Dialogic skills development as one of the priorities in teaching foreign languages
Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №7 - 2015
Author: Yezhitskaya Svetlana, Kazakh-American Free University, Kazakhstan
of globalization occurring in the world, dynamically developing modern society,
extending international contacts and cooperation has led to the expansion and
strengthening of the role of English as the leading language of modern
civilization. Nowadays, English is a means of social, economic, educational and
cultural development of the society. In this regard, the global economy and
culture are interconnected and interdependent in the political, social and
development trends are clearly reflected in Kazakhstani realities. The Republic
of Kazakhstan entry into the world community, as well as the impact of the
political, economic, social and cultural aspects of globalization on
communication, requires determining the role and place of English in social and
communicative life of the country and solving the complicated problem of its
functioning in different areas.
Strategy of the Development of Kazakhstan-2050, N.A. Nazarbayev states that the
English language is necessary to represent the country on the world stage.
"Out of 10 million books, which are published in the world, 85% are in
English. The latest data in science and information technology is published in
English. Today 3,500 foreign companies operate in Kazakhstan. And we need a language
to communicate and cooperate with them,"- emphasizes the President. In
addition, the President noted the need for a qualitative
"breakthrough" in the English language studying. He claimed that it
will provide every Kazakhstani citizen with new boundless opportunities in life
the task of improving the efficiency of foreign language teaching in high
school is becoming increasingly important. In this regard, teaching methods are
constantly improving, and also the students' interest to the subject increases.
The intensification of these aspects ultimately leads to taking into account
key directions in planning the academic work form and content, such as
epistemological awareness (informing students on the country study issues and
grammatical structure of the English language), axiological principles
(developing students' values and motives) and pragmatic aspects (forming
students' communicative skills). These directions in determining the
educational activities are aimed at enhancing the educational process, which
can be fulfilled through the students’ involvement into cognitive, practical,
social and political activities, thereby providing the principle of connection
with real life [2, p. 12]. These include festivals, conferences, theme parties,
dramatizations, and the organization of role-play that simulate the actual
process of communication; giving out leaflets, watching and filming videos,
meeting foreigners, etc. The main thing is to create a learning atmosphere in
which students are required to creatively solve educational problems that would
develop their ability to independently assess the situations.
specifics of the Foreign Language subject, in contrast to other subjects, is
that the content of education is not only studying the language system, such as
pronunciation, vocabulary and grammar, but mainly the mastery of speech
activity in a foreign language as a means of intercultural communication,
resulting in the formation of multilingual and multicultural identity.
Language subject sets the objective to form multilingual personality, through
introducing students into the values of world culture, improving the knowledge
of their own native culture through the dialogue of cultures and educating
humanistic outlook. Meeting the needs of the society, in foreign language
teaching at schools greater importance belongs to communicative orientation,
or, in other words, communicative competence. This is due to the fact that the
speech activity occupies a large part of our lives. If a person cannot speak in
a language, receive information and respond to the interlocutor, we cannot say
this person knows the language. The main purpose of any language is to provide
communication and allow people to exchange information and thoughts. That is
why, formation of intercultural communicative competence, and its component
subcompetences is another objective of the Foreign Language subject.
turn, intercultural communicative competence includes the following types of
subcompetences. First, linguistic competence, that is mastering the new
language means in accordance with the themes and areas of communication,
including those selected for the particular profile, the skills of managing
these means in communicative purposes; systematization of linguistic knowledge,
as well as increasing the volume of knowledge through profile-oriented
information (in particular terminology). Second, speech competence provides
functional use of the English language as a means of communication and
cognitive activity based on the four language skills: listening, reading,
speaking and writing. Another one is socio-cultural competence, which
undertakes enhancing the knowledge of the socio-cultural specificity of the
English speaking countries, improving the ability to build one’s verbal and
nonverbal behavior adequately taking into account the specifics of
profile-oriented communication situations. Next, linguistic cultural competence
means improving the skills to understand and interpret linguistic and cultural
facts adequately. The last, compensatory competence includes improving the
ability to deal with the situation of the shortage of linguistic resource in
the process of foreign language communication, including profile-oriented
situations of communication (gestures, facial expressions, body language). Here
we can see that students of the English language subject should be competent
and able to communicate in close to life situations. They should also realize
their own culture and understand and respect other people and their lifestyles
[2, p. 3].
one of the main objectives of foreign language teaching is developing
communicative competence, which, in fact, should determine the entire
educational process. It is a form of verbal communication, one of which, in
particular, is dialogic speech.
be noted that the development of dialogical speech in the target foreign
language has always been one of the most acute problems of language teaching.
