Training of military and social management masters according to the requirements of Bologna process
Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №8 - 2016
Author: Oliynyk Leonid , Ivan Chernyakhovskyi National Defense University, Ukraine
Introduction. Urgency of the Bologna process implementation as a tool for harmonization of military education system of
Ukraine with the European educational system includes education content
update and its methodology improvement in accordance with the significant
social and technological changes that are taking place in our country and
The analysis of last researches and
publications. Analysis of scientific researches related to the reform of
military education system, by such scholars as Neshchadim M. I. , Roylyan V.
O. , Yagupov V. V.  and others allows to conclude that the key issue of
higher military education system reform in Ukraine is investigated deeply
enough, but at the same time, the ways of introduction of the Bologna process
in higher military education system of Ukraine has not been investigated.
The purpose of the article - to analyze the
peculiarities of military and social management masters training of special
military subjects according to the requirements of Bologna process and
substantiation of key areas of its improvement.
Direct material statement. Why and how to
teach future military leaders? Higher military schools have always faced and
are now facing these issues, in all their complexity and importance. The point
is that carefully selected from a variety of sources of scientific and didactic
course material is processed to provide quality training of military
specialists. This content of special military subjects teaching should be kept
up to date in accordance with the requirements of modern military practice,
scientific and social progress, taking into account the fact that we live in a
world of change, which is increasingly accelerating.
In our opinion, the future masters of
military and social management should enter an independent activity armed with
achievements of world and national scientific thought, with a solid spiritual
and moral capital and ongoing interest in the new military science, technology,
culture, public life. Therefore, the military education should work for the
present and future by the personality traits of the military leader, their
knowledge, skills, philosophy and, of course, determine the scientific,
technical, moral and spiritual potential of the Armed Forces of Ukraine. Thus,
it is logical that a significant emphasis is put on the quality of military and
social management masters training special military subjects, improvement of
high level substantiation and objective assessment of this important indicator.
In our view, it is necessary to distinguish
two factors that dictate new requirements for methodological, ideological,
systemic and special training of military and social management masters.
The first is stipulated by informatization
of society in all spheres which rapidly produces, updates and distributes endless
facts, data and knowledge of natural phenomena, technological and social
change. In this regard, the role of the military leader systematic and
interdisciplinary knowledge necessary for rational and intelligent manipulation
of streams of different facts in order to solve new, nonstandard problems
increases significantly. In this new paradigm, the most important place is
given to the analytical abilities of the military leader, is its ability to
search and find relevant information accurately formulating problems and
hypotheses in the data set to see certain patterns and find the solution for
complex professional tasks.
The second factor is related to the
methodological system construction of military and social management masters
training based on innovation. Military and social management master should be holistic
knowledge of innovative tools and be able to apply them in practice.
These factors lead to new approaches to the
construction of military education [1, p. 31]. First, it becomes relevant and
significant content update special military subjects teaching methods; curriculum
inclusion management, economic and legal knowledge; in-depth study of
information technologies, foreign languages and more.
Exploring issues of structuring our
curriculum for military and social management masters of special military subjects
enabled us to conclude that the current plans are at least three drawbacks:
1. Quite a large number of small volume of
training hours for special military subjects (significantly less than one
credit), making preparations for a military specialty mild, vague, without an
emphasis on key areas relevant fields. This usually gets reproductive
specialist knowledge, skills and abilities.
2. No so-called “fractal” discipline that
clearly represents the main direction of training, namely specialty. Model effective
specialty curriculum can serve as a knowledge tree, whose roots - fundamental
scientific disciplines; barrel - is the main representative “fractal”
discipline or cycle courses and other disciplines of the specialty - the
3. The similarity of curricula in various
specialties within the same school directly.
Secondly, the factors determining creative
special military subjects teaching methods, the basis of which is the principle
of “creation”, instead of the principle of “repetitions”. This technique is
beneficial in military education component where “knowledge” is the only basis
for the component “ability”.
Thirdly, there are new areas of military
science and technology that need changing traditional academic disciplines.
There is a need to move away from the classical methods that are based on specific
disciplines and approach to problem-oriented methods of generating knowledge
and reducing the distance between basic and applied research.
