Fundamental issues of modern Kazakh philology
Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №4 - 2012
Author: Abdullina Lutsia, East Kazakhstan State University in honor of S. Amanzholov, Kazakhstan
with other humanities, modern Kazakh philology is forming new cultural
anthropology in the context of the nationwide idea. Responding to the challenges
of the new era, the literature of sovereign Kazakhstan is based on the experience
and traditions of literature and history of the past. The process of qualitative
updating art systems in the last decade of XX - beginning of XXI is mainly owe
to the release of a set of regulatory framework. In addition, the nation’s
cultural heritage, folk art traditions, stories and images remain a plentiful
source of inspiration.
One of the
founders of Kazakh folklore studies, S.A. Kaskabassov, was the first to
identify and carry out the classificatory and typological research of verbal
prose and Kazakh mythology. The works of folklorists of Bashkiria, Tatarstan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan confirmed the established laws of
historical development of folklore prose from the archaic forms to highly
publication of academic collection of animals’ fairy-tales in Russian, the "Kozy-Korpesh
and Bayan Sulu", national lyric epos, unique folklore texts collected by
local historians-researchers, XVII-XIX centuries’ works of zhiraus was text
work. The book of Kaskabassov "Gold Mine" is a peculiar cultural
writing in which the scientific comment helps to value folklore monuments as a
“source of intellectual culture”. Pondering on the "international"
nature of folklore story leads the philologist to the conclusion about the
specifics of Kazakh plot, in particular, "optimistic love concept in
Kazakh romance epos" [1, 23].
verbal individual poetry, written literature, art of music, poetry of zhiraus,
work of Bey-Sheshens, - here is an incomplete list of issues and aspects that
determined the development of Kazakh folklore studies. Author's rhetoric in the
characteristic of spiritual power of his nation is based on the high authority
of the poet, when eloquence has been considered the highest level of art.
Analysis of the zhiraus’ works reveals their priestly character and functions
of the public service. In addition, the poetry of professional akyns has freed
literature from ideology and made its " contribution to democracy”, the
poetry “has come into the yurt of ordinary members of the society”, to common
folk" [1, 132].
myths in Kazakhstan philology are considered to be the most important image and
style basis of national literature. The genetic invariance of folklore texts
stimulates ceaseless renewal by means of author’s interpretations and
metaphorically “folded” idea-formulae. The investigation of the national
specificity of Kazakh folklore is parallel to the studies of the Slavic
folklore in Kazakhstan, to its collection, systematization and publishing. The
folklore and ethnography integration during folklore expeditions contributed
invaluable material for scientific observations and conclusions about the
modern state of verbal traditions, of Slavic folklore in the multiethnic Kazakhstan, of the influence of transformation processes, of genre “extinction” etc. [A.D.
research of Kazakhstan folklorists touch upon the subjects of interaction
between literature and folklore, genrology, intertextuality, the poetry of
folklore and myths, individual genre form typology and ritual folklore culture research
[T.V. Krivoshchapova, G.I. Vlassova].
is being conducted at the junction of folklore and old Russian, Byzantine and
Turkic literature (e.g. scientific observations [E.A. Kostyukhin]). The
interest of the Kazakhstan science to the investigation of individual aspects
of old Russian literature revived in the second part of the XX century after
the publication of the “Old Russian Literature” reading book, in which literary
monuments were accompanied by historical and philological commentaries [A.L.
appearance of Olzhas Suleimenov’s book “AZ-i-IA” enhanced medieval history
study. His marginal post-modernist research is an attempt to dispel the
praising and the heroic view on Prince Igor and his Polovtsian March. The issue
of “unseen turkisms” in the Old Russian literature monuments and in Slavic grammar
as relevant for Kazakhstan philology in the aspect of Turkic-Slavic connections
context was continued by the author in his book “Crossing Parallels”.
