Training of military and social management masters according to the requirements of Bologna process

Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №8 - 2016

Author: Oliynyk Leonid , Ivan Chernyakhovskyi National Defense University, Ukraine

Introduction. Urgency of the Bologna process implementation as a tool for harmonization of military education system of Ukraine with the European educational system includes education content update and its methodology improvement in accordance with the significant social and technological changes that are taking place in our country and worldwide.

The analysis of last researches and publications. Analysis of scientific researches related to the reform of military education system, by such scholars as Neshchadim M. I. [1], Roylyan V. O. [2], Yagupov V. V. [3] and others allows to conclude that the key issue of higher military education system reform in Ukraine is investigated deeply enough, but at the same time, the ways of introduction of the Bologna process in higher military education system of Ukraine has not been investigated.

The purpose of the article - to analyze the peculiarities of military and social management masters training of special military subjects according to the requirements of Bologna process and substantiation of key areas of its improvement.

Direct material statement. Why and how to teach future military leaders? Higher military schools have always faced and are now facing these issues, in all their complexity and importance. The point is that carefully selected from a variety of sources of scientific and didactic course material is processed to provide quality training of military specialists. This content of special military subjects teaching should be kept up to date in accordance with the requirements of modern military practice, scientific and social progress, taking into account the fact that we live in a world of change, which is increasingly accelerating.

In our opinion, the future masters of military and social management should enter an independent activity armed with achievements of world and national scientific thought, with a solid spiritual and moral capital and ongoing interest in the new military science, technology, culture, public life. Therefore, the military education should work for the present and future by the personality traits of the military leader, their knowledge, skills, philosophy and, of course, determine the scientific, technical, moral and spiritual potential of the Armed Forces of Ukraine. Thus, it is logical that a significant emphasis is put on the quality of military and social management masters training special military subjects, improvement of high level substantiation and objective assessment of this important indicator.

In our view, it is necessary to distinguish two factors that dictate new requirements for methodological, ideological, systemic and special training of military and social management masters.

The first is stipulated by informatization of society in all spheres which rapidly produces, updates and distributes endless facts, data and knowledge of natural phenomena, technological and social change. In this regard, the role of the military leader systematic and interdisciplinary knowledge necessary for rational and intelligent manipulation of streams of different facts in order to solve new, nonstandard problems increases significantly. In this new paradigm, the most important place is given to the analytical abilities of the military leader, is its ability to search and find relevant information accurately formulating problems and hypotheses in the data set to see certain patterns and find the solution for complex professional tasks.

The second factor is related to the methodological system construction of military and social management masters training based on innovation. Military and social management master should be holistic knowledge of innovative tools and be able to apply them in practice.

These factors lead to new approaches to the construction of military education [1, p. 31]. First, it becomes relevant and significant content update special military subjects teaching methods; curriculum inclusion management, economic and legal knowledge; in-depth study of information technologies, foreign languages and more.

Exploring issues of structuring our curriculum for military and social management masters of special military subjects enabled us to conclude that the current plans are at least three drawbacks:

1. Quite a large number of small volume of training hours for special military subjects (significantly less than one credit), making preparations for a military specialty mild, vague, without an emphasis on key areas relevant fields. This usually gets reproductive specialist knowledge, skills and abilities.

2. No so-called “fractal” discipline that clearly represents the main direction of training, namely specialty. Model effective specialty curriculum can serve as a knowledge tree, whose roots - fundamental scientific disciplines; barrel - is the main representative “fractal” discipline or cycle courses and other disciplines of the specialty - the branches.

3. The similarity of curricula in various specialties within the same school directly.

Secondly, the factors determining creative special military subjects teaching methods, the basis of which is the principle of “creation”, instead of the principle of “repetitions”. This technique is beneficial in military education component where “knowledge” is the only basis for the component “ability”.

Thirdly, there are new areas of military science and technology that need changing traditional academic disciplines. There is a need to move away from the classical methods that are based on specific disciplines and approach to problem-oriented methods of generating knowledge and reducing the distance between basic and applied research.