Fourth, special military subjects training
and research in new areas of knowledge need to integrate a variety of
disciplines that were previously considered separate and unrelated. It is
necessary to create interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary training program.
New forms of knowledge generation need not only reconfiguring departments of
the academy, but the reorganization of research and training focused on solving
the difficult problems of military and social control.
The purpose of education is clearly defined
in the law of Ukraine “On Education” . This - the full development of the
human personality and the highest values of society, the development of talent,
mental and physical abilities, education of high moral character, the formation
of citizens capable of deliberate social choice . Education in Ukraine based on the principles of humanism, democracy, national identity and mutual
respect between nations and peoples. For the preparation of military
specialists in the Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine “On the
unified system of military education creation”  states that the main aim of
military education is to develop military professional, moral and combat
qualities. This formation should occur in close understanding of the importance
of these skills and their creativity, and work activity of students.
Teaching practice shows that nowadays rod
line education to prepare the student as a creative person receives active
development. In this regard, the relevant questions appear - how this problem
should be solved in higher military educational institutions (HMEI) of Ukraine;
what is the role and impact of scientific and pedagogical staff on this
process; how should work a student, etc.?
We believe that to succeed in the military
and social management masters training of special military subjects it is not
efficient only governed by regulations. First of all, such important components
of the educational process shall be followed and improved as:
1) learning environment;
2) personality of scientific and pedagogical
3) content of special military subjects
4) teaching and learning activities of
The first three positions sufficiently
grounded in the theory of pedagogics and implemented in the educational process
of HMEI. No special obstacles and hindrances in the way of further development,
improvement and cultivation of these issues including the system of military education.
With regard to the fourth position it can
be emphasized that nowadays it is an objective reducing of the motivation of
learning activities of students in almost total growing pragmatism of youth. In
order that learning has not lost its relevance and appeal to the audience,
along with many other factors, in our opinion, ways to improve the
methodological expertise of teaching staff, their ability to innovate should be
The analysis of global trends in general
and military education, in addition, can define the contours of modern educational
technologies for military and social management masters of special military
subjects that would meet the requirements of the Bologna process.
Firstly, educational technology should be
based on the nature and content of future careers of military and social
management masters. It is a systematic and purposeful learning of special
military subjects. An important consequence of the contextual approach is that
learning is no longer just confine ourselves to (learn to gain knowledge, or
even smaller - estimate) as a means of directly forming the necessary
professional subject skills of future military and social management masters.
Secondly, technology of military and social
management master training of special military subjects should be personal,
that is to form and develop the personality of each of the learners. Teaching
process is based on the personal approach must be a set of pedagogical
use effective methods of study of individual
characteristics of students and teaching staff;
deepening on this base of the individualization
of special military subjects teaching and education of students ;
extension variability of special military
subjects teaching and learning;
granting deep self- knowledge activity of
transition from authoritarian pedagogy to
Thus, we should talk about the radical transformation
of the educational environment for military and social management masters
training of special military subjects to the form that would help maximize the
development of their professionalism.
Thirdly, the foundation of modern
educational technology of military and social management masters training of special
military subjects has become work, search activities of students, combined with
the practical implementation of its results. In other words, technology should
wear a creative nature. There are two aspects in order to solve this problem.
First - there is no higher education
without science. HMEI can and should be not only the institution but also
scientific center with direct access to the implementation of research and
extensive involvement of these learners to scientific activity. Science - it's
the best choice for training creative person of any type of activity.
The second aspect - teaching students to
think creatively by introduction of special courses, comprehensive application
of known and new approaches, forms and methods of transformation of learning
activities of students in educational and creative. The most recognized and theoretically
grounded approach is problematic studies. The most active form of the transformation
of learning activities of students into educational and creative is problematic
role-playing classes, especially given under the conditions and the dynamics of
development of certain professionally-oriented situations.
