Synergetic approach to the study of internet-communication

Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №7 - 2015

Author: Khraban Tatyana , Gorlovka Institute of Foreign Languages, Ukraine

Rapid and dynamic increase in interest in interdisciplinary direction called “synergetics” has been observed recently. Time of integration, system synthesis, perception of the world as structural integrity and evolving system has come. Many publications that enable to provide new research results in synergistic processes in systems with multiple elements have been released. Researchers have showed that the old theories aren’t perfect but new approaches promise to lead to a stable improvement of the research results. These works deserve peculiar attention since qualitatively new results have appeared on the boundary of science. In many cases these results are different from the results obtained by traditional methods.

In this context synergy acts as a link between humanities and natural sciences and translates “from a dialect of specific science into high Latin of interdisciplinary communication”.

This is transition to the communicative paradigm. One expression of this paradigm is the synergetics. Generally speaking, it is not paradigm changing in question. But it is important that a change of cognitive perspectives is perceived not in the context of opposition to the existing paradigms, not as some kind of an alternative option but as a tendency to a third way. Guidelines in the search of this way are clearly deliberate (rather continually conscious).

The origin of the philosophical concept “synergy” is the oriental cultural-historical and philosophical traditions, especially of India and China. Later on the synergy began to penetrate into occidental culture context and philosophical traditions, to acquire philosophical and cultural visions, effects and connotations. Modern synergy synthesized some elements of oriental and occidental ways of thinking and outlook. From East it adopted and further developed the idea of integrity, cycling and general laws of the world. From West it inherited positive aspects of traditional analysis based on experiment, general validity of scientific results, special mathematical apparatus and so on.

The term “synergetics” was proposed by the German physicist Hermann Haken and means the coordinated interaction of parts in the formation of the structure as a whole. According to definition proposed by H. Haken “synergetics deals with the study of systems that consist of many sub-systems of the different nature such as electrons, atoms, molecules, cells, neurons, mechanical elements, photons, organs, animals and even people” [1, p. 16].

As postnonclassical paradigm of scientific knowledge synergetics emphasizes the instability, volatility, fortuity, chaos and self-organizing of complex systems as opposed to the traditional (classical) approach that recognizes the principle of linearity and determinism. The common mathematical description of self-organization of the different systems facilitates to bridge between natural and humanitarian knowledge and brings in them the ideas of synergetics. Scientific A. Knyazeva notes: “before the emergence of synergetics main task of science was to develop a system of evidence in a scientific discipline. Synergetics has another way. It is to find another solution, to detect the interaction of science at them borders. She makes the next step, i. e. it comes up to the mutual enrichment of different sciences” [2, p. 13].

Linguistics is always in search of new approaches to the study of the object. It aspires to improve research methods and techniques of organization and functioning of the language system. Therefore at present interdisciplinary of synergetics and above all, the profit from research methods of language as super sophisticated, relatively stable, self-organizing nonlinear dynamical systems has found its development in linguistics.

According to the Russian scholar P. Opolev there are at least two intersection synergetics and linguistics. Firstly, language can be considered as a prototype, the paradigm of an open, non-linear, hierarchically organized, evolving system. According to hierarchical (Haken) formulation synergetics deals with just such systems. At the same time language can be examined at the level of syntax and semantics, text, suggestions of words and, it weights most, at the level of hypertext as nonlinear organized text.

The second intersection region is a region of dialogically interpreted synergetic methodology. In this area synergetic approach to the language means that it becomes a process, nonlinear text providing an opportunity to move in different directions, pass to other dimensions. Hypertext is a new form of written communication. And there is every reason to admit that both intersection of synergy and linguistics are within synergetic meta-context relative to a cyclic supplement between themselves [3, p. 17-18].

Synergetic approach to the study of changes in the language at different levels of its organization allows to appreciate a true value of some fundamental concepts that have become traditional, to incorporate new meanings to the concept “system language”. Definition of the system has not been already conceived as a fixed and a separated one but it should reflect the instability, openness, nonlinearity, co-operation and co-evolution of its components.

Thus synergetic linguistics emerged as an interdisciplinary school in language study using categorical apparatus and methods of synergy is a methodological approach to research in the dynamic space of language which is a succession of states of volatile mega-system of language changing in time.

