Leadership in the manual is a reality
Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №6 - 2014
Author: Matyuchshenko Axinya, Kazakh-American Free University, Kazakhstan
In the context of the
transformation of Kazakh society and the country in the period of
administrative reform inevitably enhanced attention to the management,
organization of human activity, which is the subject of the manager as a leader
of the market type. Today, demand specialists in the field of socio-economic
and socio-cultural management, capable to reveal sharp contradictions and
professionally and effectively resolve them.
The relationship of
socio-economic life of the culture in all its manifestations is fully
consistent with modern realities. The important role played by managers,
executives in the life of people actualizes the need for comprehensive
scientific study of this professional group, its place in the social structure
of society, as well as the problem of building a culture of management. On the
one hand, economic growth is largely dependent on the intellectual
"potential" of society, the level of development of its educational
system, from historical cultural traditions and stereotypes of social behavior
and value orientations. In other words, culture is integrated into the economic
space. On the other; hand, the main concern of the economic entity is the
question of how to achieve profit. These two aspects of the problem is fixed complementarities
of two components, which must be maintained between the kind of balance. His
breaking accompanies diverse dysfunction that causes danger crisis condition
not only for the economy, but also for society as a whole. In this regard,
management culture as an integrative quality manager performs a real factor in
the optimization and further development of social relations.
With the development of
market relations, with a change in the socio-economic structure of life
occurred repeatedly changing the type of management. Since that time,
management innovations have become regular. Ultimately, originated the modern
form of ownership capital, which has caused a change management functions.
There is a new term in the management - "manager" - manager.
The human factor has
become central in the theory of management - management. Among the priorities
of today is determined to achieve the current level of public management and
development of human resources in order to create a highly progressive housing
Identity of the head,
its culture are included in the complex system not only professional, but also
socio-cultural phenomena, which are reflected in the mind, which determine
professional behavior. Socio-cultural environment is considered in the study on
several levels: mega, macro, meso and micro environment. They are one in the
context of specific social relations. Each of these levels indirectly affects
the identity of the modern manager - manager.
Management - is an
effective management, quality criteria which vary depending on the type of
organization, the industry in which it operates, its social significance, and
many other parameters. Especially important in the art of managing cases where
the main problems are related to the behavior of the organization and
relationships of people - the most difficult challenges of organizational life.
Intuition, will, tact, leadership - in these and similar concepts shown good
management in relation to people and groups both within the organization and
outside it, but to which the organization is related to its activities .
For the effective
functioning of the labor collective requires leaders who can direct the efforts
of groups and individuals to perform common tasks. The basic mechanisms of this
process - management, power and personal influence. Under the influence refers
to the process in which one of the parties changes the behavior of others.
Methods of influence may be different.
The specific means by
which one person can influence others in the organization are very diverse:
from the request made in a whisper, to the threat of dismissal.
The ability of managers
to influence subordinates can be defined as personal as a manager, and
situational factors, as well as the amount of power head.
Manual is an essential
component of good governance, but effective leaders are not always at the same
time and effectively manage.
Analysis of these
differences between "leaders" and "manager" led to the
1) between these
concepts, there is a certain similarity, which manifests itself in the fact
that the two categories: "Leadership" and "Manual" -
subjects of management, implement the processes of social influence, determine
the subordination relations;
2) the main difference
between these concepts is that the leadership - it is a social phenomenon, the
head is designed to regulate formal relations. Head becomes the head of the
organization as a result of a deliberate act of formal organization -
delegation of authority, its competence includes formal relations group. Leadership
has a psychological phenomenon, that is the leader regulates interpersonal relationships
(informal) in the group.
Leaders are not at the
behest of the organization, and spontaneously, depending on the mood of the
Both managers and
leaders have influence on subordinates, motivate employees to perform tasks,
motivate for the faithful performance of their duties. However, between the
leader and the leader there are differences. Manual - is for the most part
social relations characteristic of control and subordination in the organization
associated with the person's position in the official hierarchy, often
independent of his personal qualities. The supervisor may be appointed by
higher authorities to give powers to the use of positive and negative
sanctions. Leadership is also a psychological characteristic of human behavior.
The influence of the leader comes from the recognition of the superiority of
other people's personal and professional qualities.
Head, thus realizes the
regulation of formal relations in the team, the leader, in turn, affects
interpersonal relationships. Leadership - is effective, not necessarily related
to the administrative authority influence on the team, forcing the employees to
act in a certain way .
Considering the lead in
the manual, it should be clearly understood that not every director can use
leadership skills in their work. The reasons can be many:
All this may affect the
statement of the head, as a leader.
Vikhansky and Naumov in
his textbook "Fundamentals of Management" as compared to the
differences between managers and leaders:
There are several
theoretical constructs systematically describe leadership as a phenomenon.
Tannenbaum and Schmidt
consider leadership as a continuum from authoritarian leadership styles
(policy-based task) to democratic (delegating oriented relations). Each point
of this continuum is characterized by a certain ratio of the freedom of action
of followers and use of power leader. Accordingly, they are seven basic types
of leadership behaviors (with increasing latitude followers):
• Leader decides and
• The leader of the
"For Sale" solution.
• Leader puts ideas and
• Leader is a
preliminary ruling, which can be changed.
