Problems of innovative development economy of the Republic of Kazakhstan

Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №8 - 2016

Authors:
Mazkenova Araylym, Kazakh-American free university, Kazakhstan
Kaygorodtsev Alexander, Kazakh-American free university, Kazakhstan

World experience demonstrates that the greatest success in social and economic development is achieved the innovative focused states which core of economic policy is formation of the special relation of business and society to development of the knowledge-intensive productions and large-scale carrying out scientific researches and developments.

In this regard in Kazakhstan for the solution of a problem of increase of national competitiveness the program and target approach providing effective interaction of the scientific organizations and business in the innovative sphere by implementation of joint technological programs is used. Similar programs are developed and realized for enhancing cooperation of the state, science and business to develop the perspective directions of technology, to provide a continuous stream of financing of the companies conducting scientific researches and also to improve system of granting grants and maintenance of innovative partnership.

In Kazakhstan formation of the national innovative system (NIS) which basic elements are continues: scientific potential, innovative business, innovative infrastructure and financial infrastructure (Madiyarova D.M., 2015) [4].

In the republic the innovative infrastructure consisting of 8 science and technology parks, 4 branch design offices, 21 offices and 4 regional centers of commercialization of technologies, 4 international centers of a transfer of technologies is created [1].

The system of the state support of innovative activity turns on the following tools:

1. Project and venture financing.

2. Innovative grants.

3. Technological business incubation.

4. Services of offices of commercialization of technologies.

5. Services of branch design offices.

6. Services of the international centers of a transfer of technologies.

7. Innovative competitions.

Innovative activity in Kazakhstan is carried out in the following organizational forms:

- scientific centers and laboratories as a part of corporate structures which carry out research and development and are engaged in the organization of development and production of new production;

- creative research teams, created to satisfy the original scientific and technical problems;

- technopark structures (scientific, technological and research parks; innovative, innovative and technological and business and innovative centers; business incubators; technopolises).

Kazakhstan is open for dialogue with participants of innovative process of all countries without exception, however gives a priority to the countries with the advanced national innovative system, such as the USA, Finland, Israel, Germany, France, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Singapore.

Kazakhstan carries out cooperation with more than 40 leading foreign organizations and the international experts in innovations, has concluded 60 memorandums and agreements with foreign partners.

So, together with experts of the Economic Commission for Europe of the United Nations the "Review of Innovative Development of the Republic of Kazakhstan" project is realized, with methodological support of the Korean institute of an assessment of planning, science and the KISTEP technologies the first technological Forsythe is carried out, with Statistical institute SESRIC of the Organization of Islamic cooperation (Republic of Turkey) the "Atlas of Innovations of the Islamic World" project is realized, with the European commission the "Review of Scientific and Technical Development of Kazakhstan" project is realized, offers on development of national innovative system are developed.

Scientific and technological cooperation between Kazakhstan and the European Union it is carried out through participation in framework programs on development of scientific researches and technologies.

The following international centers of technological cooperation function:

1. The Kazakhstan-French center of a transfer of technologies created in 2010 in the form of consortium JSC Center of Engineering and Transfer of Technologies and the CEIS company for creation of conditions for development of cooperation between subjects of innovative activity of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the French Republic in the academic, scientific, technological spheres and a transfer of technologies.

2. The Kazakhstan-Korean center of technological cooperation created in 2011 in the city of Daeje on the basis of the Korean fund of an innovative cluster and in the city of Astana on the basis of National technological development Agency for a transfer of advanced technologies, professional development of the Kazakhstan experts in the Republic of Korea and the organization of joint scientific researches between the Kazakhstan and Korean research organizations.

3. The Kazakhstan-Norwegian center of technological cooperation created in 2013 for support of cooperation between the companies and research institutes of Kazakhstan and Norway, a transfer of technologies, implementation of joint innovative and research projects.

4. The Kazakhstan-American center for technological cooperation created in September, 2013.

The special economic zone "Park of Innovative Technologies" is created for technological development of the country in the following priority directions:

1. Information technologies.

2. Technologies in the sphere of telecommunications and communication.

3. Electronics and instrument making.

4. Renewable, resource-saving and effective environmental management.

5. Technologies in the sphere of creation and use of materials of different function.

6. Technologies in the sphere of production, transportation and oil refining and gas.

7. Activation of entry of the Kazakhstan economy into system of world economic communications.

8. Creation of highly effective, including hi-tech and competitive productions, development of release of new types of production, attraction of investments.

