Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №7 - 2015
Author: Stepanova Maria, Kazakh-American Free University, Kazakhstan
important feature of the present stage of economic development is increase of
the role of innovation as the basis of the economic growth, as well as the
desire of developed countries to compete due to high-tech and nonstandard
introduction of innovative products and technologies into economic circulation
has become a key factor of economic development and improvement of the quality
is understood as "the end result of innovation activity that gets
implemented in the form of a new or improved product sold on the market of a
new or improved technological process applied in practice" .
innovations have a particularly important role. The world practice shows that
on profitableness and developmental dynamics the tourism industry is inferior
only to extraction and processing of oil and gas.
to the World Tourism Organization tourism business provides 10% of a production
and service market turnover, accounting for 7% of total world investments and
5% of all tax revenues .
reason it is necessary to pay more attention to the tourism industry, to
promote the improvement of innovation processes in the field of tourism, to
promote the creation of new products, services and new management technologies
in the tourism business. Moreover, innovation development should be carried out
both at the state level and at the level of tourism organizations themselves.
It is innovative growth which leads to the creation and implementation of
competitive products and services, improves the economic condition of not only
a company but also of the entire tourism drift.
market economy conditions tourism organizations are increasingly aware of the
need to develop new products and services and of related economic benefits.
Kazakhstan has every reason for the innovative development of the tourism
industry with its unique natural and cultural potential, as well as the huge
interest of tourists from near and far abroad as to a new unreached direction.
of the state influence on innovative activity of tourism organizations are: tax
benefits of innovative active organizations, the implementation of special
scientific, technical, tax and fiscal policies, the creation of favorable
conditions for attracting domestic and foreign investments to the tourism
industry, improvement of the amortization policy and setting priorities of the
in the tourism industry is mainly aimed at creating a new tourism product, new
approaches to marketing activities, as well as at the application of new
management methods using IT technologies. Introduction of innovations will
enhance the competitiveness of tourism enterprises. Creation of new promising
types of tourism development increases growth of consumer demand in the market
of tourism services.
necessary to highlight the following factors that determine the degree of
innovation development of tourism:
conjuncture of the market and competition (both in the domestic and foreign
environment (the level of development of science and technology, improvement of
the legislative and legal framework, political and economic stability);
(scientists, experts, entrepreneurs, managers, politicians, civil servants);
(natural, industrial, financial, scientific, technical, technological,
technological, economical, management and social innovations are interrelated
in tourism and in order to introduce an innovation it is necessary to make
amendments in other areas. For example, in order to abandon old habits to
confirm your reservation by fax and to switch to the “on-line booking” system
which allows receiving instant confirmation of the tour, the company must train
employees to install computers with appropriate software, to amend the terms of
the contract between the operator and the customer, etc. In this case, the tour
operator saves time for processing applications, accelerates the clearance of
the tour, and its operational efficiency attracts new customers.
need of a system of innovation management meeting the requirements of the
industry and the market to create an innovation strategy of tourism industry
enterprises and to further implement innovative ideas in the sphere of tourism
(automation, software development, development of new types of tourism and new
tourist routes, the novelty of the hospitality services, etc.). The
effectiveness of a new tourism product, the pace of development of innovative
activity are defined in the manufacture of a new product which whether
satisfies any completely new needs or allows you to expand the market for
consumers. Innovative activity is manifested through the process of innovation
and it is essential for economic growth and improvement of the quality of life.
development of the tourism industry is the development and creating of new
tourist routes, products, services, etc. involving science, technology, IT
technology and advanced experience in management and marketing, its
implementation will increase employment, ensure the growth of the population
income, improve social and economic development and tourist attraction of the
country and regions.
of developmental dynamics of the tourism market determine both continuous
improvement of legislation in the field of state support of tourism and
intersectorial legislation affecting the state of the tourism industry.
