Situational approach in teaching speaking
Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №7 - 2015
Yelakov Vladimir, Kazakh American Free University, Kazakhstan
Graf Maria, Kazakh American Free University, Kazakhstan
to the current requirements of learning a foreign language in high school
should be communicatively-directed speech in all kinds of activities special
attention should be given to speaking, and absolutely all the tasks in the
classroom should have a communicative orientation. The teacher of a foreign
language has a responsible task - to teach students practical use of a foreign
language as an important means of communication, which along with native
language, must help them to become fully developed and trained in society.
Education involves the development of speaking skills and students' dialogic
and monologic speech. According to the educational standards of high school
students should be able to conduct interviews, discussions, interviews, using
standard phrases and clichés. Monologue speech involves not only a
paraphrase of the text read, but also free expression of opinion on the
problematic situations in the thematic content in accordance with program
conversational speech (dialogue) is characterized by a replica exchanged
speaking, repeating phrases and single words of the interlocutor, questions,
additions, clarifications, use hints, understandable only to the speakers, a
variety of auxiliary words and interjections.
speech has greater compositional complexity, requires completion of thought, a
strict adherence to the rules of grammar, strict logic and consistency in
describing what to say pronouncing monologue.
effective methods of teaching speaking. They are based on categories such
oral-language communication as a situation, the role, the position, the
community, the type and scope of communications that are considered in modern
science, as a model of speech communication. The most important of these is the
communicative teaching methods (speech) situation. According to study of Passow
E. I. «Based on communicative methods», (1989) he argues that communicative
situation, as a method of teaching speaking, consists of four factors:
circumstances (environment), in which are the communication;
relations between the communicants (subjective - the identity of the
implementation of the act of communication, creating a new position, the
incentives for speech.
these factors has on speech interlocutors a certain influence such as choice of
theme and direction of its development, the selection of linguistic resources,
emotional coloring of speech, expand it, and so on. (Passow E.I. «Based on
communicative methods», 1989).
teaching foreign languages are important not only communicative situations but
also repetitive, the most typical or standard situations. Rogov G.V., 1991
claimed that: «typical communicative situation is an imaginary construction of
a model or real contact, which implements the verbal behavior of the
interlocutors in their typical social and communicative roles», (p. 121).
Examples of typical communicative situation are: a conversation between the
buyer and the seller, the viewer with the cashier of the theater, the
conversation between mother and son about his school, a teacher with a student,
former classmates talk, talk collectors, meeting loved ones, etc.
foreign language teaching methodology is also based on the following principles
of learning spoken language (Bim I.L. «Foreign
language teaching methodology», (1977):
principle of communicative orientation;
principle of modeling a typical communicative situation;
principle of communicative activity;
principle of intensive practice;
principle of gradualism speech skills;
principle of adequacy.
principles are methodical interpretation of the provisions of didactics,
linguistics, psychology and communication. In other words, they are the essence
of functional-communicative approach.
concept of foreign language teaching is a humanistic orientation that reflects
an individual approach to the student, independent work in the learning
process, the maximum realization of creative ideas teacher. Actually, nowadays
methodical standard is communicatively-directed method of teaching foreign languages
that is why situational is one of the most important principles of
communicative-based learning foreign languages. Consequently the learning
process should be a situational basis to enhance motivation to speak, read,
listen and write in a foreign language. Situational as a principle means that
all training takes place on the basis of speaking and using situations.
Speaking is expressing their thoughts in order to meet the challenges of
communication. N.A. Zimniya argues that the purpose of training should not be
considered a language and speech as "a method of forming and formulating
thoughts", but types of speech activity as a means of communication. In
other words, speaking together with paralinguistics (facial expressions,
gestures) and praksemiks (movement, posture) that serves as a means of carrying
out oral forms of communication. All above determines the essential: it is
impossible to teach only speaking, not by teaching communication and not
creating in the classroom speech situations.
of "situation" in the communicative method differs significantly from
the known definitions. Any teacher knows the facts when he got the job:
"You are in the bank. Start a conversation with an employee of the
bank," the student is silent, although it is well known that the situation
has a stimulating force.
situation does not cause the statements, it will be not a situation because
when people are speaking at the bank, different situations may arise. It means
that situation arises only when there is a relationship between communicating
and it depends on it, but not from the place where it occurs. When person is
speaking, he attributes his words to objects of reality, although he does not
rely on it, but on the mental imagery. Thus, it is important to pay attention
on attachment speech units to cash the circumstances at the moment of speech.
For instance: if a person condemns someone else act, and the other justifies
this act, it is the situation. This framework, on which accumulates external circumstances.
