Trilingual policy through the lenses of bloom's revised taxonomy

Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №7 - 2015

Author: Oskolkova Anna, Kazakh American Free University, Kazakhstan

The strategy of Kazakhstan in the context of State Development Program, its modernization implies realization of the following principles, one of which is to recognize the crucial significance of society education. The government and the people are responsible for the qualitative and quantitative results of the very mission.

The more appropriate and modern the conditions to get proper education are, the more successful and developed the country would become on a global scale.

The president of the country, Nursultan Nazarbayev, reviewed the requirements for current elementary, secondary and higher education. The main requirements must be competitive and high-qualitative. The graduates of Kazakhstani schools must be able to continue their education in foreign universities [1].

To follow one of the various educational strategies we should keep the best educational traditions in the country and equip our graduates with globally-accepted qualifications and developed linguistic behavior that consists of acquisition of a state, native and foreign language. In this context our understanding of the influence of languages in a modern world causes great debates among teachers and professors talking about the results of language teaching and improvement of students' language proficiency.

Polylingualism is the basics of polylingual students' model formation.

The goals of polycultural and polylingual education are:

- polycultural education, formation of competitive students, who are ready for sociocultural interaction while speaking a state and other languages;

- development of a person who holds an active life in multinational and polycultural environment, a person who is tolerant and respectful to representatives of different cultures, who can live in the peace and friendship with people of different nationalities, races and beliefs [2].

The tasks are to create the conditions for school students to speak the Kazakh language as a state one, the Russian language as a cross-cultural language and the English language as a foreign one; to teach school students various ways of verbal communication and develop the skills of sociocultural interaction.

We should also take into account the aspects of developing a polycultural personality. While learning a foreign language, a student learns a foreign culture so that the person develops, improves and increases his / her outlook. We teach and learn foreign languages to use them in everyday life.

The main reasons for success in educating a polycultural and trilingual personality are the following:

- complete development of students' individuality; consideration of their feelings, emotions and affections, stimulation of their verbal, cognitive and creative abilities;

- creation of the environment where a child feels comfortable and free, development of their desire to apply their polycultural features;

- designing a student-centered context where he /she can actively interact with other participants of educational process;

- creation of situations where a teacher serves as a supervisor and facilitator.

All these things cause good conditions for efficient organization of students' activity in terms of innovative development [3].

Polylingual teaching of foreign languages on the elementary level leads to a qualitative learning of different languages in the future that helps to continue the education in foreign countries and make a choice in a global educational context.

According to the educational standards of Kazakhstan, the elementary level is the most favorable opportunity to form and develop students' communicative and learning needs. Teaching languages at this level improves students' sense of belonging to global culture and sense of self-realization.

They say that the more languages you learn, the more mentalities you may represent. The more languages a student learns the more complicated their thinking process becomes. A good teacher should always remember about the main stages of cognition. Bloom's Revised Taxonomy can be of great help here. One of the most important dilemmas or choices for me was a career choice. So now we can describe the general aspects of our students' thinking process by means of Bloom's Revised Taxonomy.

1. Remember (aka Knowledge): A language is learned only when a learner is spoken to. The learner acquires thousands of facts, news, materials, information every day and every minute. The volume of learned words, grammar and syntax depends on his /her attention, memory and cognition peculiarities. The teacher also plays a main role in the process of presentation, revision and assessment of students' language knowledge.

2. Understand (aka Comprehension): We start from the easiest topics to the most difficult ones in order to build a solid system of knowledge. Besides the linguistic aspect of information we also include the cultural aspect. We prepare both future leaders and future teachers of a new generation. We also can present the material starting from the rules and then doing the tasks, or we can start from the examples and then formulating the rule that can be later compared with an original one. Peer teaching is also supposed to be successful in explaining and understanding the information by students.

3. Apply: The greatest praise for a teacher is to see their students successfully practice the knowledge outside the school. When the real life practice is concerned, it can turn out that students can perfectly work with people, negotiate with them and learn something new from them.

4. Analyze: While learning three languages students compare them and figure out their differences and similarities. Teachers give explanations paying attention to language differences and emphasizing the similarities to ease the whole language teaching and learning processes.

5. Evaluate (aka Synthesis): Language proficiency framework helps both students and teachers to assess and improve the existing level of language command. Especially in translation or interpretation made by students in or outside the classroom make them aware of all possible gaps in language knowledge. The gaps can be filled in the future.