Fourth, special military subjects training and research in new areas of knowledge need to integrate a variety of disciplines that were previously considered separate and unrelated. It is necessary to create interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary training program. New forms of knowledge generation need not only reconfiguring departments of the academy, but the reorganization of research and training focused on solving the difficult problems of military and social control.

The purpose of education is clearly defined in the law of Ukraine “On Education” [4]. This - the full development of the human personality and the highest values of society, the development of talent, mental and physical abilities, education of high moral character, the formation of citizens capable of deliberate social choice . Education in Ukraine based on the principles of humanism, democracy, national identity and mutual respect between nations and peoples. For the preparation of military specialists in the Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine “On the unified system of military education creation” [5] states that the main aim of military education is to develop military professional, moral and combat qualities. This formation should occur in close understanding of the importance of these skills and their creativity, and work activity of students.

Teaching practice shows that nowadays rod line education to prepare the student as a creative person receives active development. In this regard, the relevant questions appear - how this problem should be solved in higher military educational institutions (HMEI) of Ukraine; what is the role and impact of scientific and pedagogical staff on this process; how should work a student, etc.?

We believe that to succeed in the military and social management masters training of special military subjects it is not efficient only governed by regulations. First of all, such important components of the educational process shall be followed and improved as:

1) learning environment;

2) personality of scientific and pedagogical staff specialist;

3) content of special military subjects learning;

4) teaching and learning activities of students.

The first three positions sufficiently grounded in the theory of pedagogics and implemented in the educational process of HMEI. No special obstacles and hindrances in the way of further development, improvement and cultivation of these issues including the system of military education.

With regard to the fourth position it can be emphasized that nowadays it is an objective reducing of the motivation of learning activities of students in almost total growing pragmatism of youth. In order that learning has not lost its relevance and appeal to the audience, along with many other factors, in our opinion, ways to improve the methodological expertise of teaching staff, their ability to innovate should be deliberately found.

The analysis of global trends in general and military education, in addition, can define the contours of modern educational technologies for military and social management masters of special military subjects that would meet the requirements of the Bologna process.

Firstly, educational technology should be based on the nature and content of future careers of military and social management masters. It is a systematic and purposeful learning of special military subjects. An important consequence of the contextual approach is that learning is no longer just confine ourselves to (learn to gain knowledge, or even smaller - estimate) as a means of directly forming the necessary professional subject skills of future military and social management masters.

Secondly, technology of military and social management master training of special military subjects should be personal, that is to form and develop the personality of each of the learners. Teaching process is based on the personal approach must be a set of pedagogical activities:

use effective methods of study of individual characteristics of students and teaching staff;

deepening on this base of the individualization of special military subjects teaching and education of students ;

extension variability of special military subjects teaching and learning;

granting deep self- knowledge activity of learners;

transition from authoritarian pedagogy to cooperation pedagogy.

Thus, we should talk about the radical transformation of the educational environment for military and social management masters training of special military subjects to the form that would help maximize the development of their professionalism.

Thirdly, the foundation of modern educational technology of military and social management masters training of special military subjects has become work, search activities of students, combined with the practical implementation of its results. In other words, technology should wear a creative nature. There are two aspects in order to solve this problem.

First - there is no higher education without science. HMEI can and should be not only the institution but also scientific center with direct access to the implementation of research and extensive involvement of these learners to scientific activity. Science - it's the best choice for training creative person of any type of activity.

The second aspect - teaching students to think creatively by introduction of special courses, comprehensive application of known and new approaches, forms and methods of transformation of learning activities of students in educational and creative. The most recognized and theoretically grounded approach is problematic studies. The most active form of the transformation of learning activities of students into educational and creative is problematic role-playing classes, especially given under the conditions and the dynamics of development of certain professionally-oriented situations.