It is advisable to develop such forms of
organization and conducting of self-preparation work of students: semester
tasks for self-preparation and individual work, counseling, tutoring,
colloquia, graphically-settlement works, test papers and others. In the
specialty curriculum it should be reduced classroom hours and increased the
number of hours that are allocated to self-preparation work of listener (50-60
% of teaching time). A student at this time should work out lecture notes,
literature to topics planned for the practical lessons and seminars, make their
own notes on the topics proposed for self-study, prepare training projects,
essays and others. Forms of such work can vary by searching of information in
the Internet, execution of tasks in computer technology. However, in all cases
we deal exclusively with information retrieval forms of work, that essentially
focus on technical activities; and existence of the report is recognized as an
indicator of successful learning of processed material.
Creative (heuristic), close to the scientific
understanding and synthesis work is possible only as a result of self-study
with the obligatory presence of goal-setting, and achieving it through
effective technological schemes of self-education. In addition, this work
should be individualized according to the level of creative possibilities of
listener, his academic achievements, interests and learning activities, so as
to optimize the self-preparation work of students new forms of its realization
should be found.
Thus, the pedagogical process of military
and social management masters training of special military subjects should be
subordinated not only to the task of information saturation but also to
formation of productive thinking, development of the intellectual potential of
the individual, establishment methods of logical analysis and comprehensive
data processing, creative designing .
Fourth, educational technology of military
and social management masters training of special military subjects should be
based on modern information technology. Information technology is a universal
means of cognitive research which provides efficient enrichment of educational
Fifthly, modern educational pedagogical
technology framework of military and social management masters training of
special military subjects should ensure the formation of learners, not only
productive thinking, but also develop a sense without which creativity is
Emotions clearly show the impact on all
spheres of life, including training. There is strong evidence to suggest that emotions
are an essential factor in the regulation of cognition. So, emotivism is a
condition that defines voluntary attention and memory, the same factor is able
to provide or significantly complicate the regulation of these processes.
Emotive knowledge are memorized faster and stronger than knowledge, deprived of
identity and leave people indifferent. It is always necessary to consider while
Thus, we can suggest that an important
prerequisite didactic transfer of knowledge in belief is the emotional attitude
of students towards learning.
Sixth, the new educational technology of
military and social management masters training of special military subjects
should naturally absorb all the best traditional pedagogical recommendations
that they are realized. One can not deny all the old, tested and accepted
practice. Two-dimensional thinking is unacceptable in pedagogy, either new or
old. Dialectical approach is required: search for new, old restoration, using
best international experience, rejection of that outlived it self. This
approach can prevent from falling into extremes and will choose the best way to
improve the educational process.
Formation of the creative individual
listener is conducted primarily in organized learning process. It should contribute
organizational forms of teaching (lectures, seminars, group classes,
laboratory, practical, personal training sessions, group exercises, tactical,
tactical and special training, tactical, tactical and special command- staff
exercises, war games, etc.). It is important here rethinking technology of any
and all kinds of activities of special military subjects teaching, the use of
innovative approaches. Vocational training creative students become more real
and purposeful when used not only reproduction, but also problematic
technology, which serves as the basis for the simulation training and fighting
situations of daily activities, their examination, analysis and assessment,
workshops, discussions, “brain storm activities” problematic and dialectical
study of special military subjects, giving students a chance to see substantive
and social aspects of their future careers. Problem-solving technology creates
a real atmosphere of practice solving specific military-technical tasks where
students act as professionals of the future designation official of appropriate
level, enables them to independently and creatively acquire the necessary
knowledge and make proper decisions, learns to take responsibility for their
implementation and consequences.
So, building of system of military and
social management masters training of special military subjects, in our
opinion, should be done according to the following priorities:
improving of legal and regulatory base for
the organization and training of military and social management masters;
creation of system of state order for
military and social management masters training based on advanced structures
and strength of the Armed Forces of Ukraine and other state military forces ;
bringing the contents of military and
social management masters training of special military subjects in accordance
with state standards for higher education, military- technical policy, the
needs of modern combat training and experience ;
usage of innovative teaching technologies,
and promoting development, self-development, self-realization of listeners;
optimization of training of teaching staff
and bring it to the needs of the Armed Forces of Ukraine ;
development of military science.
