Emerging intercultural competence in trilingual education
Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №8 - 2016
Author: Alzhanova Ainash, Kazakh Ablai khan University of International Relations and World Languages, Kazakhstan
The problem of a language situation in
modern Kazakhstan is reflected in the President's N. A. Nazarbayev`s call of
the Republic of Kazakhstan "New Kazakhstan in the new world" of 2009,
where the purpose defines in providing competitiveness of the country and its
citizens, implementation of the cultural project "Trinity of
Languages" is being installed step-by-step, according to which development
of three languages is necessary: Kazakh as state language, Russian as language
of international communication and English as language of successful
integration into global economy. The presidential decree approved the state
program of languages` development and functioning in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2011 - 2020.
In Kazakhstan new system of teaching
children in schools is being installed. The innovative key is – learning
lessons in three languages, they are: Kazakh, Russian, English. Society debates
whether this changing is the cause of future problems of young generation.
Educators bother that there are not enough qualified teachers who can teach
subject in foreign language. Chairmen, ministry of education and science
confirm that setting trilingual education is not an immediate step. Although
some parents and educators oppose trilingual education, there is some evidence
that trilingual education yields positive results.
Opponents of trilingual education claim
that children will have a lingua mixture in heads while learning three languages
at once. But, this is nothing more than just a human fear. Psychologists say
that children’s brain especially in early years is very flexible. Children
learn very quickly and remember the information for a long time. There is no
mixture if one learns hard and intentionally. It happens if person suffers from
psychic disease or if one is emotionally unstable, however, it is very
individually and it is not a widespread phenomenon.
Opponents also maintain that trilingual
education is not a good idea because teachers and the whole educational system
are not ready. However, they ignore the fact that the turning trilingual
education on is in the process. It is logically that training teachers of how
to teach Physics, Chemistry, Biology, and many other subjects in English is a
time taking process. The system needs new ways of developing. Otherwise, there
will be no progress, growth. Nowadays, many teachers get the workshops, seminars
to be qualified enough for trilingual education.
The final argument advanced by opponents of
trilingual education is that children will forget their mother tongue or will
speak in mother language not well. On the contrary, to learn languages from early
childhood has a positive result for further development of human being. Those
who learn several non-native languages adjust for life changing faster than
those who don’t. Sayasat Nurbek is a nice example of polyglot in the state; he
held some top positions and even continues to.
It should be evident that arguments against
trilingual education are not sufficient and can’t be proven. Furthermore,
trilingual education is aimed for better living in future, it is being done for
wealth of country, and Kazakhstan needs such alternations. Therefore, the
trilingual education should be an irreplaceable innovation in future to set up.
The trinity of languages in Kazakhstan is one of the main priorities of state policy. As it is noted in the State
program of languages` development and functioning in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2011-2020: "… enhancement of the regulatory framework directed to
strengthening of the institutional status of Kazakh as state, to preserving
sociolingual activity of Russian and to development of English as integration
tools in world space is necessary".
At the same time, in the ministry’s of
education and science of the Republic of Kazakhstan document "DEVELOP-MENT of STRATEGIC DIRECTIONS of the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2015-2020” it is noted that in system of trilingual education there is no universal and commonly accepted
definition of the "trilinguality" and "trilingual education"
concepts, and also the lack of pupils` results` studying of other countries
within implementation of trilingual educational programs various types and also
methods of their achievement is observed. Routine planning goes in the
conditions of insufficient awareness on trilingual education and is partially
based on some false representations.
The problem of emerging necessity of the
intercultural competence in terms of trilingual education is to be solved. The
lack of adequate normative documentation in aspect of implementation trilingual
education issue into modern educational system is needed. Trilinguality is the
direction to which much attention is paid now, both from the state, and from
The globalization, immigration and
migration processes are increasing nowadays and intercultural focus is in the
centre of discussions. Language links cultures. Foreign language students need
to develop an intercultural competence. Authors` thesis statement is the
following one: “When language skills and intercultural competency become linked
in a language classroom, students become optimally prepared for participation
in a global world.”
The article “Building intercultural
competence in the language classroom” by Moeller A.J. & Nugent K.
summarizes the literature on intercultural competence and intercultural
communicative competence in order to better understand how notions can impact
the cultural component of a foreign language curriculum. This research focuses
on necessity of building intercultural competence among students for examining
their own beliefs. The article represents various models of intercultural
communicative competence, examples of cultural tasks that promote intercultural
communicative competence. Moeller A.J. & Nugent K. claim that ICC should be
an integral part of language classroom.
It is clear from the introductory part that
this is no simple issue. The authors start with identifying the principal terms
and present an activity of forming and using ICC (intercultural competence).
What can make ICC work in foreign language classroom?