This issue was studied in the works of S.V. Perkas, V.L. Skalkin and other
methodologists. So, the dialogic speech teaching technique has recently emerged
as an independent aspect of speech teaching, where there are still many issues
that require theoretical and experimental research. For example, the important
aspects are such as: the connection of dialogic and monologic speech;
principles and techniques for creating a communicative situation in class; the
peculiarities of speech perception in a dialogue; selection of situations that
base dialogue teaching at different stages; the possibility of using
information and communication technologies for teaching dialogue, etc. [3, p.
language is a social experience, so it is important to approach the teaching of
a language as a social learning experience and take the students inside of the
culture of the studied language. Moreover, language is a means of
communication, which is the most important part of modern insistently
developing world, so it is really relevant to teach students how to communicate
in a proper way. Without the ability to select information, express thoughts,
react in any life situation, the knowledge of a language cannot be full and
teachers’ responsibility is to train students to feel free in their
communication abilities and providing communications. At the lesson there
should be created such conditions, close to daily life, where students will be
able to have verisimilar conversations, related to the situations they can have
in everyday activities. Acting out such scenes will motivate the students’
learning interest, because these sketches are part of their familiar
environment. Students will be able not only to learn educational material, but
also they will know how to use it in real life. However, the majority of
students have difficulty with making up impromptu dialogues, with listening and
responding to the partner, with adapting to a new situation and holding up the
in its widest sense, is the recorded conversation of two or more persons,
especially as an element of drama or fiction. As a literary form, it is a
carefully organized exposition, by means of invented conversation, of
contrasting philosophical or intellectual attitudes [4, p. 13]. The dialogue is
a form of social and verbal interaction; involving two sides (a speaker and a
listener), who can switch their roles (a listener can act as a speaker and vice
versa). The dialogue consists of the exchange of interlocutors’ remarks. In its
course the participants constantly switch from listening to speaking, that is,
one interlocutor percepts the speech of another party, understands and analyzes
it, then plans and produces his \ her own speech.
two-side communication process occurs in a specific situation in which each of
the participants alternately performs the role of a speaker or a listener. The
result of receiving the information and its transmission is the combination of
cues that are combined depending on the communicative goals of each participant
and make particular statements (questionnaire, interview) and answers
(narration, report), which can also become a complete utterance [5, p. 44].
cue (initiative), which begins any dialogue, will be the theme indicator and
will act as the basic speech stimulus. Despite the fact that the interlocutor’s
responding cue is difficult to predict, it still must be thematically
to the communicative point of view the first cues can be reduced to the
following types of statements:
of social communication, such as greetings, expressions of gratitude, apologies
for information, for example, a question;
expression of emotions;
commenting (stating) the circumstances in which the communicators are;
that do not carry any sensitive information (they are exchanged to maintain a
conversation, for example, when you need to fill the silence in awkward
silence) [6, p. 10].
range of issues may be the subject of dialogue speech. The factors forming the
subject of a dialogue can help to identify the relationships between the
interlocutors, their level of communicative community and a variety of external
speech requires high automatization and availability of the language material, as
during the dialogue, the exchange of remarks is fast enough that indicates it
is unprepared and spontaneous. Dialogue has its specific features that
facilitate its perception and production. In particular, a speaker and a
listener usually share a common situation; frequently a communication takes
place between people who perform certain social and communicative roles (e.g.,
a doctor and a patient, a driver and a passenger). Also, stereotypes and
conversational clichés are used more widely in a dialogue. The
interlocutors can rely on non-verbal signs of each other, such as mimics,
gestures and body language. Dialogue is often spontaneous, emotional and
expressive. It is usually less extended, more informative, pithy and
syntactically complex than a monologue .
has specific communicative features. It depends on a situation and
interlocutors and occurs under special circumstances. So, a dialogue takes
place in the cases when:
1) one of
the interlocutors is deficient in the data, and the second one is supposed to
be competent in this field and is able to fill the information gap;
revealing the plot or the theme cannot be realized by one interlocutor because
of his\her language or mnemonic failure, lack of information or due to the need
to check an expressed utterance on every stage;
feel the need for mutual exchange of ideas, experiences, feelings;
4) there is
a need to agree various approaches to solving specific problems, resolve
differences, to solve a dispute, and so on [6, p. 6].
different types of dialogues are distinguished in TFL. The most typical kind of
dialogue in natural communication, and particularly, in the educational process
is a dialogue that realizes informative function of communication. By
classifying informative dialogues with regard to the initiative of the
interlocutors and their influence on the course of the dialogue, linguists
single out 3 types of dialogue: actual dialogue, efferent dialogue and afferent
type of dialogue, actual dialogue, implies equality of the interlocutors and
equal share of initiative of each of them. This dialogue has
oppositely-directed character. The two other types are characterized by the
leading role of one of the parties of the communication. The actual dialogue is
characterized by the fact that every interlocutor has relevant and interesting
information, as it happens in a case of two friends meeting after some break:
after weekends, holidays, or after participating in various sport or
entertaining activities; after reading various books, watching movies, etc. [8,
dialogue is designed to generate initiative speech, aimed at obtaining
information. Such speech requires the ability to ask questions, to understand
the speech of the interlocutor, give cues controlling speech acts of the
partner, forcing him\her to make his\her message more understandable for the
listener, close to the subject, corresponding to reality. Afferent dialogue
presupposes that one of the partners disposes the information that the other
one does not have. And this second partner has a right or an obligation to get
acquainted with this information. Accordingly, modeling of situations, aimed at
producing afferent dialogue, involves the use of roles of parents, journalists,
teachers, etc. within a lesson.
dialogue is seen from the perspective of an interviewee, a responding person,
or a partner being asked while communication. This person is the main carrier
of the information, but it is another partner who regulates the content of the
dialogue, acting as a person interested in receiving information and asking
proper questions. Efferent dialogue is aimed at forming the skills to respond
to the incentive cue as fully and extended as possible. This kind of dialogue
prepares to further monologue.