are starting to study the Old Russian literature fundamental monument “The
Primary Chronicle” (also, “Tale of Bygone Years”) in the aspect of folklore
traditions (A.A. Shaykin, V.E. Khripkov, I.U. Khlyzova). Textual analysis by
man depicting brings out the issues of literature integrity and
takes a special place in Kazakhstan philology. M. Auezov, a national literature
classic, became the pioneer in studying Abai akyn heritage. His epic novel
“Abai Zholy” (Abai’s Way) is a sort of generalized fiction view of the centuries-old
people’s history. The poetic presentation of Abai’s biography, introduced by
Auezov, was developed by Z.A. Akhmetov Scientific School. The significance of
the national poet who opened all the doors to all the writers of the “Great
Steppe", makes the description of the development of Abai as a poet a
scientific commentary. The text of Z.A. Akhmetov’s book is a “doubled level”
anthropology. In his epic novel “Abai Zholy” M.Auezov recreated the biography
of the great akyn not as a real person but as a character made by a lyrical
poet: “We can see a “secondary” person, who is recreated and understood by
another person” [4, 6].
identified as interpreter of Auezov’s understanding of Abai’s creative
personality. He acts as a reader and a recipient. Fiction “doubled level” anthropology
is shown in the attempt of Kazakhstan literature study classic to work his own
way up to scientist by reading of Abai’s precepts and Mukhtar Auezov’s
spiritual heritage interpretation.
century Russian literature was not thoroughly studied in Kazakhstan as it was very specific and hard-to-get. For the first time in the studies of the late
20thcentury oriental and Central Asia motives were shown in Russian poetry and
prose of the period [M.M. Bagizbayeva, K.Sh. Kanafiyeva]. Kazakhstan philologists’ research is devoted to the following issues: making lyric song in poetry
more literary- like, typological compatibility and similarity between certain
classic and folklore genres, and principles of character representation.
translation theory adequate/ free translation is seen by Kazakhstan research workers from the point of view of M.L. Gasparov, with the use of statistic
methods and techniques of formal and functional thesaurus compiling. Numerous
research works of A.L. Zhovtis were devoted to studying specificity of the
poetic style, meter patterns of Russian poets and three-century development of
Russian poetry [A.L. Zhovtis]. The Kazakhstan scholar doing research in Kazakh
language and literature developed theory of the free verse and evolution of
verse patterns, stages of verse libre development in Russian poetry, individual
peculiarities of style and expressiveness. The works of Karaganda scientific
school, published in prestigious Kazakhstan and Russian journals, are dedicated
to research of the subject pattern of Russian lyric poems, specifics of the
subject and addressee of speech, the author and the personage, the genre,
language peculiarities of the verse [T.T. Savchenko].
history of the Russian literature of the classical XIX century is in the focus
of Kazakhstan philologists. Works of Russian classical writers are traditionally
studied in several aspects: poetic manner and literary style; genre peculiarities;
moral and aesthetic ideas of the author and his influence on classical Kazakh
writers and development of the Kazakh novel.
of Kazakhstan scholars the way Kazakh classical writers took much of the genre,
making imagery of the text, psychological insight, touching upon moral issues
of Russian classical literature is considered. The school focuses much on A.S.
Pushkin’s works. Kazakhstan Pushkin studies was developed by N.A. Rayevsky in
his works “When paintings will talk” (“Kogda Zagovoryat Portrety”) and “The
Portraits Have Talked” (“Portrety Zagovorili”).
scientific works dedicated to A.S. Pushkin touch upon a wide range of issues:
from text and cultural interpretation to theoretical studies of folklore and
archetype traditions. In studying the atmosphere of Pushkin epoch of special significance
is gender aspect in the phenomenon of the lyrical novels of women-writers of
1830-40 [Author, L.I.].
dramatic development of history and culture has made description and
observation of different forms of an artist’s self-determination the focus of
literary studies. A literary work, aimed at the dialogue both with the mass
reader and professionals, gets a “double code” of the literary text. A striking
change of the genre repertoire takes place because of the author’s position in
his dialogue with his literary character and the reader in the form of the
direct address to the reader or as an aesthetic experiment model.
writers speak from literary rostrums acting as memoirists, essayists and
publishers; they participate in open debates in periodicals, literary miscellanies
and journals. Improvisation, characteristic of the Kazakh people, a special
value of “word” is considered to be an ethnic peculiarity of Kazakhstan literature. The founder of Kazakhstan poetry, Abai, whose poems and songs were known to
the whole steppe and were transferred like via the Internet from one aul to
another, in the end of his life wrote the famous “Book of Words” (“Kniga
Slov”)which is often considered to be the greatest of his books. The genre
created by Abai is the address of akyn to his people.
