The formation and development problems of the national innovation system of the republic of Kazakhstan
Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №4 - 2012
Author: Kaigorodtsev A., Kazakh-American Free University, Kazakhstan
The problem. Nowadays the economy based
on knowledge is gradually succeeding the economy, which is grounded on
The new knowledge, being transformed into new technologies, is the
stable source of new competitive advantage. Furthermore, the term “knowledge”
is regarded in a broad sense as the ability to accumulate intangible assets, to
create new technologies, “know-how”, to adapt theory and practice of the
corporate management to the conditions of the certain company, to initiate and
conduct business research, to take correct investment decisions, to assess
their effectiveness under uncertainty, to avoid various risks, etc.
Development of fundamental and applied scientific research and
development work, qualification and experience of the scientific and
technological workforce, which are necessary for generation of ideas and
development of new products, technologies and business processes promote the
formation of the knowledge system. Innovations are the results of “technological
progress”, or the results of influence of the market demand, as confirmed by
the appearance of new products and technologies conceptions in the Research and
Advanced Development departments of the enterprise, or as a result of conducted
market research [1, 2].
Thereby the analysis of problems, appearing when the systems are
generated, and the identification of the resolving methods gain special
Analysis of the recent research and publications. Various aspects of the formation and development problems of
national innovative systems are investigated by scientists from the far-abroad
countries, among which the works of such authors as G. Dosi, P.F. Drucker, Ch.
Edguist, C. Freeman [2-6] and others stand out.
The works of many scientists from Kazakhstan and the far-abroad
countries, in particular the works of N.N. Barlybaeva, J.V. Batalov, S.J.
Glazev, P.M. Dnishev, E.A. Koloss, O.S. Sabden [1,2, 7-9] and others, deal with
the topical problems of industrial-innovative development and competitive
recovery of the national economy.
The research objective. The objective of
the conducted research is to develop recommendations about the efficiency
improvement of the innovative process in the Republic of Kazakhstan.
Research findings. New knowledge and
innovations haven’t yet become the essential factor of the social and economic
development of Kazakhstan, as evidenced by the statistics given in Table 1.
Table 1 – Characteristics of the innovation
process in the Republic of Kazakhstan.
|1 The innovative activity level of enterprises, %
|2 Expenditures for technological innovation, mln. tenge
|including technological innovation in industry
|3 R&D financing, % of GNP
|4 Innovative production rate, mln. tenge
|5 Innovative production share in GDP, %
|6 Internal current costs for scientific
and technical works, mln. tenge
|scientific and technical services
|other works (services)
|7 Number of organizations, which
conducted research and development
|8 Number of workers, employed by research
and development, person.
|Note – composed by the author according to the information of the
Agency of Statistics of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
According to this table, in spite of the tendency to rise,
innovative activity level of Kazakhstan enterprises still remains low – 5.7%,
while in industrialized countries about 70% of enterprises carry out
innovations connected with production diversification with the purpose of new
market segment development.
Outdated production and management technologies negatively affect
social labor productivity with the level in Kazakhstan 1.5 times lower than in Russia, and four-five times lower than in the countries of Western Europe and the USA. Besides, there is a reduction of innovative production share in GDP from 1.58% in 2005 to 0.86%
Specifically, the reason for this is underfunding of innovative
activity. At the present time the amount of R&D financing accounts for 0.32
% from the country’s GDP, while in Russia it is 1.18%, and in 15 leading
European Union countries it amounts to 1.96% .
In 2010 costs for technological innovations reached a maximum level
(235.5 billion tenge), it is 3.5 times higher than they were in 2005. However,
in 2011 level of costs for R&D reduced by 17.2%.
In 2011 87.2% of total costs for technological innovations was the
share of industry, which gave its 62.5 % (106.3 billion tenge) to product
innovations, and 37.5% (63.9 billion tenge) to process innovations.
16.8% of internal current costs for scientific and technical works,
which accounted for 44.5 billion tenge in 2011, was the share of basic
research, 46.9% –applied research, 22.2% – scientific and technical
development, 14.1% – scientific and technical service.
In 2006-2007, a number of the organizations carrying out research
and development increased to 438, thereafter it reduced to 412 by 2011. A number of employees, performing research and development, reduced by 8% in 2011, in comparison with a maximum level of 2006, and made up 18 thousand people.
In the Republic of Kazakhstan the National Innovative System
Development Program (NISDP) is realized  to increase effectiveness of
innovative potential use.
National innovative system represents
a set of institutions, relating to the state and private economic sectors,
which independently and interactively creates new knowledge, abilities, skills
and scientific and engineering activity results, defining emergence,
development and distribution of new technologies.
Components of NIS are:
1 The scientific potential, which includes:
– state scientific organizations – national scientific centers,
research institutes, higher schools, design institutes;
– scientific organizations under national companies, laboratories
under large enterprises;
– private research and design institutes;
– small and medium-sized enterprises, carrying out scientific
– scientific manpower of organizations and individual inventors;
– material and technical base.