tourism has all the necessary conditions for innovative development of the
tourism industry. Tourism is one of the leading and most dynamic sectors of the
economy and thanks to a rapid pace of it development it is recognized as an
economic phenomenon of the century. For 38% of countries the tourism is the
main source of income and for 83% of countries it is one of five main sources
current global social and economic phenomenon tourism sometimes operates under
very tough competition conditions and it is characterized by a high degree of
exposure to the innovation process and the observance of which is often the
main feature determining competitiveness factor of tourism organizations.
should focus its efforts and available free resources on the development
perspective for the entire national economy of knowledge intensive industries,
i.e such industries which actively influence and contribute to the development
of other sectors of the economy. And this industry is tourism .
functions of the innovation:
Involvement of new productive forces into the production, increase of
productivity and efficiency, reduction of various kinds of costs;
of the standard of living of every person and of the society as a whole due to
the diversity and quality of products and services fulfilling the needs of the
- Help to
align the structure of production to the structure of the changed needs, help
to maintain a balance between supply and demand, between production and
application of creative ability and knowledge of a particular person, human
intelligence which in its turn stimulates further growth of creative activity
trends and patterns of integrated development of innovations, planning positive
results and management is a complex methodological problem in the tourism
sector, primarily due to the classification of innovations. The classification
criteria necessary to define the essence of innovations in tourism:
- Source of
ideas (the needs of tourists, discoveries, inventions);
- Type of
innovation (attractors, tourism infrastructure, tourism product, ways and means
of distribution of tourism products/services, management, factors of
degree of novelty (improving, breakthrough);
breadth of impact, scale, connectivity (local, global, system);
Investment content (not capital-intensive, low capital-intensive,
in tourism should be regarded as system events with high quality novelty and
leading to positive changes, ensuring stable operation and development of the
industry in the region. So, the idea of creating and implementation of tourism
projects which are not even profitable from the beginning can give impetus to
the development of tourism and thus actively contribute to the creating of
additional jobs and income growth.
innovation process in tourism is quite specific. As a rule, it receives its
recognition on the one hand, through the tourist market and customer
satisfaction, and on the other hand, mainly due to the adoption of joint
decisions taken by tourist organizations, regulatory bodies, local authorities
and public organizations whose activities are aligned with tourism, as well as
due to assessing the industry by the local population. Only such an interaction
of all elements (subjects and objects) of the innovation process can lead to
significant synergies, expressed as a growth (development) of the tourism
industry. Complexity and transformability of innovations when the
implementation of something new in one area gives the effect (and probably a
stronger one) to another area, constituting their essence in the industry, for
that reason innovations need science-based organization and management .
principles of innovations in tourism include:
principle of science, consisting of the use of scientific knowledge and methods
for the implementation of innovations that fulfill the needs of tourists.
principle of systems. Elaboration of a strategy of innovative development of
tourism in the region have to take into account the factors and conditions
necessary to fulfill the needs of people in the town; resource potential of the
region (economic, financial, human and other potentials); social impact on
society; environmental factors.
principle of fulfillment the needs of tourists. Suggestion of only those
innovations that do really fulfill the needs of a client, and not those which
can be produces and implemented by a tourist organization.
principle of a positive result which consists of preventing unreasonable, not
deliberate creating and innovations, that can be dangerous for the tourist
first; secondly, for a particular company; Thirdly for the biosphere and the
society as a whole.
principle of the immanence of the investment process. In order to conduct the
necessary research, develop and materialize innovations it is necessary to use
materialized investment resources, which effectiveness is determined by the
degree of importance and scale of an innovation.
Compliance of innovations and their results with the level of the society
principle of connectivity. The innovation process ends up with the product
yield on the market, which at some stage of its life cycle have to cause a need
(to stimulate the idea) to create the next innovation and provide this process
with financial support.
principle of security. Any innovation should guarantee no harm to humans and
the environment .
activity is a complex of scientific, technological, organizational, financial,
commercial events that lead to innovation. Activity is innovative if it brings
new knowledge, technologies, techniques and approaches to obtain a result that
is in a high demand in the community. Enterprise innovation can be defined as
the joint work of all employees, aimed at creating and implementing innovations.