Perkas’s point of view, educational dialogues can be divided into two main
"equal" dialogues (dialogues performing exchange of information);
"role" dialogues (dialogues performing various roles, e.g., "a
buyer and a seller", "a doctor and a patient") [9, p. 48].
facilitate the task, "equal" dialogue is built according to the plan
proposed by the teacher or developed jointly with all the students of the
class. This dialogue has some advantages. For example:
- it is
aimed at the personal experience of the students;
content of the dialogue is easy to plan;
dialogue provides an optimal combination of structural repeatability of the
cues with their intonation and lexical variability, providing strength and
consciousness of assimilation.
are several types of dialogs according to the aim of the conversation and
message transmitting. They are as follows:
and answer to the question;
message – respond message .
dialogue as a chatting genre can be divided into three types:
dialogue-conversation: interlocutors have equal participation in the dialogue
and exchanged views;
dialogue-questioning: one side is actively interested in the responds of the
dialogue-discussion: conversation, during which each participant expresses
his\her point of view [3, p. 1].
turn, dialogic speech also has its own characteristics. They occur in terms of
selection, design and use of functional orientation of linguistic material. So,
it is characterized by the use of introductory words, interjections, stamps,
evaluative expressions, reflecting the speaker’s response to the received
information, denying or confirming the idea, expressing doubts, surprise,
desire, and so on [10, p. 89].
speech is characterized not only by linguistic features but also psychological
peculiarities. Linguistic features include: ellipticity of speech, the use of
simplified syntax, the presence of a cliché, speech standards, the
presence of modal words, interjections and other means of expression, the
addressness of speech.
psychological level, dialogic speech has peculiar features. First, it is always
motivated. This means that we always speak for some reason, with a purpose,
which is determined by either external or internal stimuli. Second, the speech
is always directed to the listener, addressed to the audience. This means that
we always talk with someone and for someone to express our opinions, share
ideas, make an agreement, prove something, ask for something, and so on. In
other words, the speech should be of inverted character. Third, the speech is
always emotionally charged, as the speaker expresses his\her thoughts, feelings
and attitudes towards what he\she says. Any person is encouraged to speak about
those things he \ she has interest in and opinion of. The last feature is that
the speech is always situational due to the fact it occurs in a certain
situation. The speech demands at least two interlocutors connected by one
topic, issue and circumstances [11, p. 138].
dialogic speech has communicative, psychological and linguistic features,
namely: it consists of stimulating and reacting replicas; it is characterized
by the addressness, spontaneity, emotionality and expressiveness; dialogic
speech typically has elliptical utterances that are often fixed in
communicative practice and used in the form of clichés.
teaching students dialogic speech, a teacher should solve the following main
objectives. First, he\she should show the concept of a dialogue in all its
diversity, in its natural form, so that convince the students that the
question-and-answer form is not the only, but one of the individual, although
the most common, case of a dialogic communication. Various examples should show
the students that speech is vivid, natural and truly dialogic only if the
content of a cue includes greetings, messages, invitations, expressions of
various kinds of feelings (surprise, gratitude, confidence, doubt), the
assessment of the facts, etc.
is to teach students the necessary cues and train them to the level of
automaticity in the use of appropriate cues in a particular situation.
objective is to teach students to share these cues and remarks in appropriate
situations, that is to teach them to conduct their own dialogue. In addition to
purely instructional techniques, the language textbook material with a system
of lexical collections, special exercises and texts help to implement these
objectives [12, p. 148].
purpose of teaching dialogic speech is to develop the students’ ability to
perform oral verbal communication in different social situations. So, mastering
dialogic speech provides the development of skills to ask questions and answer
them. Thus, students must learn to answer questions of various kinds (with a
question word and without it); to respond to the remark, expressing surprise,
consent, joy, doubt or refuting what was heard; ask questions initiatively and
independently; make up a dialogue based on a dialogue sample.
dialogic skills exercises that focus on the mastery of a sample dialogue can be
used. For example, reading the dialogue with the replacement of the cues,
reproducing the dialogue, its staging, which allows for acquainting the
students with different types of dialogues that take place in different
conclusion, we note that the process of teaching dialogic speech should always
create a strong motivation to learn the language. It should enable the students
to activate the lexical and grammatical material, master speech constructions
and (under certain situations) speech formulas, use spontaneously language
sample clichés when performing communicative situations, acquire a sense
of a language, develop listening skills, get acquainted with the literature and
culture of the target language, and contribute to successful communication in
different social situations.
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Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №7 - 2015