2 Innovative entrepreneurship, which have binding (intermediary) functions
between scientific-technical and production spheres. The ultimate objective of
innovative entrepreneurship is development of enterprises, which able to react
efficiently to the current state of the market, to organize a mass production
of competitive science intensive production of new generation and increased
demand at the level of the international standards. The innovative
– angel investors;
– innovative managers.
3 Multilevel innovative infrastructure, that defines a complex of
interconnected production, consulting, educational and information structures,
serving and providing conditions for realization of innovative activity. The
innovative infrastructure consists of the following elements:
– national technological parks;
– regional technological parks;
– technological business incubators;
– science cities, etc.
4 Financial infrastructure providing complex financing of research-
production and educational processes in the sphere of innovative technological development,
based on a combination of various mechanisms of direct and indirect state
support relative to innovative entrepreneurship and infrastructure. The
financial infrastructure includes the following elements:
– state institutes of development;
– second level banks, etc. .
To solve issues regarding technical and economic modernization of Kazakhstan one of two main economic development models can be used.
One of the two main models of economic development can be used to
solve problems of technical and economic modernization of Kazakhstan.
The leading countries succeeding in technological and economic
progress follow the pioneer model development, in which they create the most
advanced production technology and the most effective (in terms of the rate of
growth of national wealth) economic mechanisms. Another model – is catching up
with development. It is typical for countries that are in lower levels of
technical and economic progress, and even on its last levels. The main difference
of this model is that here the development is based on the development of
technology and economic mechanisms that have already been created in the
It is considered that country, solving the problem of reducing the
backlogs from the leading countries in the economic development and welfare of
the population, must hold the catch-up strategy. According to this strategy,
the country taken the path of progressive structural and technological transformation
of its economy goes through a series of sequential levels:
- Extraction and processing of raw materials;
- Production of material and labor-intensive commodity;
- Production of capital commodity;
- Research and development.
There is no need for Kazakhstan to repeat all of these levels in the
same sequence, as other countries did. In spite of insufficient range of
competitive products produced in the country at present (excluding raw
materials and primary materials), in Kazakhstan there are all of these steps,
which may become the points of economic growth on the assumption of modernization
in conjunction with new construction. Revenues from exports of raw materials
and foreign investment should become the source of reconstruction financing and
modernization of the national productive mechanism.
As a result of the acquisition of foreign technology can
simultaneously and quickly organize competitive production and
material-intensive goods (rolled steel, construction materials, etc.). There
are also opportunities in production of technology-intensive products -
machines, test and measurement instruments.
The foundation can become their own research in the production of
high-tech products, along with foreign capital (assembly plants). The
development of small business and joint ventures by conversion can provide a
core of high-tech industries on the basis of available cells for the production
of equipment, automation equipment and radio engineering. Import of technology
should be used to organize the assembly plants are relatively less complex
kinds of high technology products (such as household appliances). Also,
scientific reserve in biotechnology, radiation and laser technology should be
found industrial application available in the republic. In this case, the
majority of goods should be focused mainly on exports.
In the process of formation and development of the NIC it is
necessary to develop and implement an innovative industrial policy, including a
system of measures for selective support of strategic sectors of the national
economy of Kazakhstan, providing economic growth, structural changes in the
economy, including innovation sphere.
As a result of the author's participation in foresight studies it
was found that the priority directions of scientific and technological
activities in the Republic of Kazakhstan for the next five to ten years will be
R&D in the following areas :
1 Agro-industrial complex and agricultural production
2 Development of the construction industry
3 Petroleum refining and infrastructure oil and gas sector
5 Development of the chemical, pharmaceutical and defense industries
6 Energy, including the development of clean energy
7 Development of transport and telecommunications infrastructure
8 The development of information - communications technologies.
Cancellation of strict following catching up model is possible not
only due to the simultaneous transmission of the stages of technological ladder
from raw materials to high-tech goods. To be on the same level with the leaders
in some positions can be achieved by setting the preconditions for the advanced
formation of the latest technology for the world economy structure.
Biotechnology, space technology, fine chemical technology will be the core of
it. The electoral concentration of scientific research in promising areas of
probable becoming the sixth technological structure, training the necessary
qualifications are related to such preconditions.
The strategy of technological development of Kazakhstan should include a combination of several types of development .
The first type should be subordinated to the tasks of the fourth
electoral technological system, the core of which in the world economy includes
auto- and tractor construction, synthetics, organic chemistry, manufacturing,
and oil refining.
The second type should be used for the development of highly
selective fifth technological system, the core of which in the world economy
includes auto- and tractor construction, non-ferrous metals, production of
durable goods, synthetics, organic chemistry, production and refining of oil,
agriculture, telecommunications, optical fibers, robotics industry, production
and consumption of natural gas, information services.