According to the basic tenets of synergetic linguistics language space may be defined as “an open, dynamic, non-linear, non-equilibrium mega-system consisting of many hard-organized systems and subsystems that co-evolve. They are ruled by the certain parameters of order to maintain stability and functionality of the system [4].

The emergence of the Internet made feasible the possibility to display real language situation, the publication of a living language without literary and editorial corrections, spontaneous formation of language style that is based on the wide use possibilities of language system. These facts are the cause of actuality of application synergistic ideas for the study of underlying objective laws of development and operation of online communication language.

In this context the Russian scientist A. Nazaruk in his scientific study “Network society and its philosophical understanding” notes: “Claiming to be universal approach that is able to cover both physical and social phenomena synergetics investigates the processes of self-organize of systems and formation of procedure structures. It is obvious that study the origin and evolution of the Web, its characteristics as a specific and extremely viable system organization should cause interest. Synergetics brings in the concept of complexity. It is impossible to formulate others basic concepts of the modern theory of networks” [5].

V. Arshinov also highlights appropriateness of the using methodological framework of synergetics for the study of  Internet communication language: “New synergetic paradigm is fundamentally pluralistic, connotative, aiming at network-thinking INTERNET”, “One definition of Internet Web ... may be given through the formulation of a global computer Network as synergetic connection of communication combined with processes of cognition and creating of mechanisms of coherence of the individual systems that produce content” [6].

It should be noted that the interdisciplinary of synergetics is not reduced to abstract methodological requirements. It takes into account consideration of objective knowledge and therefore the development of designing technology of “specific logic of specific subject”. With reference to this it should be noted a number of features and properties of online communication that distinguish it from other types of communication.

Thus, according to L. Kompantseva the most special features of Internet communications include:

– Internet communication occurs in the new information environment featuring variety of participant of communication, different genres, styles, types and kinds of language;

– pragmatic organization of Internet communication uses hypercategories (hypertext, virtual discourse, genre format);

– participants of Internet communication simultaneously execute many functions and find themselves in a variety of realities. Communication acquires traits of transformative, cross-cultural nature;

– Internet communication is based on the principles of relevance, openness, interactivity, autonomy, intertextuality;

– Internet communication affects different types discourses and communicative practices that are not consisted in it;

– communication on the Internet is polynomial and receives two models of implementation: asynchronous and synchronous;

– Internet communication uses a new form of language combine verbal with writing types [7, p. 13-14].

As an example of the description of possible alternative means of language evolution in online communication in terms of synergy which we consider the emergence of so-called “padonkoff language”. The gist of “Padonkoff language” is to make such errors that uneducated man can’t make. Undoubtedly, at first it is intellectual game which is very close to the linguistic game. The Russian linguist M. Kronhauz notes: “We are dealing with a rather anti-literacy than the non-literacy” [8].

In this case lexical and phraseological language composition of Internet communication may be conceived as a kind of open steady system. The system functioning in this state has structural properties due to attractors.  Within open and highly nonequilibrium system attractors are separate areas of system’s structural order. They define the evolution of the system and subordinate its development to their tendency (current model of words formation, some methods of their inclusion in the text, the elements of meaning in which there are a high need for Internet communication).

On the basis of these definitions we can conclude that regardless of whether the attractors are mobile their condition (movement) is stable and more orderly than their environment. In the scope of their stability they attract the disordered unit with chaotic behavior and hierarchically organize them. We name this fact as structuring function attractors.

Attracting surrounding elements attractors determine the evolution of the system, subordinate its development to their nature. Evolutionary function of language centers reflects in this fact. This attractors’ function is highlighted by N. Alefirenko: “The discrete attractors’ nature hidden in the nonlinear medium manifested as the purpose of idiomatic renewal and evolution. Thus, the present phraseological subsystems of a language actually emerge from the future.

However, the future is only partly predetermined as possible attractors existing in the very nature of the phraseology system” [9]. That is, due to its stability the attractor sets the direction of the development of language or its subsystems (but does not determine, since, firstly, the dissipative mode of structure is able to neutralize the effect of any attractor by force of dissipating its impact. Secondly, at the same time it can influence several attractors, and attraction to any of them is determined largely by chance). We name this fact as the evolutionary function of attractors.