Another influence, outside of individual
“self-awareness and identity transformation”, is the existence of great variety
of ICC models. Moeller A.J. & Nugent K. made a comparative analysis of ICC
models and their main factors and functions. The authors also acknowledge the
importance of Council of Europe`s Common European Framework of Reference for
Languages (2001), where the principal standards are written.
To such a complicated issue the authors sum
the research up well by saying that there are times for teachers to integrate
ICC into foreign language classroom curriculum and “students begin to see how
their attitudes, knowledge, and language skills can affect their intercultural
This is good concept for how the problem
of building intercultural competence in the language classroom should be
handled. However, there doesn’t appear to be any concrete guidelines that could
be based on empirical experience; activities that are presented based only on
theoretical knowledge; no empirical value was taken into consideration. Moeller
A.J. & Nugent K. cite people like Schulz, Byram, Furstenberg. These are
good well-known authors and it adds a great deal of credibility to the piece as
According to Kulyash Shamshidinova, the
chairman of the board "Nazarbayev Intellectual Schools" it turned out
that because of shortage of the employees knowing foreign languages mutually advantageous
contracts at 11% of the European entities didn't take place. In general,
availability of common language of communication increases a goods turnover by
70%. The British firms lost 20% of a goods turnover only because they speak
English only, and there are countries which on they don't speak. The research
data conducted in Switzerland show that ownership of two or more languages
leads to high compensation and the high level of employment of the population.
Educational process is specially organized
purposeful interaction of teachers and pupils directed to the solution of the
developing and educational tasks which is characterized by the continuous,
consecutive movement from the purposes to results, under construction and
developing, taking into account certain principles, forms and methods.
One of the most important priorities of
long-term Strategy "Kazakhstan - 2030" is education. The president of
Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev set the task to provide the new level of
development of university education and science. Modernization of education
shall become a basis on which future economic, political and welfare prosperity
of the country will rely. Effective upgrade requires, first of all, competent
management of education and, first of all, educational process that requires
refining the "management of educational process" concept.
One of unqualified successes of the country
- the developed unique model of a great number of various ethnos and cultures
peaceful co-existence. In Kazakhstan unique experience of interaction and mutual
enrichment of national cultures is developed. The unique institute of cultural
and religious interaction - the Assembly of the people of Kazakhstan which had, as we know, an opportunity directly to participate in legislative activities
of Parliament of the Republic of Kazakhstan is created. In the Republic of Kazakhstan always with special care and attention treated development of
language wealth of the people of the state, its role in development of modern
society was understood.
It can be understood, having studied one of
the first laws adopted in sovereign Kazakhstan - "About languages in the Republic of Kazakhstan"
(of 11.07.1997) which announces all languages of the people of Kazakhstan national property, historical and cultural heritage of the country. Questions of
languages` development constantly were in Kazakhstan under control and
guardianship of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan N.A. Nazarbayev,
who in his annual messages to the people of Kazakhstan always tried to focus
attention on development of education, cultures, and language skills. In the
President's letter it is specified: "The people will be wise in education
of posterity, caring about their health, education and outlook … They will know
equally well Kazakh, Russian and English languages ".
In Kazakhstan the Concept of development of
foreign-language education which determines the purposes and content of
foreign-language education according to international standards - the
all-European competences of foreign language skills representing system of
levels of proficiency in language and system of the description of these levels
with use of single system of concepts which can be used for the description of
any system of certification and, therefore, and any training program, is more
whole than training and finishing with the competences reached as a result of
The presidential decree of the Republic of
Kazakhstan of June 29, 2011 No. 110 approved the State Program of development
and functioning of languages in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2011 - 2020 in which main objectives, tasks and the directions of language policy of the state are planned.
Subjects of educational process in case of a learning of foreign language first
of all are students and teachers. The relations of the student and the teacher
are under construction on the basis of cooperation, respect of the identity of
the student and reasoning to freedoms of development according to specific
features. And students play more and more active role in educational process,
the most demanded are a capability to self-training, increase in personal
responsibility and activity in acquisition and knowledge transfer, and the
teacher acts more as the manager of training process and as the mentor,
therefore from it such qualification characteristics as presence of high level
of information and technological, organizational, communicative, pedagogical
and professional competency are required; presence of innovative culture and
mobility, great pedagogical and professional skills, and also rather high level
of proficiency in English. The important role in case of the organization and
maintenance of educational process is played by also educational and methodical
services of higher education institution.
The purpose of management of educational
process in conditions a trilinguality can be formulated as increase in management
efficiency that, in turn, leads to more effective assimilation of knowledge,
skills and allows to intensify training process to a foreign language and to
achieve for rather small amount of hours of good results both in the language
plan, and in respect of co-managing and self-government by training process.