Being one of
the main lines of contemporary Kazakhstan literature, form-making strategies of
literature make a word material, creating a self-identification model of the
author’s personality. Responding to this peculiarity of the literary text,
philology does “revision” of its scientific tools. Thus, literary anthropology
technique developed by the Kazakhstan philologist V.V. Savelyeva has proved to
be a universal one.
Savelyeva’s works in interrelation of the literary world and literary anthropology
aroused interest in secondary and higher educational institutions of the Kazakhstan cities of Almaty, Ust-Kamenogorsk, Astana, Taraz, Chimkent, Petropavlovsk, etc.; Russia (Moscow, Orenburg, Chelabinsk, Omsk, Barnaul, Orel, etc.), Poland, Canada. Being an interdisciplinary
science, human anthropology (cultural, linguistic, psychological, legal,
historical, etc.) is actively used in modern research. However, literary anthropology
is not systematically mentioned in textbooks.
The future of
further research in this field is based on the necessity of developing general
literary anthropology both in art history and theory of literature. In the
post-modernism, post- and neo-realism period anthropological research in literature
and culture is still relevant and further development of terminology for
studying image of a person in art is of great importance.
The new trend
in Kazakhstan literary studies is research of poetry and prose within Central Asia literary process.
methodology is based on continuation of the technique of integral analysis of
image semantics, symbols and myth poetic meaning of poetic texts. The systemic
and thematic as well as structural studies of nature in the poetic reality have
let S.D. Abisheva determine typological similarities not only within Russian poetry,
but also between Russian and Kazakh poetry.
novel as a genre is paid particular attention, and both theory and history of
the classical Russian novel as well as marginal novels are studied.
Russian prose of the first half of the XIX century became classical, the poetry
and prose of the second half of the XIX century –the beginning of the XX
century requires literary criticism and theoretical and historical research.
The narration analysis includes methodology and techniques of psychoanalytical
interpretation of the literary text. The chrono-type issues, peculiarities of
arrangement of time and space in literary texts give a possibility to reveal
some typological aesthetic similarities in the development of the world
literature approaches let one determine specific features of postmodernism
prose, explain peculiarities of the author’s position representation and the
readers’ comprehension problems.
poetry written in the Russian language which appeared in the late XX century
and 2000’s is characterized by the genre and style diversity. The research of Kazakhstan philologists is dedicated to typology and imagery of lyrical works, main and
subsidiary genres of Russian and Kazakh poetry [Zh.Zh. Tolysbayeva].
The ideas of
the theoretical branch of Kazakhstan literary studies school correlate with
those of their Russian colleagues. One can consider publishing the “Literature
of Kazakhstan Peoples” anthology compiled by M.O. Auyezov Institute of Art and
Literature to be a landmark of studying Russian literature in Kazakhstan. In the “Russian Literature” section the historical and literary overview of
thematic, genre and stylistic diversity of the literary works written in the XX
century is given.
A priority of
Kazakhstan philology is research in regional historical and literary process
and literary regional studies. In the world the borders of which are constantly
changing, mobility is an essential feature of any person’s life. Globalization
makes a person think of his attitude to the place where he was born and lives.
Consequently, there is an interest of literary studies to studying the
“territory” phenomenon, focused on the nature of the literary text, its
spatio-temporal characteristics. Literary-regional studies should start with
the notion “regionalism” as an outlook cultural value including maintaining and
developing lifestyle, culture, language, nature, self-awareness of the region.
In the third millennium the maintenance of polycultural dialogue is, probably,
the most important of human priority and, simultaneously, an indispensable
component of the state policy of our Republic. Kazakhstan, located to live in
both Europe and Asia is a country uniting dozens cultures with unique
traditions and customs.
