Situational approach in teaching speaking

Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №7 - 2015

Authors:
Yelakov Vladimir, Kazakh American Free University, Kazakhstan
Graf Maria, Kazakh American Free University, Kazakhstan

According to the current requirements of learning a foreign language in high school should be communicatively-directed speech in all kinds of activities special attention should be given to speaking, and absolutely all the tasks in the classroom should have a communicative orientation. The teacher of a foreign language has a responsible task - to teach students practical use of a foreign language as an important means of communication, which along with native language, must help them to become fully developed and trained in society. Education involves the development of speaking skills and students' dialogic and monologic speech. According to the educational standards of high school students should be able to conduct interviews, discussions, interviews, using standard phrases and clichés.  Monologue speech involves not only a paraphrase of the text read, but also free expression of opinion on the problematic situations in the thematic content in accordance with program requirements.

For conversational speech (dialogue) is characterized by a replica exchanged speaking, repeating phrases and single words of the interlocutor, questions, additions, clarifications, use hints, understandable only to the speakers, a variety of auxiliary words and interjections.

Monologue speech has greater compositional complexity, requires completion of thought, a strict adherence to the rules of grammar, strict logic and consistency in describing what to say pronouncing monologue.

There are effective methods of teaching speaking. They are based on categories such oral-language communication as a situation, the role, the position, the community, the type and scope of communications that are considered in modern science, as a model of speech communication. The most important of these is the communicative teaching methods (speech) situation. According to study of Passow E. I. «Based on communicative methods», (1989) he argues that communicative situation, as a method of teaching speaking, consists of four factors:

1) actually circumstances (environment), in which are the communication;

2) relations between the communicants (subjective - the identity of the interlocutor);

3) speech motives;

4) implementation of the act of communication, creating a new position, the incentives for speech.

Each of these factors has on speech interlocutors a certain influence such as choice of theme and direction of its development, the selection of linguistic resources, emotional coloring of speech, expand it, and so on. (Passow E.I. «Based on communicative methods», 1989).

Methods for teaching foreign languages are important not only communicative situations but also repetitive, the most typical or standard situations. Rogov G.V., 1991 claimed that: «typical communicative situation is an imaginary construction of a model or real contact, which implements the verbal behavior of the interlocutors in their typical social and communicative roles», (p. 121). Examples of typical communicative situation are: a conversation between the buyer and the seller, the viewer with the cashier of the theater, the conversation between mother and son about his school, a teacher with a student, former classmates talk, talk collectors, meeting loved ones, etc.

Modern foreign language teaching methodology is also based on the following principles of learning spoken language (Bim I.L. «Foreign language teaching methodology», (1977):

- The principle of communicative orientation;

- The principle of modeling a typical communicative situation;

- The principle of communicative activity;

- The principle of intensive practice;

- The principle of gradualism speech skills;

- The principle of adequacy.

The above principles are methodical interpretation of the provisions of didactics, linguistics, psychology and communication. In other words, they are the essence of functional-communicative approach.

The modern concept of foreign language teaching is a humanistic orientation that reflects an individual approach to the student, independent work in the learning process, the maximum realization of creative ideas teacher. Actually, nowadays methodical standard is communicatively-directed method of teaching foreign languages that is why situational is one of the most important principles of communicative-based learning foreign languages. Consequently the learning process should be a situational basis to enhance motivation to speak, read, listen and write in a foreign language. Situational as a principle means that all training takes place on the basis of speaking and using situations. Speaking is expressing their thoughts in order to meet the challenges of communication. N.A. Zimniya argues that the purpose of training should not be considered a language and speech as "a method of forming and formulating thoughts", but types of speech activity as a means of communication. In other words, speaking together with paralinguistics (facial expressions, gestures) and praksemiks (movement, posture) that serves as a means of carrying out oral forms of communication. All above determines the essential: it is impossible to teach only speaking, not by teaching communication and not creating in the classroom speech situations.

The definition of "situation" in the communicative method differs significantly from the known definitions. Any teacher knows the facts when he got the job: "You are in the bank. Start a conversation with an employee of the bank," the student is silent, although it is well known that the situation has a stimulating force.

If this situation does not cause the statements, it will be not a situation because when people are speaking at the bank, different situations may arise. It means that situation arises only when there is a relationship between communicating and it depends on it, but not from the place where it occurs. When person is speaking, he attributes his words to objects of reality, although he does not rely on it, but on the mental imagery. Thus, it is important to pay attention on attachment speech units to cash the circumstances at the moment of speech. For instance: if a person condemns someone else act, and the other justifies this act, it is the situation. This framework, on which accumulates external circumstances. Only the existence of such framework creates the true situation, which will serve as the basis for teaching speaking. As a result, situation is dynamic and it changes with the speech acts. Naumenko I.V. (2008) came to the conclusion that «the situation is such a dynamic system of relationships of communicators, which is due to its reflection in the mind generates personal need for purposeful activity» (p. 1). Thus, it is necessary to speak not about theme of situation but its meaningfulness. Subjects of discussion are usually associated with certain relations. When a certain event takes place, it relates to human activities and introduced a contradiction in the relationship between man and the environment. In consequence of which there is a problem. Situation as a problem causes the speech act.  Thereupon attitude to the problem is his speech function. Similarly the situation is that posed a challenge for the student at the moment and the theme is the stock of social experience that is something that exists in reality and in the mind, but at the moment the student does not apply.