As it is noted in the article "Kazakhstani
trilinguality - a Unique
Formula of Language Policy" of Eshimbetova Z. B. and Demeuova A. M. the
basic principles of educational process management in conditions of
trilinguality are the following:
• democratization and humanization of
• systemacity and integrity in management;
• rational combination of centralization
• interrelation of one-man management and
• scientific justification of management;
• objectivity, completeness and regularity
of provision of information.
Training process to a foreign language was
based on the following fundamental principles:
• creative nature of training;
• activity nature of training;
• development of autonomy of the trainee in
• communicative nature of training;
• training in culture of native speakers;
• a support on speech, educational and
Content of educational process in
conditions a trilinguality submit, first of all, the regulating documents describing
competences which the pupil needs to seize, and also the specific language material
which is subject to assimilation in certain terms, somehow: state educational
standard, curriculum, standard training program, educational and methodical
complex and training working program of this discipline.
Trilingualism is the direction to which
much attention is now paid, both from the state, and from society. Today a
problem the trilingualism, methods of development of this program see many differently.
But it is necessary to remember that it is a general task and responsibility.
Because the society today, builds the tomorrow. Increase in number of people
who speak three languages perhaps in case of scientific approach to the matter,
application and implementation of innovative methods, and also in case of the
use of the available experience promoting effective studying of languages.
Now children of Kazakhstan need to know
three languages in the future to manage to support itself and the family. The
President of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev shared such opinion during the
XXIV session of Kazakhstan`s people`s assembly "Independence. Consent.
Nation of the single future". "I am absolutely convinced, children
should be taught when they are children. Trilinguality is needed for our
children. They are children of all planet: the state language shall be known,
Russian - our language of communication, English - world language, language of
world science, innovations, the Internet", - N. Nazarbayev emphasized.
According to the Head of state, trilinguality implementation in the sphere of
school education is training of the Kazakhstan children for the future.
"Who knows what language will dominate in the world? On the second place,
by the way, there is Chinese - by the number of people who apply language.
Perhaps, once Chinese we should learn also, I don't know, maybe, language of
Hindus whom one billion two hundred thousand. But now for advance, for
education, for formation of the young man who capable will contain himself, the
family and to raise children, - English is necessary", - the President of
Fundamental basis of studying of this
- cognitive and linguoculturological
methodology (S. S. Kunanbayeva);
- linguo-didactic and psychological bases
of training in languages and communicative linguistics (Baryshnikov N. V.,
Vygotsky L. S., Vermke Yu., Zhinkin N. I., Winter I.A., Koryakovtseva N. F., Leontyev
A. A., Rubenstein S. L., Tsakharias V., etc.);
- questions of studying of language as reflections
of ethnocultural values (Arutyunova N. D., Likhachev D. S., Stepanov Yu. S.,
Thalia V. N., Shaklein V. M., etc.);
- problems of bilingualism, interaction and
interference of languages, language situations and language policy (Altynbekova
O. B., Arayev L. A., Belousov V. N., Golev N. D., Guboglo M. N., Zalevskaya
A.A., Isaev M. K., Karlinsky A. E., Kopylenko M. M., Kostromin T. A., Krysin L.
P., Madiyeva G. B., Neroznak V. P., Smagulova ZH.S., Suleymenova E. D.,
Chasanoff B. H., Shaymerdenova N. Zh., etc.);
- forming of language identity (Golev N.
D., Khayrullina N. G.);
- the communicative system of language
described by G. A. Zolotova;
- cognitive and functional and communicative
approach to training in languages (Passov E. I., Bulatbayeva K. N.).
The system analysis of the corresponding
scientific literature, legal acts in the field of language and education, studying
of educational documentation of higher education institutions and schools
allowed formulating the following contradictions between:
- requirement of society for the Multilanguage
personality and lack of system of trilingual education as process of its
preparation in the conditions of training;
- awareness of need of development of the
system of trilingual education and segmentation of its standard and legal and
scientific and methodical providing;
- need for reasons for need of systematization
and enhancement of standard and legal and scientific and methodical base of
Permission of these contradictions constituted
the main problem which caused the choice of a subject of a research in the
following formulation: "Scientific and methodical bases of intercultural
competence and communicative competence developing in conditions of
Intercultural competence and communicative
competence developing in conditions of trilinguality is effective if:
1) As a single universal platform of the
theory of foreign-language and trilingual education the cognitive and linguocultural
methodology is chosen;
2) The educational and organizational
format of trilingual education is developed (on the example of Universities);
3) To disclose categorical essence of
cross-cultural and communicative competence as the purposes and contents of foreign-language
education in aspect of its orientation on trilingualism,
that it will cause systemacity, integrity,
logical succession and internal unity its standard and legal, scientific and methodical
and educational organizational support, as will be implemented cognitive and
linguocultural, competence-based, personal oriented approaches.
Purpose is to determine scientific and
methodical bases of intercultural competence and communicative competence
developing in conditions of trilingualism.