In search for
new aesthetic paradigm modern Kazakh literature, on the one hand, is striving
to continue the dialogue of Eastern and Western cultures, on the other hand, it
is trying to maintain its ethnic uniqueness.
mythological imagery, conceptual multidimensionality, deep psychological
insight, genre and inter-genre experiments – these and other characteristics
are typical of modern literary Kazakh prose.
inventions, good genre and stylistic “findings” enhance work at defining and
scientific explanation of the “new paradigm” in history and modern theory and
methodology of Kazakh literature and art. According to the well-known
philologist A.S. Ismakova, “ it has become evident that one cannot continually
include more and more new names, literary works, facts of not only
quantitatively but also qualitatively different potential”. In modern Kazakh
prose the genre and style modification issues form a very important branch of Kazakhstan philology.
the features of modern literary situation in Kazakhstan is based on the
identification, creative comprehension and analysis of the main trends of the
modern Kazakh prose, the most productive prose genres, the style of the most
striking of them, the study of interrelation of tradition and innovation, etc.
Anuar Alimzhanov, Rollan Seyssenbaev, Kanat Kabrakhmanov, Auyezhan Kodar, Dyusenbek
Nakipov, Hassen Adibaev, Aslan Zhaksylykov and other writers think and write
professionally in the Kazakh and Russian languages. Theirs books represent
Kazakh literature of independence (1991-2010) in which there is a variety of
ideas and themes, search of original compositional, genre and stylistic,
ideological and thematic decisions related to the world and global order
literature is well represented in Kazakhstan publishing projects of Bakhytzhan
Kanapyanov (Director of the "Zhibek Zholy" Kazakhstan Publishing
House), Roland Seyssenbaev (President of the International Abay House in London). A sort of literary rostrum are Kazakhstan literary and art periodicals
"Prostor," "Niva", "Apollinariy", published by
the Musaget Social Fund for the culture and humanities development,
"Tamyr" (Auezhan Kodar’s project), "Amanat" (Abay
International House), and also the popular Kazakhstan magazine
"Knigolub" with book reviews in which literary events of Kazakhstan
and international book markets are covered.
of Kazakhstan is developing rapidly, and this is reflected in the production of
high-quality books. The dialogue at the round table on the copyright issues in
literature and art is evidence of some progress in the literary sphere;
contests of playwrights, poets and writers held by the Soros-Kazakhstan
Foundation, master classes for young writers arranged by the Musaget Social
Fund and creative meetings also improve the situation in the sphere of
literature. Increasingly, foreign publishers are increasingly interested in
signing author’s contracts with the most talented local writers. Kazakhstan sponsors organized the annual Tarlan literary award.
science, focused on the specificity of higher education and student audience,
does research of the comparative studies process. This study analyzes interdependence,
interrelation and mutual contribution of Russian and Kazakh literature. Kazakhstan experts in literature keep continuity in the study of Russian literature.
Scientific conferences are dedicated to issues of studying individual writer’s
work and Russian literature in the context of world literary process, Kazakh
literature and literature of the East, Eurasian contribution to the world
historic and literary process. And the study of Russian literature as an
individual macrocosm units polylingual continuum of sovereign Kazakhstan and promotes humanistic priorities and the development of modern scientific conception.
is dangerous as it can destroy the uniqueness of the world cultures.
world historic process has opposite but equally strong tendencies: on the on
hand, to maintain intercultural contacts; on the other hand, to preserve ethnic
cultures which diminishes the risk of losing ethnic uniqueness and cultural
increase of the scientific interest to specific ethnic factors predetermined
development of such sciences as ethno-psychology, ethnolinguistics,
ethno-culturology, ethno-musicology. The comparative analysis of typological
similarities in different literatures enables us to define tendencies of ethnic
poetry peculiarities, their specific “accent”. The “ethno-poetics” notion
comprises this system of such dominant features of some ethnic poetics.
analytical review enables Author to make some preliminary conclusions as to the
main aspects of modern Kazakhstan philology. Owing to bilingualism of the
majority of Kazakhstan authors the development of multiculturalism of modern Kazakhstan literature helps meet challenges of the time: ethnic images reflecting ethnic
self-determination in the light of universal values in the changed world.
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Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №4 - 2012