It is advisable to develop such forms of organization and conducting of self-preparation work of students: semester tasks for self-preparation and individual work, counseling, tutoring, colloquia, graphically-settlement works, test papers and others. In the specialty curriculum it should be reduced classroom hours and increased the number of hours that are allocated to self-preparation work of listener (50-60 % of teaching time). A student at this time should work out lecture notes, literature to topics planned for the practical lessons and seminars, make their own notes on the topics proposed for self-study, prepare training projects, essays and others. Forms of such work can vary by searching of information in the Internet, execution of tasks in computer technology. However, in all cases we deal exclusively with information retrieval forms of work, that essentially focus on technical activities; and existence of the report is recognized as an indicator of successful learning of processed material.

Creative (heuristic), close to the scientific understanding and synthesis work is possible only as a result of self-study with the obligatory presence of goal-setting, and achieving it through effective technological schemes of self-education. In addition, this work should be individualized according to the level of creative possibilities of listener, his academic achievements, interests and learning activities, so as to optimize the self-preparation work of students new forms of its realization should be found.

Thus, the pedagogical process of military and social management masters training of special military subjects should be subordinated not only to the task of information saturation but also to formation of productive thinking, development of the intellectual potential of the individual, establishment methods of logical analysis and comprehensive data processing, creative designing .

Fourth, educational technology of military and social management masters training of special military subjects should be based on modern information technology. Information technology is a universal means of cognitive research which provides efficient enrichment of educational information.

Fifthly, modern educational pedagogical technology framework of military and social management masters training of special military subjects should ensure the formation of learners, not only productive thinking, but also develop a sense without which creativity is sharply limited.

Emotions clearly show the impact on all spheres of life, including training. There is strong evidence to suggest that emotions are an essential factor in the regulation of cognition. So, emotivism is a condition that defines voluntary attention and memory, the same factor is able to provide or significantly complicate the regulation of these processes. Emotive knowledge are memorized faster and stronger than knowledge, deprived of identity and leave people indifferent. It is always necessary to consider while the studying.

Thus, we can suggest that an important prerequisite didactic transfer of knowledge in belief is the emotional attitude of students towards learning.

Sixth, the new educational technology of military and social management masters training of special military subjects should naturally absorb all the best traditional pedagogical recommendations that they are realized. One can not deny all the old, tested and accepted practice. Two-dimensional thinking is unacceptable in pedagogy, either new or old. Dialectical approach is required: search for new, old restoration, using best international experience, rejection of that outlived it self. This approach can prevent from falling into extremes and will choose the best way to improve the educational process.

Formation of the creative individual listener is conducted primarily in organized learning process. It should contribute organizational forms of teaching (lectures, seminars, group classes, laboratory, practical, personal training sessions, group exercises, tactical, tactical and special training, tactical, tactical and special command- staff exercises, war games, etc.). It is important here rethinking technology of any and all kinds of activities of special military subjects teaching, the use of innovative approaches. Vocational training creative students become more real and purposeful when used not only reproduction, but also problematic technology, which serves as the basis for the simulation training and fighting situations of daily activities, their examination, analysis and assessment, workshops, discussions, “brain storm activities” problematic and dialectical study of special military subjects, giving students a chance to see substantive and social aspects of their future careers. Problem-solving technology creates a real atmosphere of practice solving specific military-technical tasks where students act as professionals of the future designation official of appropriate level, enables them to independently and creatively acquire the necessary knowledge and make proper decisions, learns to take responsibility for their implementation and consequences.

So, building of system of military and social management masters training of special military subjects, in our opinion, should be done according to the following priorities:

improving of legal and regulatory base for the organization and training of military and social management masters;

creation of system of state order for military and social management masters training based on advanced structures and strength of the Armed Forces of Ukraine and other state military forces ;

bringing the contents of military and social management masters training of special military subjects in accordance with state standards for higher education, military- technical policy, the needs of modern combat training and experience ;

usage of innovative teaching technologies, and promoting development, self-development, self-realization of listeners;

optimization of training of teaching staff and bring it to the needs of the Armed Forces of Ukraine ;

development of military science.