Only the existence of such framework creates the true situation, which will
serve as the basis for teaching speaking. As a result, situation is dynamic and
it changes with the speech acts. Naumenko I.V. (2008) came to the conclusion
that «the situation is such a dynamic system of relationships of communicators,
which is due to its reflection in the mind generates personal need for
purposeful activity» (p. 1). Thus, it is necessary to speak not about theme of
situation but its meaningfulness. Subjects of discussion are usually associated
with certain relations. When a certain event takes place, it relates to human
activities and introduced a contradiction in the relationship between man and
the environment. In consequence of which there is a problem. Situation as a
problem causes the speech act. Thereupon attitude to the problem is his
speech function. Similarly the situation is that posed a challenge for the
student at the moment and the theme is the stock of social experience that is
something that exists in reality and in the mind, but at the moment the student
does not apply.
is often used as a way of presenting the material. With regard to
psychologists, they attach great importance to the first meeting with any
phenomenon as it creates the foundation of perception that is why presentation
is extremely important in teaching speaking.
creation of natural communication situation in teaching oral speech speaking
another language is not easy. Situations that arise in oral communication
learning environment have its difficulties. The first, they have narrow
meaningful tasks. It is connected with the need to enter into a situation
content that goes beyond the educational process. The second, they are very
likely implemented in their native language. This problem arises because
students tend to view foreign language as an object of study, rather than as a
means of communication. The language is associated with the educational
process. However, this is contrary to the natural communication (Jinkin N.I.,
perceive their teacher as a person who puts in front of them learning
objectives and monitors their implementation. The teacher must be able to
transform from person who teach to person learning chatting. It is important to
correct students’ mistakes tactfully, consulting or asking question once more.
One of the common teacher’s mistakes is scathing remarks while answering
student. For example: «Where is an article?», «The tense is not correct».
Communication process should start from the first minute lesson. However, many
teachers begin a lesson with organizational issues, which often becomes an
obstacle in establishing contact. Repeated phrases such as: «Who is absent
today?» or «What was your homework?» every day interfere establish voice
contact. It is helpful to ask questions, questions concerning recent events or
problems, the opinion of the teacher on any topical issue will not leave
students boring. It helps to reestablish contact in communication.
The way to
create situations using verbal material is based on the selection of texts,
admitting the possibility of active relationship to the estimated present the
facts, phenomena, events. Communication occurs when teachers manage to relying
on the contents of bring a different attitude toward the same things. This
technique can be used not only on the basis of specially selected educational
texts, but also in the discussion of any topic that is relevant at the moment.
The role of the teacher is to propose to discuss an event that students are
interested. Thus, the teacher has to base on the range of interests of the
students. As opposed to estimates is a crucial factor in the development of the
discussion, the teacher should provoke it when the trainees have found
unanimous. This is easily achieved if the take the opposite position. Pictures
can be used to create communication situations. This may be a caricature - a
schematic representation of objects or phenomena. There are minimal graphical
tools in caricature that help convey the contents, having a deeper meaning.
Words can also serve as support for the deployment of thought. Idioms,
figurative expressions, proverbs and sayings are most suitable.
Stanislavskii wrote: «then the bigger the artist, he is interested in the
technique of their skills the more» (Naumenko I.V. «Situational as one of the
main principles of teaching speaking», 2008). The teacher must also possess the
technique of verbal and non-verbal communication with the trainees, to be a partner
for them. This is one of the central problems of the communicative method.
Being a partner means being able to communicate so you need:
expressive intonation, gestures and facial expressions;
- be able
to move during conversation;
- be able
- be able
to keep an eye on multiple objects;
considerate and friendly.
that situational principle requires the ability to communicate the teacher.
Creating an atmosphere of communication in the classroom depends on the
organization interlocutors. In other words, the shape of the organization of
training activities: individual, pair, group, collective or choir. Any form of
work can help to support communication in the classroom.
methodological literature role-playing game is defined as a spontaneous
behavior of students, their reaction to the behavior of other people involved
in a hypothetical situation. Role-playing game - a kind of training technique
in which a student must be fluent in the framework of the given circumstances,
serving as one of participants in foreign language communication. An obligatory
element of the games is to solve a problem situation. Role-playing game based
on the solution of a problem, for maximum activation of communicative activity
of learners. Finding the solution of the problem determines the naturalness of
communication. Formulation of the problem and the need to address it are also
the development of critical thinking among students. And, finally, the need for
careful thinking through a situation of finding the right solutions develops
logical thinking, the ability to find reason and convince interlocutor. Actions
teachers and students suspended four stages:
Familiarization with the situation: The teacher sets the scenery or image that
is then always associate children with a particular subject. The teacher
invites the students to prepare a statement and then the teacher introduces the
targets. The teacher explains that before a role to play, each student must
find out all about the given subject using the linguistic resources available
to him, trying to use the dialogue as many familiar words and structures.
Conclusions. In conclusion, the teacher thanked the actors, asking the jury to
name the best student and, if necessary, examines the mistakes of actors in
terms of grammar and vocabulary in the form of recommendations to the next
performances. (Kalimulina O.V. «Role playing in learning dialogic speech»,
The use of
theater in the classroom shows the high efficiency of this method, especially
for the development of skills and abilities of unprepared speech based on the
motivation of speech acts. Thus, situational principle is the base of teaching
speaking to motivate students to communicate with each other and not be afraid
of their mistakes. Role play is integral part of situational principle of
Kommunikativnyj metod obuchenija inostrannomu jazyku. – M.: Russkij jazyk, 1985.
2. Rogova G.V. Metodika
obuchenija anglijskomu jazyku. L: Prosveshhenie, 1995
E.I. Osnovy kommunikativnoj metodiki. M.: Russkij jazyk, 1989.
4. Naumenko I.V.
Situativnost' kak odin iz osnovnyh principov obuchenija govoreniju, 2008.
Sibirskij torgovo-jekonomicheskij zhurnal № 7, - C. 1-3
Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №7 - 2015