Owning property of openness the system constantly experience fluctuations, i. e.  partial external influences. In this case fluctuations are phenomena whose essence is a precedent of violation of spelling and a set of linguistic clichés. The source of fluctuations is a kind of “fatigue from strict rules of Russian orthography” and the language game.

The catalyst of linguistic experiment is the technological revolution, namely, the emergence of the Internet. Excessive accumulation of fluctuations in the system leads to its disequilibrium. That is a transitional, interim state in which the system experiences highest possible volatility and instability.

In its development the system comes to a critical state called the bifurcation point. At this point the way evolution of the system is undefined. Viewing available fluctuations the system makes a decisive choice in favor of one of them. In the considered case disturbances (word formation, contraction, accent imitation etc.) suddenly are picked up, replicates and includes in the canon. M. Kronhauz concludes that “Precedent and cliché increasingly win orthographic pedantry” [8].

Taking into account that “padonkoff  language” linguistic experiment is more than a violation of the language rules and in order to confirm the feasibility and fertility of synergetic approach to the study of Internet communication we can cite V. Arshinov’s remarks: “Just that very case we have an example of the unity of principles of activity and communication. It is thoroughly revealed by synergetic approach. At the same time the synergistic approach focuses on communicative unity of experiment, on comprehension of it within the networking, interdisciplinary, “transgressive” cognitive model in which knowledge, tools and instruments are treated as operational intermediaries and by means of which new meanings are generated and meet category of practice.

In this case “meeting” means not only meeting with the philosophy of dialectical materialism but also with the Hegelian philosophy that creates the reality of spirit. During the rediscovery of communication synergistic nature of the experiment this meeting also extends the horizon and the general understanding of science as a phenomenon of civilization, socio-cultural evolutionary process” [6].

Conclusions. Thus, synergistic approach to philosophical comprehension of language in general and of Internet communications particularly, is feasible and fruitful.

Appeal to the synergistics can be motivated by the following factors. Firstly, synergistics has a unique scientific means to study abnormal, non-classical situations featuring ambiguity, non-linearity, the transition to a fractional dimension, permanent observer and so on. Similar situations can be observed in the language.

Secondly, the synergistics predominantly is viewed as “international” language, capable of interdisciplinary coverage.

Synergetic approach allows using for the language area groundwork of unlike branches of science. However, interdisciplinary of synergistics is not limited to abstract methodological requirements and involves consideration of objective knowledge. The flexibility of this approach is of great importance.  It provides an opportunity to focus on such moments of functional phenomenon that is studied, which are essential for its self-disclosure and self-development.

Solely basing on the classic linguistic research it is impossible to scientifically explain language phenomenon of Internet communications. Only synergistic approach can be effective and provides results which are fundamentally different from those obtained by classical means.

We consider that prospects for further research is to use a synergistic approach for the study of semantics, syntax, methods of formation of new lexical and idiomatic elements of Internet language as a reflection of language self-organization in the Internet environment.

REFERENCES

1. Haken G. Synergetics. – M.: Mir, 1980.

2. Knyazeva E., Turobov A. United science about united nature. “New world”. – 2000. – №3. – P. 12–14.

3. Opolev A.P. Dialectics and Synergetics: the identity and different, PhD thesis, Omsk, 2010.

4. Dombrovan T.I. What gives synergy for language? Available at: www. ff. unipo.sk /jak/ 12_2012/ dombrovan. pdf (Accessed 16 September 2015)

5. Nazarchuk A.V. Network society and its philosophical interpretation. Available at: ec-dejavu.ru/ w/ WWW.html (Accessed 16 September 2015)

6. Arshinov V.I. Synergetics as a phenomenon of post-classical science. Available at: spkurdyumov. ru/ .../ sinergetika – kak – fenomen – postneklassicheskoj - nauki/ (Accessed 16 September 2015)

7. Kompantseva L.F. Internet-lіngvіstika. – Lugansk: Amber, 2012.

8. Krongauz M.A. Those who tired by orthography. Available at: magazines. russ. ru/ novyi_mi/2008/5/ kr11-pr.html (Accessed 16 September 2015)

9. Alefirenko N.F. Cognitive and synergistic interpretation of processes of neophraseology. – M.: OOO “Publishing “Elpis”, 2008.



Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №7 - 2015

  
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