In our opinion special attention requires:

firstly, introduction of modern information and communication technologies to ensure further improvement of the educational process, availability and effectiveness of military and social management masters training of special military subjects. This requires substantiation of basic components of information infrastructure of military and social management masters training, definition phases of information computer network of military educational institutions, research institutions and management system of military education, and outline the potential of distance learning based on highly efficient computer and telecommunication technologies. Organic combination of education and science, the introduction of information technology is a key factor for further development of the system of military education that is provided by military education fundamentalization, intensification of researches in higher military educational establishment, development military and social management masters training of special military subjects based on the latest scientific and technological achievements, innovative educational activities in HMEI, deepening cooperation between HMEIs and academic institutions of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, development of advanced education and psychological sciences;

secondly, standardization of military education, which aims to find effective mechanisms for the preparation of masters of military and social management more clear task orientation, to increase accountability for the outcomes of all working members of the educational process - from managers and teaching staff to the audience. Standardization of military education is a means of organizing educational activities in military field, so you can arrange the preparation of military specialists into components, specify their properties and relationships to take into account the dynamics of the time, the best way to find the desired result for the steps, enter as required thorough process mapping purpose and results that shall contribute to both goals and results, and actual pedagogical process. In general, the standardization of military education is aimed at achieving an optimal level quality and effectiveness of the system of military education as an educational system. And the first of these indicators characterizes the contents toward the preparation of military experts, and the second - procedural and activity, and provision one. [1, p. 689].

In addition, along with the solution of these tasks problem of quality of military and social management masters training requires to be solved. This requires a permanent and comprehensive monitoring as knowledge level, learning and training process, and competitive graduates. It is important to use complete qualification tasks in the form of tests to check the readiness of future military and social management masters to perform professionally practical tasks. Situation should be modeled with these complex tasks in which graduate gets, when you need to perform not only educational, but more real task that is determined by the extent to which graduate training meets the requirements of the customer that requires deep immersion of future masters of military and social management in future profession.

As stated in the documents the Berlin Conference in 2003 [6], according to the principles of autonomy responsibility for the quality of higher education primarily lies with each individual school, and thus provides the ability to check the quality of learning both in domestic and in the international framework. Standards of military education within existing European trends in the parameters of the European Network of international quality assurance ENQA should be developed and put into practice. These standards should be not only the nature of definitions that have our draft standards in the form of educational qualification characteristics and educational and vocational programs, but must have training component that determines the quality and content of knowledge, forms and procedures for monitoring and others.

Referring to the issue of the introduction of credit-modular system similar to ECTS (European Course Credit Transfer System), it should be noted that this transformation cannot be only limited to the introduction of a new system of assessment of knowledge and rating scale. It touches the full range of teaching methods in higher military educational institution. In particular, there is the need to adapt existing training curriculums and syllabi in accordance with the terms of ECTS, introduce accumulative credit - scoring system for existing in Ukraine majors, introduce changes to the regulatory guidance documents, review the list of areas and majors to introduce additional degrees of European type, develop and adopt new regulations on the organization of the academic process and so on.

One of the highlights of the Bologna process is the mobility of members of the education system - students, teachers and scientific researchers. Interaction of higher military educational institutions in the Association can provide an effective mechanism for the development of mobility. This requires programs aimed at creating a common bank of teaching materials, the use of mutual teaching and laboratory facilities, referral of students and teaching staff in other institutions of the Association and others.

Conclusion. Thus, analysis of issues related to improvement of military and social management masters training of special military subjects implies that its effectiveness will increase substantially under following conditions:

changes in philosophy of teaching and learning, i.e. the transition from teaching strategies to learning strategies, usage of educational technology to encourage independent knowledge and research by future military and social control masters;

implementation of clear criteria for evaluation of knowledge and skills of future military and social management masters;

creation of mechanisms for involvement of HMEI teaching staff and future military and social management masters into discussions and reform of higher education in the context of the Bologna requirements.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

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Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №8 - 2016

  
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