1. To develop the theoretical-methodological
bases of training a trilingualism in the conditions of foreign-language
education on the basis of the analysis a trilingualism as cross-disciplinary
category, competence-based and activity approaches.
2. To determine component structure of
cross-cultural and communicative competence of conditions a trilingualism;
3. To develop an educational and organizational
format of trilingual education (on the example of high institutions and
4. To prove and to experimentally confirm
efficiency of implementation of substantial technological support of model of
intercultural competence developing and communicative competence in conditions
Degree of a material that has been studied
of the offered scientific research is determined that in modern domestic science
theoretical-methodological and applied aspects of trilingual education are
- with the characteristic of a modern
language situation which causes set of historical and pedagogical
prerequisites, theoretical base and social and pedagogical conditions of its
- with the theory of polylingual education
as which acts - with methodological ensuring trilingual education which is
caused by the ethnolinguo-didactic approach representing set of the fundamental
principles, specialized methods and specific means;
- with a regulatory framework of the
organization of trilingual education which contains the Concept of trilingual
education development in the Republic of Kazakhstan and some other program documents
regulating process of trilingual education.
Works of overseas, Russian and domestic
scientists are devoted to theoretical and practical problems of intercultural
Are researched by the Russian scientists:
- problems of intercultural competence
developing in training process – Parfyonova T.A., Tkachenko T. A., Pluzhnik
I.L., Mureeva S.V., Sviridon R. A., Kapichnikova O. B.
- in the field of a multilingualism and a
trilingualism – Amrakhova A. K.
Kazakhstani authors dealt with problems:
Chaklikova A. T., Eshimbetova Z. B., Demeuova A. M., Abdiyeva R. S.,
Kurmanbayev A. A., Omarova B. A., Serikbay B. F.
The foreign researchers who devoted works
to questions of a cross-cultural and communicative kompeiyention: Margaret D.
Bush, Nakayama T. K., Martin Yu.K., Kim Yu. Yu., Derdof D. K., etc.
Scientific novelty of a dissertation
research are that in dissertation work:
- The theoretical-methodological bases of
training a trilingualism in the conditions of foreign-language education on the
basis of the analysis a trilingualism as cross-disciplinary category, competence-based
and activity approaches are developed;
- The component structure of cross-cultural
and communicative competence of conditions a trilingualism is determined;
- The educational and organizational format
of trilingual education is developed (on the example of the higher school).
- Efficiency of implementation of
substantial technological support of model of forming of cross-cultural and
communicative competence of conditions a trilingual’s is proved and is
The theoretical importance is determined:
• a contribution of this research to
development of the scientific priority directions in a technique of
• enriches the theory of cognitive and
• in reasons for need of systematization
and enhancement of standard and legal and scientific and methodical base of
Practical importance of a research:
• The main conclusions and provisions can
be used in the course of teaching a technique of foreign-language education;
• In practice of foreign-language education
when developing sociocultural, linguocultural sub competences as components of
cross-cultural and communicative competence;
• When holding seminars on mastering of
cross-cultural and communicative competence in trilingualism surrounding.
Methodology of scientific research (the
used methods and forms of scientific research, the comparative analysis of scientific
approaches to scientific research).
The methodological base of a research is
constituted: theoretical concepts of modern science of science: synergy,
axiological; theory of integration of scientific knowledge; crosscultural
theories of well-known researchers, etc.;
- set of methodological approaches and
principles: system and activity, structurally functional, dialectic-logical,
integrative and complete, cross-cultural and communicative, ethnopedagogical,
ethnolinguo-didactic, semantic-functional, etc.
The main methods of a research are
connected with specifics of an object of a research:
- among theoretical methods the analysis of
scientific literature, meta-analysis, a modeling method, a method of
sociological and pedagogical measurements, methods of systematization and
generalization are important;
- empirical methods are prioritize: polling
methods (questioning, testing, an interview), the direct and mediated, pedagogical
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of foreign language knowledge, (2001). Strasbourg, http: // www. linguanet.ru/ ipk- REMA/
2. Galskova N.D., (2003). Modern Methodic of foreign
language teaching. 2nd ed., М.: ARKTI
3. Kunanbayeva S.S.,
(2010). Modern foreign language education theory and practice, Almaty
4. Moeller A.J. &
Nugent K., “Building intercultural competence in the language classroom”
(2014). “Unlock the Gateway to Communication”, Central States Conference Report
5. Nazarbayev N.A.,
(2012). Call for the people of Kazakhstan of President of the Republic of Kazakhstan www.akorda.kz / presidentkazakhstan/ poslanie_ prezi-denta
6. Yeshimbetova Z. B.,
Demeuova A. M., (2012). Kazakhstani trilinguism – language policy’s unique
formula – Novosibirsk: SibAK
Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №8 - 2016