Situation is often used as a way of presenting the material. With regard to psychologists, they attach great importance to the first meeting with any phenomenon as it creates the foundation of perception that is why presentation is extremely important in teaching speaking.

The creation of natural communication situation in teaching oral speech speaking another language is not easy. Situations that arise in oral communication learning environment have its difficulties. The first, they have narrow meaningful tasks. It is connected with the need to enter into a situation content that goes beyond the educational process. The second, they are very likely implemented in their native language. This problem arises because students tend to view foreign language as an object of study, rather than as a means of communication. The language is associated with the educational process. However, this is contrary to the natural communication (Jinkin N.I., 1990).

Students perceive their teacher as a person who puts in front of them learning objectives and monitors their implementation. The teacher must be able to transform from person who teach to person learning chatting. It is important to correct students’ mistakes tactfully, consulting or asking question once more. One of the common teacher’s mistakes is scathing remarks while answering student. For example: «Where is an article?», «The tense is not correct». Communication process should start from the first minute lesson. However, many teachers begin a lesson with organizational issues, which often becomes an obstacle in establishing contact. Repeated phrases such as: «Who is absent today?» or «What was your homework?» every day interfere establish voice contact. It is helpful to ask questions, questions concerning recent events or problems, the opinion of the teacher on any topical issue will not leave students boring. It helps to reestablish contact in communication.

The way to create situations using verbal material is based on the selection of texts, admitting the possibility of active relationship to the estimated present the facts, phenomena, events. Communication occurs when teachers manage to relying on the contents of bring a different attitude toward the same things. This technique can be used not only on the basis of specially selected educational texts, but also in the discussion of any topic that is relevant at the moment. The role of the teacher is to propose to discuss an event that students are interested. Thus, the teacher has to base on the range of interests of the students. As opposed to estimates is a crucial factor in the development of the discussion, the teacher should provoke it when the trainees have found unanimous. This is easily achieved if the take the opposite position. Pictures can be used to create communication situations. This may be a caricature - a schematic representation of objects or phenomena. There are minimal graphical tools in caricature that help convey the contents, having a deeper meaning. Words can also serve as support for the deployment of thought. Idioms, figurative expressions, proverbs and sayings are most suitable.

K.S. Stanislavskii wrote: «then the bigger the artist, he is interested in the technique of their skills the more» (Naumenko I.V. «Situational as one of the main principles of teaching speaking», 2008). The teacher must also possess the technique of verbal and non-verbal communication with the trainees, to be a partner for them. This is one of the central problems of the communicative method. Being a partner means being able to communicate so you need:

- be natural, sincere;

- be expressive intonation, gestures and facial expressions;

- be able to move during conversation;

- be able to listen;

- be able to keep an eye on multiple objects;

- be considerate and friendly.

It means that situational principle requires the ability to communicate the teacher. Creating an atmosphere of communication in the classroom depends on the organization interlocutors. In other words, the shape of the organization of training activities: individual, pair, group, collective or choir. Any form of work can help to support communication in the classroom.

In methodological literature role-playing game is defined as a spontaneous behavior of students, their reaction to the behavior of other people involved in a hypothetical situation. Role-playing game - a kind of training technique in which a student must be fluent in the framework of the given circumstances, serving as one of participants in foreign language communication. An obligatory element of the games is to solve a problem situation. Role-playing game based on the solution of a problem, for maximum activation of communicative activity of learners. Finding the solution of the problem determines the naturalness of communication. Formulation of the problem and the need to address it are also the development of critical thinking among students. And, finally, the need for careful thinking through a situation of finding the right solutions develops logical thinking, the ability to find reason and convince interlocutor. Actions teachers and students suspended four stages:

1) Familiarization with the situation: The teacher sets the scenery or image that is then always associate children with a particular subject. The teacher invites the students to prepare a statement and then the teacher introduces the necessary vocabulary.

2) Setting targets. The teacher explains that before a role to play, each student must find out all about the given subject using the linguistic resources available to him, trying to use the dialogue as many familiar words and structures.

3) Dramatization.

4) Conclusions. In conclusion, the teacher thanked the actors, asking the jury to name the best student and, if necessary, examines the mistakes of actors in terms of grammar and vocabulary in the form of recommendations to the next performances. (Kalimulina O.V. «Role playing in learning dialogic speech», 2003).

The use of theater in the classroom shows the high efficiency of this method, especially for the development of skills and abilities of unprepared speech based on the motivation of speech acts. Thus, situational principle is the base of teaching speaking to motivate students to communicate with each other and not be afraid of their mistakes. Role play is integral part of situational principle of teaching speaking.

REFERENCES

1. Passov E.I. Kommunikativnyj metod obuchenija inostrannomu jazyku. – M.: Russkij jazyk, 1985.

2. Rogova G.V. Metodika obuchenija anglijskomu jazyku. L: Prosveshhenie, 1995

3. Passov E.I. Osnovy kommunikativnoj metodiki. M.: Russkij jazyk, 1989.

4. Naumenko I.V. Situativnost' kak odin iz osnovnyh principov obuchenija govoreniju, 2008. Sibirskij torgovo-jekonomicheskij zhurnal № 7, - C. 1-3



Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №7 - 2015

  
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