Nursultan Nazarbayev, the president of Kazakhstan, making a speech
at Nazarbayev University, pointed out, that one of the main priorities in
improving the efficiency and competitiveness of the national economy was the
creation of an innovative cluster network.
Innovative cluster is the consolidation
of a scientific-technical (or scientific) activity and of the elements of the
industrially innovative infrastructure, that are intended to stimulate the
industrially-innovative activity by interacting and sharing of available
opportunities, as well as by exchange of knowledge and experience, where
effective technology transfer, firm partners connection and information
dissemination are of considerable importance.
The necessity of the transition from the traditional clusters to the
innovative ones is explained by different tendencies in the previous and
current centuries: the XX century was the era of high industrial technologies,
and the XXI century is expected to be the age of high innovative technologies
directed at the human capital development. This conclusion is confirmed by the
fact that nowadays the national wealth of the developed states of the world
depends on natural resources only on 5%, on manufactured capital only on 18%
and the rest 77% is for their effective distribution and knowledge.
As opposed to the traditional sector clusters, the innovative
clusters represent a system of close interconnections not only between the
companies within the cluster, their suppliers and consumers, but also between
major research centers and universities, which, being new knowledge and
innovations generators, provide the entire region with the opportunity for a
person to get a high level education.
This makes possible coordination of the effort and financial
resources to create and release to the market a new product or technology. As a
result, an exclusive process flow, starting with the creation of an innovative
product and up to its market release, can be established within the cluster.
The other difference of the innovative clusters from the traditional
industrial ones is the creation within the clusters frames mainly
export-oriented production and technologies, as on an international scale,
introclusteral competitive advantages become valuable.
The cluster form of organization of innovative activity results in
the creation of an aggregate innovative product, which is a specific form of
innovation and, at the same time, a combined efforts product of several
companies or research institutes. This allows expediting spread of innovation
in the regional economic space. Moreover, the consolidation of cluster participants
on the basis of vertical integration results not in the formation of spontaneous
concentration of various technological inventions, but promotes the creation of
a particular system of new knowledge and technologies spreading. Besides, the
most important condition of the effective transformation of inventions into
innovations and of innovations into competitive advantages is the creation of a
firm connections network between all the cluster participants.
Industrial parks, along with the innovational clusters, are the
objects of support and placement of innovations. The creation and activity of
the industrial parks is based on the modern European pattern, which is
characterized by the presence of the building that contain tens of minor innovative
enterprises and by the service support system for them.
Recently, a two-level industrial park system has been formed in the
republic, which is currently active. This system includes the national
industrial parks and the network of major regional industrial parks in the
cities of Almaty, Karaganda, Uralsk, Chimkent, Ust-Kamenogorsk, Petropavlovsk and Astana.
The national technological parks, such as Park of Innovative
Technologies (Alatau Town), National Industrial Petrochemical Technology Park
“Tokamak” (Kurchatov City) and Space Monitoring Park (the cities of Almaty,
Astana and Priozersk) are focused on the creation of new hi-tech industries
that are intended to promote strengthening of national economy competitiveness.
The distinctive characteristic of the technology parks of our country is their
industrial orientation and the existence of specific economic area with tax
The other peculiarity of domestic industrial parks is their location
on the territory of major enterprises and the attraction of leading educational
establishments and research institutes.
As an example, let us consider the university industrial parks
created on the basis of Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, K. Satpaev Kazakh
National Technical University and D. Serikbayev East-Kazakhstan Technical
University. These universities have three basic principles: education, research
and innovation. The result of their activity is the transition to a brand new
economic-organizing way of human resource development, as well as experimental
educational programs design and the development of the strategic partnership
system of scientifically educational centers with government bodies and
It is impossible to solve the task of overcoming scientific and
technological gap and entering the top 50 most competitive countries without
training the innovation-oriented experts, that are willing to continue
life-long learning and have the necessary skills that would allow them not only
to apply their knowledge, but also to create new knowledge with the purpose of
profit generation, that is to capitalize.
Higher educational institutions combining principles of education,
research and production must realize advanced training of world class
specialists. The graduates of such institutions must be able to conduct
technological research, manage technological processes both in the society and
production facilities and solve research tasks and problems throughout the life
cycle of creation and implementation of the scientific product .
Conclusion. This research paper has
defined ways to overcome technological gap in Kazakhstan in comparison with the
other industrialized countries based on formation and development of effective
national innovative system.
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National innovative system of Kazakhstan. Almaty, p. 199
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5. Edguist Charles ed. Systems of Innovation:
Technologies, Institutions and Organizations, London: Pinter, 1998.
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7. Yespayev, S. Cluster factor of competitiveness. URL: http://www. kazpravda.kz/ print/1335487563.
Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №4 - 2012