Innovative activity is systemic, a system is formed by a society and actors of
directions of innovation activity in the sphere of tourism and hospitality:
production of new kinds of tourism products, products of the restaurant sector
and hotel services, etc .;
- The use
new techniques and technologies in the manufacture of traditional products;
- The use
of absolutely new tourist resources that were not previously used. Unique
example - traveling on spaceships;
in the production organization and consumption of traditional tourism, catering
products, hotel services, etc.; new marketing, new management;
identification and use of new markets (hotel and restaurant chains).
of the innovation activity in all sectors of the economy is the implementation
of scientific and technological progress. The abovementioned fully applies to
the field of social and cultural service and tourism .
technological revolution has not only become the material basis for the
formation of mass tourism, it has made a huge impact on innovation in social
and cultural service and tourism through high technologies, which include new
materials, microprocessor technology, media and biotechnology.
occurrence of polymer, composite and other new materials has led to the
emergence of new types of clothing and footwear, sport and other kinds of
equipment, new tare and packaging, etc. New materials have become the material
basis of extreme tourism and contributed to the development of aqueous tourism,
hiking and a number of other types of tourism.
appearance of modern communication medium has made a profound impact on the
social production and on household. Modern tourist activities and work of tourist
agencies can not be imagined without the Internet. Modern audio and visual
equipment has significantly changed the management technology. Management is
getting to a real-time basis, etc.
innovation activity in the tourism sector aims at creating a new product or
modifying the existing one, at improvement of transport, accommodation and
other services and development of new markets and introduction of advanced
information and communication technologies, modern forms of organization and
sphere today is one of the most promising and lucrative economical spheres.
About 10% of the world gross income fall to its share including 8% of the total
world export and 30-35% of the world services trade.
constantly evolving despite various obstacles of political, economic and social
issues. Tourist business in many cases is the initiator and the experimenter in
the development and implementation of advanced technologies, continually
changing forms and methods of supply and provision of services, opening and
developing new opportunities.
of the tourism industry deals with a variety of forms and methods of leisure
arrangement, travel and cultural activities. Tourism development is only
possible through the introduction of new ideas, improvement of goods and
services production and expanding the production range.
daily implements all sorts of innovations under the influence of both
scientific and technological progress and intellectual development of mankind.
innovations in tourism arise unexpectedly and unpredictably even under the
influence of events in the community. That’s why the study of innovation
processes and the causes of innovations and development of methods for their
implementation is of a great scientific and practical interest .
also mention how important is the role of the state in the development of
innovations in the tourism sphere. And we should highlight the relevancy of
development and implementation of the state support mechanisms.
1. Novikov V.S. Innovations in tourism. Training manual // M.:
Publishing Center “Academy”, 2007. – p. 208.
2. GershmanМ.А. Innovation management. Training manual // М.: Market DS,
2008, p. 200.
3. World Tourism Organization UNWTO Website www. unwto. org.en
4. Materials of the All-Union Scientific and Practical Conference
“Actual aspects of economics, management and innovations”// Nizhny Novgorod
State Technical University named after R.Y. Alekseev 2010.,p.124.
5. Malakhova N.N., Ushakov D.S. Innovations in tourism and services. -
M.: Publishing Commercial Center “MART”, Rostov-on-Don: Publishing Center
“MART” 2008.- p 224. («Tourism and services»).
6. Novikov V.S. Innovations in tourism. Training manual / Novikov V.S. -
M.: Publishing Center “Academy”, 2007. – p. 208.
7. Sevastyanova S.A. Regional planning of tourism and hotel industry:
training manual / Sevastyanova S.A. - M.: “KNORUS”, 2007. - p. 256.
Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №7 - 2015