Trinity of languages as the core component of independence in Kazakhstan
Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №7 - 2015
Author: Kulinka Yelena, Kazakh-American Free University, Kazakhstan
years inter-ethnic cooperation in Kazakhstan has undergone some
changes. Our management policy is aimed at strengthening the equality of the
different nationalities of the country, no matter which ethnic group they
belong to. The principles of state language policy are defined in the
Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan, in the laws of the Republic
of Kazakhstan "On Education" and "On languages in the Republic
of Kazakhstan" and in the "State program of functioning and
development of languages for 2011-2020." In accordance with the state
program of functioning and development of languages, language development
strategy has three main objectives:
1) expansion and strengthening of social and communicative
functions of the state language;
2) preservation of common cultural features of the Russian
3) development of languages of ethnic groups.
world in the era of globalization the question of language and its meaning in
society was one of the important state tasks in connection with the processes
of self-determination. The main problems of language are: the use of language
in formal and informal communication, language teaching in secondary and higher
educational institutions. At the current stage, the purpose of education is not
only knowledge, but also the formation of key competencies, which are aimed at
preparing students for future life. They must be prepared to communicate both
orally and in writing. This process should involve knowledge of several
Kazakhstan is a multinational state with
already established and continuously developing multi-ethnic mentality. Rich
experience of peaceful coexistence of different peoples, cultures and religions
has accumulated on the Kazakh land. This heritage defines the essence of our
unity and provides friendly inter-ethnic relations at the present stage.
Political processes, occurring in Kazakhstan, its dynamic economic
development and its desire to enter the educational world space require maximum
openness to different points of view, the ability to rethink and evaluate the
contribution of different cultural historical paradigm in the educational
process. In order to enter a single global educational environment and ensure
social mobility of Kazakh people, it is necessary to develop a dialogue of
cultures and traditions, customs, religions and educational systems.
ancient times, the value of polylinguism was one of the important directions.
Nowadays it is impossible to imagine that there are countries where people
speak only one language. In reality, there is no state, where only one nation
lives. Bilingualism and multilinguism are integral to the normal functioning of
any multinational state. Today the Kazakhstani educational system provides a
study of Kazakh as the state language, Russian as the language of interethnic
languages in the Republic
of Kazakhstan is a
concept aimed at further strengthening of our country. A polylingual person
will always be in demand in any society. This indicates its competitiveness in
much attention is paid to the study of languages of the people living in Kazakhstan. The
state language is Kazakh; the Russian language is the language of interethnic
communication. New textbooks are published in six languages. They are Kazakh,
Russian, Uighur, German, Turkish and Uzbek. Foreign languages are taught in all
educational institutions. Kazakh and Russian are the main languages in all
educational institutions. The curriculum includes not only Russian, but also at
least one other foreign language. This situation suggests that bilingualism has
formed in Kazakhstan,
and there is a trend towards multilingual education.
Nazarbayev said that "... Kazakhstan
is unique, and multinationality is its strong point. A unique multicultural
space is formed on its ground. Multiculturalism in Kazakhstan is a progressive factor
in the development of our society. Eurasian roots of the peoples of Kazakhstan
allow for connecting the Eastern, Asian, Western, European flows and creating a
unique version of the Kazakh multiculturalism" .
bilingualism is the most important form of cultural interethnic communication
The person, who knows several languages, is able to communicate with more
people, to take up the material and spiritual wealth of other native speakers. He can get acquainted with their history and culture” .
awareness of the world community of the contradiction between increased levels
of multi-ethnicity of the social environment in which people live and work, has
led to the fact that a multicultural and multilingual education is increasingly
becoming an integral characteristic of modern trends of social and political
development in the world. This problem is inherent in the educational practices
of different states. It shows its significance and urgency.
development of multilingual education is encouraged by the deepening of
international cooperation and collaboration, the growth of professional and
academic exchanges. Multilingual education in Kazakhstan is a concept aimed at
further strengthening of the country and its
potential. Fluency in three or more languages is a part of the national
ideology, aimed at establishment and development of competitive Kazakhstan.