The total of participants of the special economic zone "Park of Innovative Technologies" makes 150 companies which carry out the activity in the following spheres:

– In the field of industry IT – 68% of the companies;

– In the field of production of hi-tech production and telecommunication devices – 14%;

– Educational and research activity – 10%;

– Other kinds of activity – 8%.

About degree of efficiency of innovative activity in the Republic of Kazakhstan it is possible to judge by the data provided in tab. 1.

From the table it is visible that in 2014 392 organizations which are carrying out scientific researches and developments with the total number of personnel of 25793 people, from them researchers – 11488 people, including with academic degrees of 8186 people (71,3%) worked in the republic.

From the table it is visible that in 2014 392 organizations which are carrying out scientific researches and developments with the total number of personnel of 25793 people, from them researchers – 11488 people, including with academic degrees of 8186 people (71,3%) worked in the republic.

However, by the number of researchers, that is highly qualified specialists capable to generate ideas which can be realized further in innovative products and technologies Kazakhstan considerably concedes to many foreign countries. So, on number of researchers on one thousand occupied our country by 12,2 times concedes to Finland, by 9 times – the Republic of Korea, by 8 times – to Singapore [2].

Level of a salary of workers of science doesn't conform to the international standards and in spite of the fact that in Kazakhstan there is an annual increase in the sizes of compensation of researchers, real (adjusted for inflation) the salary of workers of the sphere of research and development remains at critically low level while in the most developed countries of the world the salary of researchers is one of the highest in economy. So, for example, in the USA the average salary of workers of the sphere of research and development exceeds an average salary on national economy almost twice (Melnikova I.N., 2010) [3].

Table 1. Development of science and innovation in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2010-2014

Indicators

Years

2014 in% to 2010

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

GDP, mln. dollars

148052,4

188050,0

203520,6

231875,1

217874,3

147,2

Volume of innovative production, million dollars

964,8

1609,3

2541,8

3801,1

3238,8

335,7

Share of innovative production in GDP, %

0,65

0,86

1,25

1,64

1,49

+0,84 items

Level of innovative activity of the enterprises, %

5,2

7,1

7,6

8,0

8,1

+2,9 items

Internal and external costs of RADW, million dollars

312,7

400,5

459,1

486,1

410,6

131,3

From them:

           

Internal costs of RADW, million dollars

227,1

295,7

343,7

405,4

370,4

163,1

-in %GDP

0,15

0,16

0,17

0,17

0,17

+0,02 items

- external costs of researches and developments

85,6

104,8

115,4

80,7

40,2

47,0

Structure of internal costs of RADW, %

           

- basic researches

8,3

11,5

16

29,5

23,0

277,1

- applied researches

42,0

41,3

38,8

54,1

57,9

137,9

- scientific and technical developments, scientific and technical services

49,7

47,2

45,2

16,4

19,1

38,4

The number of the organizations which are carrying out RADW

424

412

345

341

392

92,4

The number of the workers who are carrying out scientific researches, the person

17021

18003

20404

23712

25793

151,5

including:

     

   

 

- researches

11524

10780

10095

10870

11488

99,7

From them:

           

- have an academic degree, the person

4418

4868

5589

7426

8186

185,3

In %

38,3

45,2

55,4

68,3

71,3

+33,0 items

Costs of technological innovations, in million dollars

1598,2

1329,9

2183,9

2839,6

2425,4

151,8

From them:

           
- republic budget

34,6

87,8

250,8

114,8

209,5

605,5

- local budget

0,3

45,1

8,5

24,6

11,7

3900,0

- own means of the enterprises

1489,3

781,4

1028,9

1873,7

1429,0

95,9

- foreign investitions

14,8

273,2

54,7

5,6

19,7

133,1

- other means

56,5

142,4

840,9

820,9

755,5

13371,7

-Efficiency of costs of technological innovations

0,60

1,21

1,16

1,34

1,335

2,2 time

The note – is made by authors by data[1].