6. Create: In schools students practice different projects, reports, creative essays composed in three languages. Teachers motivate their students to participate in different international culture and language exchange programs, workshops, seminars and other sessions [4].

One of the main things is to set proper relationships between teachers and students and relationships among students. Today we use a new term of pedagogical technologies. “Technology is a compilation of approaches applied in some business, craft...” Pedagogical technology is a systematic method of creation, application and definition of the whole process of teaching and getting knowledge.

So, one of the main technologies is a person-oriented technology, which puts a learner's personality in the center of the whole education system as well as comfortable, conflict-free and safe conditions of his / her development, realization of his natural potential.

Technology of partnership or cooperation is also referred to student-centered technologies. We mean the relationships between teachers and students. While working together, they work out the common goals, plan the work and assess the results.

Problem and search technology implies the creation, under teacher's supervision, of problem situations and students' active work over their settling. As a result, we get creative knowledge, skills, abilities and development of cognition [5].

Equal roles of teachers and students provide a practical acquisition of polycultural language activity, even under limited conditions. The application of any technology starts with motivation or phase of challenge. We gain an opportunity to make the students interested. The situations make a student play a role. Here we mean another method of game technology (i.e. simulations of real life communication).

The main goal of this technology use is:

- didactic - increase of outlook, formation of knowledge, abilities and skills in practice;

- educational - education of independence, partnership, collectivism and communication skills;

- developing - development of attention, memory, speech, thinking, abilities to compare and match;

- socializing - adaptation to environmental conditions, communication training.

By means of computer technologies we present scanned images, video films, PowerPoint presentations and musical demo to elementary students.

According to the new State Standard, the main mission of elementary education is to reveal the personality of student and completion of education. Students are too sensitive to an educational process, their mental work is likely to intake and output the learned actions and statements. Meanwhile, the juniors have abstract thinking and they need visuals. Computer in this case serves as a tool that can reproduce any necessary visual materials to overcome the obstacles. When the junior students see picturesque images, schemes, animated characters, they perceive and remember difficult information better.

The use of information - communicative technologies let a teacher broaden the limits of the classroom, create an atmosphere of foreign linguaculture and absorb the values of other cultures. The efficiency has already been proved in practice. Multimedia resources are much more applicable than we think. In most cases information technologies are used as an illustrative or visual method of teaching different disciplines. The unique opportunities of the Internet are out of question. The task for schools is to teach students how to use World Wide Web resources.

Multimedia means are an interactive way of audio-visual information presentation by means of modern technical tools which can help to combine a text, sound, photo and video in one digital format. All this creates the conditions to increase the efficiency of education, present a qualitative imitation of reality and linguistic context, and improve the perception of authentic language information by provoking students' emotions and feelings and being able to apply them on any level of teaching.

For instance, educational websites are really useful in language teaching and learning. They contain authentic audio materials, starting from tongue-twisters, poems and songs for elementary school and finishing with video clips, news reports, and podcasts dedicated to current events and burning issues, electronic editions of books and journals in which senior students are interested. The very resources are effective in the formation of students' universal academic activities, their development of listening, speaking, reading and writing skills. Audio and video materials can be used on both stages of material presentation, practice and production.

A computer gives a teacher new opportunities to enjoy the process of cognition. The new technologies help to perceive a colorful world of "live" communication.

The mission of any teacher is to modernize an educational process by means of up-to-date information technologies. It is necessary to find out effective ways of multimedia technology integration in educational process.

The computerization of educational process implies an interesting new approach to teaching that is entertaining for children and time-saving for teachers [5].

Understanding the role of languages in a modern world leads to a question of the expected results of language teaching and improvement of students' language proficiency. The concept of education development in the Republic of Kazakhstan is designed for effective renovation of forms and methods of teacher's training that face the global requirements.

The main focus is on polylingual education that is viewed as an active way of preparing a young generation for the future of collaboration, network and mutual influence.

Our schools should create the environment for appropriate learning of universal, global values, students' development of skills to communicate and interact with representatives of neighboring cultures in the world context.

A new polycultural personality will be able to self-realize in social and professional spheres, know the history of native land and people, command a few languages, deal with people by speaking three languages in different life situations and strive for self-actualization and self-improvement.