of a polylingual person is one of the priorities aimed at internal policy of
our multinational state. In order to ensure the competitiveness of the country
and its citizens, the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan Nursultan
Nazarbayev in his Address "New Kazakhstan in the new world" proposed
phased implementation of the cultural project "Trinity of languages":
"It is necessary to develop three languages: Kazakh as the state language,
Russian as the language of interethnic communication and English as the
language of successful integration into the global economy ". According
to Nursultan Nazarbayev’s strategy, national education should become
competitive and high-quality, so that graduates of Kazakh schools could easily
continue their studies in foreign universities.
One of the
main strategic objectives is to preserve the best traditions of Kazakh
education and give school leavers international qualifications, develop their
linguistic consciousness based on knowing of state, native and foreign
One of the
objectives of education is familiarizing a younger generation with world-wide,
global values, the formation of adolescents’ ability to communicate and
interact with other cultures in the world. Due to the important role of
language in the modern world, the question of language teaching takes the
leading role in our society. Teachers also need to know their own language and
the language of international communication - English. The main aim of school
teachers is raising a multicultural personality knowing the customs and
traditions of its people, multilingual, able to carry out communicative -
activity-related operations in the three languages in all situations, striving
for self-development and self-improvement .
the sphere of language is one of the most important aspects of the ongoing
social and economic modernization in our society. President Nazarbayev pays
much attention to this component. Trinity of languages is a unique project,
initiated by the head of state. In today's multicultural world there is an
urgent problem of contingency of languages remains, as well as the search for
effective and sustainable programs in the field of languages.
1990s, new concepts of education were developed, including the concept of
ethno-cultural education, which provides a detailed definition of
"multi-cultural identity". According to this concept, "a
multicultural personality is the individual with a strong linguistic awareness.
Knowledge of native and state languages, learning a foreign language broadens
the mind of the individual, contributes to their multi-faceted development and
to the formation of tolerance and vision of the world." This definition
gives us an idea of the next generation.
E.M. Zhutova, "Kazakhstan,
remaining a multi-ethnic and multi-confessional state, goes through a complex
and controversial period of their cultural and language development. We can
observe it in the linguistic situation in the country, according to the Concept
of the language policy of the Republic
of Kazakhstan. The core idea is to master several languages" .
into the global community aims at creating a multicultural identity. K.H.
Zhadanova argues that "Multilinguism can be regarded as an effective tool
for the preparation of the young generation in an interconnected and
interdependent world. Graduates of schools and universities should have a
multilingual communicative function, such standards
have a lingua-cultural level, which would allow them to realize themselves
professionally on a global level". Social need for specialists with
Kazakh, Russian and foreign languages improves the role of multilingual
education is a process of multilingual personality format on through the
mastery of three or more languages.
development of human multilanguage consciousness goes through speech
development by means of mental, verbal and written communication. The
development of speech is the development of thinking. The act of speaking is
impossible without thinking and advancing the internal process.
to G.V. Palatkina, "the basic elements of the contents of multicultural
1) culture of international relations;
2) structural components of cultures of ethnic groups;
3) structural components of ethno pedagogical area” .
One of the
main goals of multicultural education should be the formation of a person
capable of leading an active life in a multicultural environment. It should
develop a sense of understanding and respect for other cultures, able to live
in peace and harmony with people of different nationalities, races, religions.
The study of different cultures in the complex will contribute to the cultural
identity of the individual, its formation of tolerant attitude to the
representatives of different cultures, which is the purpose of multicultural
is "the use of several languages within a given social community
(especially the state); individual (group of people) knows and uses multiple
languages which is selected in accordance with the specific situation of
is the basis of formation of a multicultural identity. A person can be called
polylingual if he / she speaks, understands and knows
how to communicate in different situations using foreign languages. Knowing a
foreign language is not just learning a foreign language. Multilingual
education is the process when different academic disciplines, such as
literature, geography, biology are taught in a foreign language.
formulated the concept of multilingual education to achieve an international standard
level of knowledge of several foreign languages. It involves the development of
a multilingual person with a certain selection of the content, principles of
teaching, developing a special process using multi-lingual phrase books,
dictionaries and educational materials, which would indicate similarities and
differences between the basic and new language. There should be the identity of
the content of teaching the second and third languages, starting with universal
linguistic phenomena that can move to more specific in studying a new language.