• The leader of a
problem, listens to suggestions and make decisions.
• The leader sets the
framework and asks the group to make a decision.
• Leader allows
followers to act within the framework defined by the head .
In the model,
Hersey-Blanchard basis for measuring the orientation taken leadership Sale of ideas." Head explains the decision and an opportunity for clarification.
(S3) Participating -
Close cooperation. Leaders share ideas and act as facilitators in making group
(S4) Delegating -
Delegate. The leader of the authority to refer a friend to make and implement
decisions, followers assume responsibility.
An important element of
the model Hersey-Blanchard is the maturity of the followers, which is defined
as quasi-product of their willingness to follow the leader (the sum of
knowledge and skills), desire (motivation) to perform the task and
self-confidence. Accordingly, researchers have identified four types of
R1 - are not able and
do not want to do the work or not self-confident.
R2 - are not able, but
unwilling or confidence.
R3 - able, but
unwilling or unable confidence.
R4 - able and willing
In the first two cases,
according to the authors of the model, the activity should be directed leader,
in the second two - governed by the followers.
Vaisbord believes that
the main dilemma of leadership - how to get others to share the risk. They do
not go for it, if they think that the leader suffers lack of vision as
normative behavior tends to be stronger from top to bottom, and few people dare
to risk before it will make the head.
Therefore, the lead
requires besides behavioral skills, understanding the environment and will
focus on the purpose, in particular when an alarm is issued. It is important to
be able to understand their formal role by the leaders and the extent to which
this is reflected in the mechanisms designed to maintain a balance of formal
and informal systems.
Nobody does this
action, balancing on a high wire stretched to perfection. But if the work is
not carried out, in practice it may be a formal organization (informally)
without a leader .
In an ideal situation,
the head of the company and is recognized as an official team leader, and as a
leader. He gets the opportunity to work on a team, not only administrative
methods, but also informally, relying approval and trust the team. But in fact,
this situation is not always achievable. The company appears the so-called
informal leader of the staff, who begins to use its capacity of suggestion and
persuasion to influence the team.
At discrepancy of
opinions and strategies of formal and informal leader of a team leader may
arise dissatisfaction with work and the increasing number of conflicts. The
most frequent reason for the conflict is a situation in which the formal leader
rejects intelligent and thoughtful proposal informal leader and change it for
the worse, but his own. The Head uses his position and formal law, suppressing
all opposition, and not willing to listen to comments disgruntled employees.
Often dismiss the head
of the informal leader, trying to get rid of his influence on the team.
However, this is not recommended. Team will long survive such a caring person,
and the head just to prove all its inconsistency. In this situation, for
decision-making should use the discussion: should first give an opportunity to
express their proposals to members of the team, including the informal leader,
and then summarize the proposals and choose the best. Even if the proposal is
selected informal leader, the final decision will be the formal head of the
company. Team will be satisfied, and the head does not lose credibility and
Keep in mind that the
informal leader can greatly help a manager, successfully completing his work,
so you need to try to establish a relationship with him. Informal leader will
link manager and staff, to carry out the ideas and reinforce the order of the
chief, weakening the negative aspects in the relationship and maintaining
positive. Acting on the informal leader, manager will be able to manage the
whole team. The question arises, why not head to build a relationship with the
team, based on the close friendship, and thus be aware of all cases occurring?
The situation is bad that this convergence will break the chain of command,
will lead to familiarity. Be sure to start trying to take advantage of this
favorable friendship, for example to take time off early or get a raise.
Refusal by a "friendly" request will entail resentment and discontent
Summarizing the written
above, it is possible to reveal that the leader should possess qualities such
as flexibility and ability to adapt to change leadership style. In addition, it
must distinguish between the ability to give clear guidance to delegate
authority, provide feedback to subordinates, encourage and motivate, to establish
and maintain discipline. Officially appointed leader certainly has advantages
in capturing the leading position in the group, so it is more likely than
anyone else, becomes the leader. However, we must remember that to be a leader
does not automatically be considered a leader.
That is why it is very
important to identify as early as possible in the collective informal leader
and build a good relationship with him. Then informal leader will be your
support, will help guide individual team members striving to create a common
result, help implement solutions leader in life, promote them in the team, will
support corporate values, help to create a favorable psychological climate, encourage
the pursuit of innovation and, of course, to maintain trust and respect to the
Despite the complexity
of the issue, the reality of leadership in the successful implementation of the
manual brings significant benefits. Intel is one of the first American
companies applied the principles of leadership in all spheres of its existence.
Intel has shown some success can be achieved with the right considering the
strengths and weaknesses of the company and the constant hard work. Since the beginning
of the 80s. annually announces its new and far-reaching strategic initiatives
and technology programs. Such names new technologies such as USB, MDI (Mobile
Data Initiative), Bluetooth, P2P, and many others have become symbols of global
computer networks of the new generation. Top managers of Intel created over the
past 15-20 years, harmonious and at the same time an extensive system of
business venture, which is recognized worldwide as a model "factory
production innovation." The business colleges and universities in the US, Europe and Japan performed numerous research papers and theses are protected by dozens on
"Industrial policy Intel", "Mechanisms of innovation Intel"
and the like.
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Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №6 - 2014