To realize these goals we carry out elementary teaching and learning of the English language and its intensive practice on senior levels. We work with reference books and textbooks of the new generation.

The new system of 12 years of school preparation will provide much deeper and much more intensive teaching and learning of three languages and proper professional training. We should not miss out the importance of vocational and elective courses in seniors grades. The courses can meet the needs of senior schools students. School teachers are willing to design extra language clubs for students. The clubs will be able to let the students practice the language in various settings. Teachers are also qualified to design multilevel test assignments and activities for all graders by taking into account their mental abilities, psychological and physiological features.

Students' intensive learning of three languages will help them to be more successful and competitive in local, regional and state language contests. Every school is responsible for keeping language sessions, workshops, quizzes, educational games and other events.

The command of Kazakh, Russian and English has become an integral part of personal and professional life. In this case the sphere of work demands the employees who are proficient in a number of languages and who can gain a more prestigious status both in society and at work. We must be sure that a rational, appropriate and correct introduction of trilingual policy in our schools will make our graduates mobile and flexible in any world settings [6].

While thinking over the prospects, advantages and disadvantages of trilingual education we can figure out 8 common problems and challenges that we, both teachers and students, may face. They are:

1. Honor System (e.g. dealing with sources. First of all, it concerns students' sincere attitude towards reading the given references at home and being ready to reflect on them. Students may lie and swear that they have read them all (but actually, they haven't) and then just summarize the main idea without deep thinking over the concepts in the text). Honesty is one of intellectual virtues. If students do not value it in their private and academic lives, so they will not be courageous enough to admit this fault.

2. Plagiarism (For example, when students are given a written assignment, they can copy another author's work and put their name at the bottom of the page. As an excuse they might say - "I completely agree with an author, so why should I change anything in the text?"). Plagiarized thought won't help students in decision-making and reporting issues. How can they improve their work if the work is not theirs?

3. Cheating leaders (one for all and all for one) - one person can let others do the work and then present the result as his/her only original idea. Another case can be when a group has got one lazy member who just does not care and, in the end, they reveal the truth or "give" him / her some menial task / work. When we have a group and one presenter, it can become difficult to check everyone's contribution to the assignment.

4. Learning for the test results. There are students who do not focus on learning, but on the result of the tests, quizzes, other tasks, both formative and summative. Such students become a real challenge for a teacher. Their academic eagerness can be reasoned by external driving forces (parents' wish or threat, material value, etc.). "Good grades must result in good learning";

5. Poor pre-school preparation/mental disorder: upbringing in the family, relationships with relatives and friends, physical and mental diseases are of great significance and value for teachers and students. For example, high school students can be unprepared for thesis writing on lectures (they do it like writing a dictation) or mental disorders can be revealed only on senior courses;

6. Teacher's traditional assessment criteria: it concerns conservative teachers who feel comfortable to use the same work sheets and tasks to assess her/his students. They can work with new text books but the tests they give to their students can be designed in the first year of their teaching career;

7. No second chance for failures: such a statement is supported by those who do not want to diminish their egocentricity or sociocentricity. They are not walking in the shoes of their "not so brainy or quick-minded" peers; they cannot stand their slowness and trying hard. Those who excel they may "rebel" out loud;

8. Looking for a mentor/coach. This final point is more challenging than problematic. After having held a successful affective and cognitive assessment for a number of years, teachers can work with their students as mentors or coaches during their academic life and even after graduation [7].

REFERENCES

1. Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

2. Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan "About Education" issued on July 22, 2011: "Kazakhstanskaya Pravda" issued on August 6, 2011.

3. The State Program of Education Development in the Republic of Kazakhstan till 2020.

4. Polat Y.S., Bukharkina М.Y., Moisseyeva М.V., Petrov А.Y. (2000). New Pedagogical Technologies in Education System. Moscow: Akademiya.

5. Bondarevskaya Y.V. (2000). Value Basics of Person-Oriented Education. Rostov-on-Don.

6. Sololova Y.N. (2002). The Methods of Teaching Foreign Languages: Basic Course of Lectures. Moscow: Prosvetscheniye.

7. Align Assessment with Objectives. Carnegie Mellon, from http: // www. cmu. edu/ teaching/ assessment/ howto/ basics/ objectives. html



Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №7 - 2015

  
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