In Kazakhstan there is a tendency to growth of specific weight of the innovation-active enterprises. If in 2008-2009 the share of such enterprises made 4%, then in 2014 it has reached 8, 1%. It has led to triple increase in comparison with 2010 in output of innovative production which in 2014 has made 3,2 billion US dollars or 1,5% of GDP.

However Kazakhstan significantly lags behind on the specific weight of innovative production in GDP an average in 2013 of the level of EU countries of-53%, Germany – 79%, Sweden – 60%, Finland – 58% and the USA of-50%. It is explained by insufficient funding of innovative activity. Now the specific weight of internal costs of research and development in GDP of the republic makes 0,17% while in Israel – 4,4%, Finland –3,9%, the Republic of Korea – 3,7%, Japan –3,4%, 15 leading countries of the European Union – 1,96% (Stability of development…, 2015).

The list of strategic factors of development of National innovative system of the Republic of Kazakhstan is presented in tab. 2.

Table 2. SWOT-analysis of National innovative systems of the Republic of Kazakhstan

Strengths

Weaknesses

1. Political stability.

2. Coverage width secondary and higher education.

3. Support by the country leaders of measures for increase of efficiency of NIS.

4. Existence of innovative and financial infrastructure

5. Experience of a venture and project financing of innovative projects.

1. Insufficient sequence in realization of the state innovative policy.

2. Low level of innovative activity of the enterprises.

3. Deficiency of highly qualified technical personnel.

4. Weak innovative culture.

5. Small domestic consumer market

6. A gap between science and production

7. Lack of the effective mechanism of interaction of representatives of business and scientific community.

8. Insufficient financing of research and development.

Opportunities

Threats

1. Increase of efficiency of NIS on the basis of improvement of interaction between science and production.

2. Increase of labor productivity as a result of a transfer of technologies.

3. Leadership in a number of perspective high-tech industries due to existence of clear competitive advantages and scientific reserves.

4. Growth of sales markets of hi-tech production due to integration processes.

1. Strengthening of the competition in the innovative sphere among developing countries.

2. The increasing separation from the scientific and technological level of the developed countries.

3. Preservation of a raw orientation of economy.

5. Change of priorities in a state policy.

6. Leakage of intellectual resources

7. Education decline in quality

8. The increasing competition from the foreign hi-tech companies.

The main reasons for insufficient efficiency of functioning of National innovative system of the Republic of Kazakhstan:

- low level of competitiveness of domestic science in comparison with foreign schools;

- a high risk when carrying out research and development for the private sector and lack of effective mechanisms of division of risks (partial compensation of expenses) from the state;

- lack of scientifically based system of long-term technological planning;

- backwardness of services in a transfer of technologies;

- weak protection of intellectual property;

- insufficient amount of the domestic objects of intellectual property patented abroad;

- not the considerable volume of direct foreign investments in manufacturing industry;

- deficiency of the qualified technical shots in the sphere of development of new production and technological processes.

The solution of the listed problems is the prerequisite of acceleration of development of innovative sector of national economy.

Proceeding from it, the main objectives of the state support of innovative activity in the Republic of Kazakhstan are:

1. Development of innovative capacity of the country.

2. Increase in a share of hi-tech production in structure of gross domestic product.

3. Assistance to transition of national economy on the innovative way of development.

The principles of the state support of innovative activity in the Republic of Kazakhstan are:

1. A priority of national interests at implementation of innovative activity.

2. Equality of subjects of innovative activity when receiving the state support.

3. The complexity and systemacity providing continuous interaction of subjects of innovative activity.

4. Transparency of procedures of the state support of innovative activity.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Science and innovative activity of Kazakhstan 2010-2014. Statistical collection. – Astana: Committee on statistics of the Ministry of national economy of the Republic of Kazakhstan, 2015 // www. stat.gov.kz.

2. International Labor Organization (2012) // Key indicators of the labor market // http: // www.ilo.org.

3. Melnikova I.N. Stimulation of scientific and innovative activity: international experience // Magazine of international law and international relations. – 2010. – No. 3. – P. 89-93.

4. Stability of development of national economy in modern geopolitical and geo-economics conditions [monograph] / under the editorship of D. M. Madiyarova, Zh.B. Rakhmatulina. – Astana: Eurasian national university of L. N. Gumilev, 2015. – 257 p.



Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №8 - 2016

  
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