Polylingual personality is a model of "a person considered in terms of
their readiness to make the speech acts, to discover and work" in three or
more languages .
education in the Republic
of Kazakhstan is one of
the main areas of education. That education is an important stage in the
process of formation and development of a multicultural identity. It is the
stage when the core values and principles of life are formed on a conscious
level. Multilinguismis able to provide the student with an enabling environment
that gives a harmonious blend of universal humanist qualities of the person
with the ability to complete the implementation of its national, cultural and
ethnic needs. It should be noted that in the present conditions lifestyle is
unified in a certain way, many national differences are erased, the person
loses the connection with his / her roots, devalued the moral experience of
previous generations. Therefore, a teacher has the most important task that is
to use all its unique experience and knowledge of the cultural traditions of
peoples and ethnic groups, human values and world culture in the creation of
favorable educational environment for the formation of a socially active person
this problem we must:
the formation of civil values of the individual, active citizenship, revival
and preservation of spiritual and moral traditions.
2. Foster a
sense of respect, patriotism and pride for their country.
3. Foster a
sense of tolerance and positive attitudes of the individual.
a positive attitude towards cultural values of Kazakhstan society based on the
study of the world literature.
5. To form
an idea of a healthy lifestyle, to involve in the cultural and sporting events.
multicultural education and multilanguage identity are both in schools and in
the family, and through the media. It has a kind of continuing education. At
present, the development of multicultural and multilingual education in Kazakhstan is a
priority. The development of the Kazakh – Russian - English concept is an
experiment in schools and universities. Schools began implementing teaching in
three languages -Russian, Kazakh and English. During this experiment, there are
conditions for the formation and development of a multicultural identity that
holds three languages. Students not only learn to speak different languages,
but they are acquainted with the cultural heritage of the peoples of the
studied languages, rethinking their own personality, based on human values.
the basis for the formation of a multicultural personality is multilinguism.
Multilinguism is regarded as an effective tool for the preparation of the young
generation in an interconnected and interdependent world. In this context,
understanding the role of languages in the world today confronts us with the
issue of training and improving languages.
relevance of multicultural and polylingual education determined a general
global trend towards integration in economic, cultural and political spheres.
Polylingual education is a purposeful process of introduction to the world
culture by means of several languages, when languages act as a way of
understanding different cultural, historical and social experiences of various
It is known
that the state can successfully develop and blend well in a number of leading
countries of the world that is able to create for its citizens decent working
conditions for the acquisition of high-quality and modern education in their
own country and abroad.
regard, we observe the problem of language education- difficulties in learning
English. Moreover, this process should be synchronized, not separate. It would
be correct to speak about polylingual cultural education, which should result
in multilingualism of citizens and society. Parts of multilingualism should be
the mother tongue, which fixes the awareness of belonging to their ethnic
group, the Kazakh language (as a state)knowledge of
which contributes to the successful civil integration and the Russian language
as a source of scientific and technical information, foreign and other
non-native language, to develop the human capacity for self-identity in the
world community. Therefore, learning a foreign language as one of the main
indicators of human adaptation to the new socio-political and socio-cultural
realities is now an actual scientific-theoretical, scientific and practical
foreign language forms communicative abilities that are necessary for the
person as a member of our society, a member of the team or a family member. It
requires the ability to listen to the interlocutor and to engage in dialogue.
a means of international communication occupies a leading position in the
world. This is primarily due to the rapid development of high technology
(space, information laser technology, bio- and nanotechnology) and economy.