In our opinion special attention requires:
firstly, introduction of modern information
and communication technologies to ensure further improvement of the educational
process, availability and effectiveness of military and social management
masters training of special military subjects. This requires substantiation of
basic components of information infrastructure of military and social management
masters training, definition phases of information computer network of military
educational institutions, research institutions and management system of
military education, and outline the potential of distance learning based on
highly efficient computer and telecommunication technologies. Organic
combination of education and science, the introduction of information
technology is a key factor for further development of the system of military
education that is provided by military education fundamentalization, intensification
of researches in higher military educational establishment, development
military and social management masters training of special military subjects
based on the latest scientific and technological achievements, innovative
educational activities in HMEI, deepening cooperation between HMEIs and
academic institutions of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, development of advanced
education and psychological sciences;
secondly, standardization of military
education, which aims to find effective mechanisms for the preparation of
masters of military and social management more clear task orientation, to
increase accountability for the outcomes of all working members of the
educational process - from managers and teaching staff to the audience.
Standardization of military education is a means of organizing educational
activities in military field, so you can arrange the preparation of military
specialists into components, specify their properties and relationships to take
into account the dynamics of the time, the best way to find the desired result
for the steps, enter as required thorough process mapping purpose and results
that shall contribute to both goals and results, and actual pedagogical
process. In general, the standardization of military education is aimed at
achieving an optimal level quality and effectiveness of the system of military
education as an educational system. And the first of these indicators characterizes
the contents toward the preparation of military experts, and the second -
procedural and activity, and provision one. [1, p. 689].
In addition, along with the solution of
these tasks problem of quality of military and social management masters training
requires to be solved. This requires a permanent and comprehensive monitoring
as knowledge level, learning and training process, and competitive graduates.
It is important to use complete qualification tasks in the form of tests to
check the readiness of future military and social management masters to perform
professionally practical tasks. Situation should be modeled with these complex
tasks in which graduate gets, when you need to perform not only educational,
but more real task that is determined by the extent to which graduate training
meets the requirements of the customer that requires deep immersion of future
masters of military and social management in future profession.
As stated in the documents the Berlin
Conference in 2003 , according to the principles of autonomy responsibility
for the quality of higher education primarily lies with each individual school,
and thus provides the ability to check the quality of learning both in domestic
and in the international framework. Standards of military education within
existing European trends in the parameters of the European Network of
international quality assurance ENQA should be developed and put into practice.
These standards should be not only the nature of definitions that have our
draft standards in the form of educational qualification characteristics and
educational and vocational programs, but must have training component that determines
the quality and content of knowledge, forms and procedures for monitoring and
Referring to the issue of the introduction
of credit-modular system similar to ECTS (European Course Credit Transfer
System), it should be noted that this transformation cannot be only limited to
the introduction of a new system of assessment of knowledge and rating scale.
It touches the full range of teaching methods in higher military educational
institution. In particular, there is the need to adapt existing training
curriculums and syllabi in accordance with the terms of ECTS, introduce
accumulative credit - scoring system for existing in Ukraine majors, introduce
changes to the regulatory guidance documents, review the list of areas and
majors to introduce additional degrees of European type, develop and adopt new
regulations on the organization of the academic process and so on.
One of the highlights of the Bologna process is the mobility of members of the education system - students, teachers and
scientific researchers. Interaction of higher military educational institutions
in the Association can provide an effective mechanism for the development of
mobility. This requires programs aimed at creating a common bank of teaching
materials, the use of mutual teaching and laboratory facilities, referral of
students and teaching staff in other institutions of the Association and
Conclusion. Thus, analysis of issues
related to improvement of military and social management masters training of
special military subjects implies that its effectiveness will increase
substantially under following conditions:
changes in philosophy of teaching and
learning, i.e. the transition from teaching strategies to learning strategies,
usage of educational technology to encourage independent knowledge and research
by future military and social control masters;
implementation of clear criteria for
evaluation of knowledge and skills of future military and social management masters;
creation of mechanisms for involvement of
HMEI teaching staff and future military and social management masters into
discussions and reform of higher education in the context of the Bologna requirements.
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Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №8 - 2016