The analysis of tolerance attitudes among youth (based on studies of attitudes of youth in East Kazakhstan)
Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №7 - 2015
Lipin Nikolaj, Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics, Ukraine
Zavalko Nadezhda, S. Amanzholov East Kazakhstan State University, Kazakhstan
Nabiyev Ersain, Kazakh American Free University, Kazakhstan
today's world, Kazakhstan
is viewed as a successful state with a stable political system, characterized
by social stability and well- balanced relation among people of different
ethnicity and religious affiliation. President Nazarbayev
in his address to the people of Kazakhstan
“Kazakhstan Strategy 2050”
said: “Civil peace and interethnic harmony is our main value. Peace and
harmony, dialogue of cultures and religions in our multinational country is
rightly recognized as the global benchmark. One of the main achievements of the
national policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan since independence is the creation of the Kazakhstan
model of interethnic unity and consent, which is essential for the
implementation of social, economic and political reforms in the country”.
the fact that there are no serious conflicts in Kazakhstan, which is home for
more than 140 ethnic groups and 40 religious denominations, it is especially
important to focus on the harmonization of cross-cultural relationships of
people with different social, intellectual and religious culture. Retaining
national cultural identity of the various nations and ethnic groups is a key
factor in the implementation of the idea of a holistic cultural space in Kazakhstan and
a part of the national policy of the country.
demographic and religious composition of the population of Kazakhstan
confers a special significance to the development of culture of tolerance among
young people. One of the main risks identified in the State Concept of Youth
Policy of the Republic
of Kazakhstan adopted on
27 February 2013 is the ability to "fall under the influence of internal
and external destructive forces, recruiting young people to realize their
political goals. Penetration of the extremists’ ideas into youth environment
may provoke illegal actions and disrupt interethnic, intercultural and
interfaith harmony in society. under these circumstances, the process of
socialization of young people, their involvement into social and political life
must be based on the values of patriotism, unity of the nation, tolerance, etc.
“Young people of the country, which is a platform for the dialogue between
cultures, religions and civilizations, a bridge between East and West should be
more than anybody else interested in spreading the culture of peace and
is why the task of building a culture of tolerant attitudes in the process of
interpersonal interaction among young people of the Republic of Kazakhstan
is an essential part of the social, political and pedagogical work with young
April - October 2015 a
group of researchers working on the project “Development of culture of tolerant
attitudes in the process of interpersonal communication among young people of
the Republic of Kazakhstan” made a survey measuring
attitudes of different categories of Kazakh youth to the issues of tolerant
relations at various levels. For this reason, we also included this question
into our surveys and interviews with focus groups as a quantitative research
tool to measure attention to the issue of inter-ethnic relations on the part of
young people of the East Kazakhstan region.
Figure 1 shows fluctuations in the attention paid to the issues of interethnic
relations by the young people of the East Kazakhstan
Figure 1. Are you concerned about the problem
of tolerance in the East Kazakhstan region at
the social, personal and ethnic levels?
of some groups of young people concerned about the issues of tolerant attitudes
at the social, personal and ethnic levels. Data of Figure 3 shows the growing
interest of young people to the issue of inter-ethnic relations, which proves
underscoring the relevance of the project.
research also included a survey, which studied the peculiarities of tolerant
attitudes and the culture of tolerance. As the basis for this study we used
express questionnaire “Index of Tolerance” by G.U. Soldatov, O.A. Kravtsov, O.E. Khukhlayev, L.A. Shaigerova.
provides for the calculation of the overall result with no division into
to a direct statement is scored from 1 to 6 ("strongly disagree"
scoring 1 point, "totally agree" scoring 6 points). Responses to
indirect statements are scored in a reverse manner ("strongly
disagree" - 6 points, "totally agree" - 1 point). Then, the
resulting scores are added together.
or group assessment of the identified level of tolerance is carried out
according to the following criteria:
22-60 - a low level of tolerance. These results indicate a high level of
personal intolerance and existence of strong intolerant attitudes towards the
world and people.
61-99 – an average level. This level is characteristic of the
respondents, who have a combination of both tolerant and intolerant traits. In
certain social situations, they behave tolerantly, other situations they may
100-132 - a high level of tolerance. Representatives of this group have strong
traits of a tolerant person. At the same time it should be understood that the
results close to the upper boundary (over 115 points) can testify to the
erosion of a person’s "limits of tolerance", associated, for example,
with psychological infantilism, the tendency to connivance, condescension or
indifference. It is also important to note that the respondents, showing these
results may demonstrate a high degree of social desirability (especially if
they are aware of the research purpose and understand the convictions of the
qualitative analysis of the aspects of tolerance separate subscales can be
tolerance: 2, 4, 7, 11, 14, 18, 21.
tolerance: 1, 6, 8, 10, 12, 15, 16, 20.
Tolerance as a personality trait: 3, 5, 9, 13, 17, 19, 22.
tolerance” subscale reveals person’s relation to other ethnic groups and
principles of intercultural interaction. “Social tolerance” subscale allows
investigating manifestations of tolerance and intolerance towards various
social groups (minorities, criminals, mentally challenged people), as well as
to studying individual attitudes towards certain social processes. Subscale
"tolerance as a personality trait" includes items that help to assess
personality traits, attitudes and beliefs, which to a great extent determine
the attitude of an individual to the world.
revealed that the overall index of tolerance of different groups of young
people is 68 points, which corresponds to the average tolerance level (61-99).
These results are characteristic of respondents, who posses a combination of
both tolerant and intolerant traits. In certain social situations of
interpersonal interaction they behave tolerantly, while in other situations
they may exhibit intolerance. The study also revealed that students have the
highest level of tolerance (84.3).
Figure 2. The index of tolerance of students
the distribution of respondents by category of young people within the
boundaries of the average value of the tolerance index revealed that university
students tend to be more intolerant, while students of secondary professional
colleges, on the contrary, exhibit a high index of tolerance.
youth demonstrated an average level of tolerance (68.8), while young faculty
demonstrated the highest level of tolerance (96.4).
to the methodology used in this study differentiates between ethnic, social and
personal tolerance. Distribution of the index values is shown in Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. The ratio of social,
ethnic and personal tolerance
study revealed that to date, the index of tolerance of different categories of
youth is average, but there is a predisposition to intolerance among university
students, particularly among students of law-related majors. Thus, it is
necessary to develop a set of measures aimed at promoting tolerance, and
developing a culture of tolerance among students and also test different models
of organizing the process of cultivating the culture of tolerant attitudes.
1. "On the Concept of the State Youth Policy of
the Republic of Kazakhstan
till 2020 “Kazakhstan 2020: The Way of the Future” "Resolution of the
Government of the Republic
of Kazakhstan dated
February 27, 2013 № 191.
B.B. Development of ethnic tolerance in senior pupils,
3. Nabiyev E.A., Petrussevich A.A. Development of the culture of tolerance in the younger
generation: Monograph. - Ust-Kamenogorsk,
2014. - 180 p.
Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №7 - 2015