Competence in foreign languages is important for the economy and for the
development of the regions, and, of course, for the citizens themselves. Anyone
who wants to get a better chance of successful employment and career should
have an adequate knowledge of at least one foreign language.
application of new methods and technologies of teaching foreign languages will
contribute to the development of personal qualities that are demanded by modern
multicultural and multilingual society. Therefore, the problem of using
effective methods of teaching English is very important.
some of the principles have already been formed in the system of polylingual
- Kazakh -
Russian - English;
languages should go hand in hand; the mother tongue must be the basis;
a foreign language should be based on the training of verbal thinking, mastery
of new means of expression of the target language.
significant changes in the requirements for the results of the training and
education of the modern younger generation, the urgent need to form a
willingness and ability to live in an open society where there is coexistence
of various nationalities and ethnic groups, and therefore, representatives of
different languages and cultural traditions. At this stage of development of
society the issue of multiculturalism and multilingual educational environment
of educational institutions is of great importance, where the process of
identity formation occurs not only by raising the level of national identity,
but also on the ability and desire to carry the knowledge of their own country,
to comprehend the characteristics of languages and cultures of other countries
. Multicultural and multilingual education models can serve as an effective
force of dialogic interaction of different nationalities, in spite of their
different cultural preferences.
it should be noted that the formation of a multilingual personality is one of
the most urgent problems of modern education system of Kazakhstan.
of languages is useful not only for individuals but also for society. The
realities of our time convince us of the necessity of mastering Kazakh, Russian
and one foreign language.
In this era
of globalization, when the separate existence of different nations and cultures
becomes impossible when there is a rethinking of the goals and objectives of
education, and we understand that the current content of education does not
meet adequately the needs of society, there are widely discussed new concepts
and paradigms such as multicultural education, training of multilingual,
cultural approach, socio-cultural competence, and others.
There is no
doubt that the integration of Kazakhstan into the world community, building an
open democratic society, the internationalization of all spheres of life
contribute to the fact that multilinguism becomes one of the most urgent
problems of modern Kazakh education in the formation of personality, having
global thinking. In this context, the problem of multi-cultural education is
becoming even more relevant in Kazakhstan
position of the Republic
of Kazakhstan finds its
direct reflection in the basic documents for the modernization of education.
And it helps to get direct access to the new models and mechanisms for managing
educational systems and institutions. The policy of Kazakhstan in the sphere of
languages allows for setting and solving the real problems of modernization of
education, education of the younger generation in patriotism, tolerance and
readiness for intercultural interaction in difficult social processes.
conditions in Kazakhstan
are ideal for the development of multicultural and multilingual education, and
developing a multilingual multicultural personality, whose purpose is to
increase the level of its own culture in general: the culture of communication,
culture of speech and culture of mentality. Multicultural aspect of modern
civilization can be a powerful humanistic concept of an intercultural dialogue.
Tolerance is one of the main components in a multipolar civilization, and a good
example of cultural and educational space of Kazakhstan can be extremely
important for the whole world. In terms of industrial-innovative development of
the country there is an urgent need for the development and implementation of
multilingual culture and multilingual education in the sphere of education.
of the language policy of the Republic
of Kazakhstan defines
Russian as the main source of information in different areas of science and
technology as a means of communication inside and outside the country. The
implementation of a multilingual education policy is a very important and
difficult problem. It is possible to solve this problem but only together with
the participation of all members of our society.
Kazakh, Russian and foreign languages is becoming an integral component of
personal and professional activities of mankind. It leads to a need for a large
number of practically and professionally multi-lingual people, who can take a
more prestigious, both socially and professionally, position in society.
development of independent Kazakhstan
show that bilingualism and multilinguism in society create all the necessary
conditions for its development and progress. But it depends on a well
thought-out language policy of President Nazarbayev and the government. The
national intelligence should be able to maintain and develop the culture,
history and language of the Kazakh people.
One of the
objectives of familiarizing the younger generation to the universal, global
values is the formation of abilities to communicate and interact with the
neighboring cultures in the world space. Thus, in order to prepare
professionals to meet these requirements, great attention is paid to
multilingual education, which is regarded as an effective tool for the
preparation of the young generation in an interconnected and interdependent
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Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №7 - 2015