Leadership in the manual is a reality

Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №6 - 2014

Author: Matyuchshenko Axinya, Kazakh-American Free University, Kazakhstan

In the context of the transformation of Kazakh society and the country in the period of administrative reform inevitably enhanced attention to the management, organization of human activity, which is the subject of the manager as a leader of the market type. Today, demand specialists in the field of socio-economic and socio-cultural management, capable to reveal sharp contradictions and professionally and effectively resolve them.

The relationship of socio-economic life of the culture in all its manifestations is fully consistent with modern realities. The important role played by managers, executives in the life of people actualizes the need for comprehensive scientific study of this professional group, its place in the social structure of society, as well as the problem of building a culture of management. On the one hand, economic growth is largely dependent on the intellectual "potential" of society, the level of development of its educational system, from historical cultural traditions and stereotypes of social behavior and value orientations. In other words, culture is integrated into the economic space. On the other; hand, the main concern of the economic entity is the question of how to achieve profit. These two aspects of the problem is fixed complementarities of two components, which must be maintained between the kind of balance. His breaking accompanies diverse dysfunction that causes danger crisis condition not only for the economy, but also for society as a whole. In this regard, management culture as an integrative quality manager performs a real factor in the optimization and further development of social relations.

With the development of market relations, with a change in the socio-economic structure of life occurred repeatedly changing the type of management. Since that time, management innovations have become regular. Ultimately, originated the modern form of ownership capital, which has caused a change management functions. There is a new term in the management - "manager" - manager.

The human factor has become central in the theory of management - management. Among the priorities of today is determined to achieve the current level of public management and development of human resources in order to create a highly progressive housing managers.

Identity of the head, its culture are included in the complex system not only professional, but also socio-cultural phenomena, which are reflected in the mind, which determine professional behavior. Socio-cultural environment is considered in the study on several levels: mega, macro, meso and micro environment. They are one in the context of specific social relations. Each of these levels indirectly affects the identity of the modern manager - manager.

Management - is an effective management, quality criteria which vary depending on the type of organization, the industry in which it operates, its social significance, and many other parameters. Especially important in the art of managing cases where the main problems are related to the behavior of the organization and relationships of people - the most difficult challenges of organizational life. Intuition, will, tact, leadership - in these and similar concepts shown good management in relation to people and groups both within the organization and outside it, but to which the organization is related to its activities [1].

For the effective functioning of the labor collective requires leaders who can direct the efforts of groups and individuals to perform common tasks. The basic mechanisms of this process - management, power and personal influence. Under the influence refers to the process in which one of the parties changes the behavior of others. Methods of influence may be different.

The specific means by which one person can influence others in the organization are very diverse: from the request made in a whisper, to the threat of dismissal.

The ability of managers to influence subordinates can be defined as personal as a manager, and situational factors, as well as the amount of power head.

Manual is an essential component of good governance, but effective leaders are not always at the same time and effectively manage.

Analysis of these differences between "leaders" and "manager" led to the following conclusions:

1) between these concepts, there is a certain similarity, which manifests itself in the fact that the two categories: "Leadership" and "Manual" - subjects of management, implement the processes of social influence, determine the subordination relations;

2) the main difference between these concepts is that the leadership - it is a social phenomenon, the head is designed to regulate formal relations. Head becomes the head of the organization as a result of a deliberate act of formal organization - delegation of authority, its competence includes formal relations group. Leadership has a psychological phenomenon, that is the leader regulates interpersonal relationships (informal) in the group.

Leaders are not at the behest of the organization, and spontaneously, depending on the mood of the group [2].

Both managers and leaders have influence on subordinates, motivate employees to perform tasks, motivate for the faithful performance of their duties. However, between the leader and the leader there are differences. Manual - is for the most part social relations characteristic of control and subordination in the organization associated with the person's position in the official hierarchy, often independent of his personal qualities. The supervisor may be appointed by higher authorities to give powers to the use of positive and negative sanctions. Leadership is also a psychological characteristic of human behavior. The influence of the leader comes from the recognition of the superiority of other people's personal and professional qualities.

Head, thus realizes the regulation of formal relations in the team, the leader, in turn, affects interpersonal relationships. Leadership - is effective, not necessarily related to the administrative authority influence on the team, forcing the employees to act in a certain way [3].

Considering the lead in the manual, it should be clearly understood that not every director can use leadership skills in their work. The reasons can be many:

- knowledge;

- emotions;

- thinking;

- time;

- practice.

All this may affect the statement of the head, as a leader.

Vikhansky and Naumov in his textbook "Fundamentals of Management" as compared to the differences between managers and leaders:

There are several theoretical constructs systematically describe leadership as a phenomenon.

Tannenbaum and Schmidt consider leadership as a continuum from authoritarian leadership styles (policy-based task) to democratic (delegating oriented relations). Each point of this continuum is characterized by a certain ratio of the freedom of action of followers and use of power leader. Accordingly, they are seven basic types of leadership behaviors (with increasing latitude followers):

• Leader decides and announces it.

• The leader of the "For Sale" solution.

• Leader puts ideas and initiate questions.

• Leader is a preliminary ruling, which can be changed.

• The leader of a problem, listens to suggestions and make decisions.

• The leader sets the framework and asks the group to make a decision.

• Leader allows followers to act within the framework defined by the head [4].

In the model, Hersey-Blanchard basis for measuring the orientation taken leadership Sale of ideas." Head explains the decision and an opportunity for clarification.

