative assessment is essential part of interactive teaching, in
- adoption of the culture of mutual
discussion in classes;
- development of skills of critical and creative
- formation of the environment, encourages
- support of learners’ confidence, when
student will be able to improve his/her result.
The goal of formative assessment is to
monitor student learning, to provide ongoing feedback that can be used by instructors
to improve their teaching and by students to improve their learning. More
specifically, formative assessments:
- help students identify their strengths
and weaknesses and target areas that need work;
- help faculty to recognize where students
are struggling and address problems immediately.
Formative assessments are generally low
stakes, which means that they have little or no point value. Examples of formative
assessments include asking students to:
- draw a concept map in class to represent
their understanding of a topic;
- submit one or two sentences identifying
the main point of a lecture;
- turn in a research proposal for early
However, summative assessment evaluates
students learning at the end of an instructional unit by comparing it against
some standard or benchmark.
Summative assessments are often high
stakes, which means that they have a high point value. Examples of summative
- a midterm exam;
- a final project;
- a paper;
- a senior recital.
Information from summative assessments can
be used formatively when students or faculty use it to guide their efforts and
activities in subsequent courses (Teaching Excellence & Educational Innovation,
Therefore, innovation significantly enrich
foreign language education by the use of innovative approaches, methods,
methodology, information communication technologies and multimedia resources.
Modern education creates optimal conditions for cognitive activity that “helps
to create a personality of a new type, active, purposeful, directed on constant
self-education and development” (Lomonosova, 2016).
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Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №8 - 2016