(S3) Participating - Close cooperation. Leaders share ideas and act as facilitators in making group decisions.

(S4) Delegating - Delegate. The leader of the authority to refer a friend to make and implement decisions, followers assume responsibility.

Hersey-Blanchard model

An important element of the model Hersey-Blanchard is the maturity of the followers, which is defined as quasi-product of their willingness to follow the leader (the sum of knowledge and skills), desire (motivation) to perform the task and self-confidence. Accordingly, researchers have identified four types of followers:

R1 - are not able and do not want to do the work or not self-confident.

R2 - are not able, but unwilling or confidence.

R3 - able, but unwilling or unable confidence.

R4 - able and willing or confident.

In the first two cases, according to the authors of the model, the activity should be directed leader, in the second two - governed by the followers.

Vaisbord believes that the main dilemma of leadership - how to get others to share the risk. They do not go for it, if they think that the leader suffers lack of vision as normative behavior tends to be stronger from top to bottom, and few people dare to risk before it will make the head.

Therefore, the lead requires besides behavioral skills, understanding the environment and will focus on the purpose, in particular when an alarm is issued. It is important to be able to understand their formal role by the leaders and the extent to which this is reflected in the mechanisms designed to maintain a balance of formal and informal systems.

Nobody does this action, balancing on a high wire stretched to perfection. But if the work is not carried out, in practice it may be a formal organization (informally) without a leader [5].

In an ideal situation, the head of the company and is recognized as an official team leader, and as a leader. He gets the opportunity to work on a team, not only administrative methods, but also informally, relying approval and trust the team. But in fact, this situation is not always achievable. The company appears the so-called informal leader of the staff, who begins to use its capacity of suggestion and persuasion to influence the team.

At discrepancy of opinions and strategies of formal and informal leader of a team leader may arise dissatisfaction with work and the increasing number of conflicts. The most frequent reason for the conflict is a situation in which the formal leader rejects intelligent and thoughtful proposal informal leader and change it for the worse, but his own. The Head uses his position and formal law, suppressing all opposition, and not willing to listen to comments disgruntled employees.

Often dismiss the head of the informal leader, trying to get rid of his influence on the team. However, this is not recommended. Team will long survive such a caring person, and the head just to prove all its inconsistency. In this situation, for decision-making should use the discussion: should first give an opportunity to express their proposals to members of the team, including the informal leader, and then summarize the proposals and choose the best. Even if the proposal is selected informal leader, the final decision will be the formal head of the company. Team will be satisfied, and the head does not lose credibility and respect.

Keep in mind that the informal leader can greatly help a manager, successfully completing his work, so you need to try to establish a relationship with him. Informal leader will link manager and staff, to carry out the ideas and reinforce the order of the chief, weakening the negative aspects in the relationship and maintaining positive. Acting on the informal leader, manager will be able to manage the whole team. The question arises, why not head to build a relationship with the team, based on the close friendship, and thus be aware of all cases occurring? The situation is bad that this convergence will break the chain of command, will lead to familiarity. Be sure to start trying to take advantage of this favorable friendship, for example to take time off early or get a raise. Refusal by a "friendly" request will entail resentment and discontent leadership.

Summarizing the written above, it is possible to reveal that the leader should possess qualities such as flexibility and ability to adapt to change leadership style. In addition, it must distinguish between the ability to give clear guidance to delegate authority, provide feedback to subordinates, encourage and motivate, to establish and maintain discipline. Officially appointed leader certainly has advantages in capturing the leading position in the group, so it is more likely than anyone else, becomes the leader. However, we must remember that to be a leader does not automatically be considered a leader.

That is why it is very important to identify as early as possible in the collective informal leader and build a good relationship with him. Then informal leader will be your support, will help guide individual team members striving to create a common result, help implement solutions leader in life, promote them in the team, will support corporate values, help to create a favorable psychological climate, encourage the pursuit of innovation and, of course, to maintain trust and respect to the management [6].

Despite the complexity of the issue, the reality of leadership in the successful implementation of the manual brings significant benefits. Intel is one of the first American companies applied the principles of leadership in all spheres of its existence. Intel has shown some success can be achieved with the right considering the strengths and weaknesses of the company and the constant hard work. Since the beginning of the 80s. annually announces its new and far-reaching strategic initiatives and technology programs. Such names new technologies such as USB, MDI (Mobile Data Initiative), Bluetooth, P2P, and many others have become symbols of global computer networks of the new generation. Top managers of Intel created over the past 15-20 years, harmonious and at the same time an extensive system of business venture, which is recognized worldwide as a model "factory production innovation." The business colleges and universities in the US, Europe and Japan performed numerous research papers and theses are protected by dozens on "Industrial policy Intel", "Mechanisms of innovation Intel" and the like.


1. Kezin, A.V. Menedzhment: teorii upravlenija organizacijami. – M., 2005.

2. Chernyshev M.A., Korotkov Je.M., Soldatova I.Ju. Osnovy menedzhmenta. - M., 2006.

3. Kibanov A.Ja., Durakova I.B. Upravlenie personalom organizacii: strategija, marketing, internacionalizacija. – M., 2007.

4. Vihanskij O.S., Naumov A.I. Menedzhment. – M., 2003.

5. Djatlov A. N., Plotnikov M.V. Liderstvo. – M., 2004.

6. Mazur I.I., Shapiro V.D., Korotkov Je.M., Ol'derogge N.G. Korporativnyj menedzhment: ucheb. posobie. – M., 2005.

Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №6 - 2014

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