Types and features of the innovations in the system of higher education
Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №4 - 2012
Author: Romanovskii A., Ukrainian-American Humanitarian (Liberal Arts) Institute “Wisconsin International University (USA) Ukraine”, Ukraine
Significant attention has been paid recently to creation
and implementation of new methods, techniques and technologies in education.
Effective management of innovative activities is important for the successful
development and introduction of new technologies, and for further development
of science and technology and economic growth of the nation. The questions of
implementation of innovations in the system of education and the system of
higher education, as well as the issues of innovative technologies in education
and higher education and the questions of innovative developments in the USA
[2; 3;9], U.K. [1; 4; 8], Russia and Ukraine the following publication are
dedicated [6; 7]. The processes of formation and development of innovation in
higher education, innovation and entrepreneurial activities of the higher
education establishments as well as the innovative policies of the higher
education establishments, innovative management of universities and university
management principles in the innovative economy, management of innovation in
education and the innovative models of distance learning and innovation in
information technology the following book is dedicated .
Analyzing innovative activities in the field of
education one should take into consideration that it lies not only in the
practical use of the latest scientific, scholarly and technological
achievements and the results from the sphere of education and rich intellectual
potential of educators with the aim of developing (producing) of the new or
radically improved scientific knowledge, scientific and educational technology,
high-quality educational services, and effective satisfaction of consumer
demand in Ukraine and other countries for high-quality education. Educational
innovative activity is also a process aimed at the development and introduction
of new completed (received) results of national and international research and
development of other scientific and technical achievements in the field of
education, science and culture for their implementation on Ukrainian and the
global education market, improvement of the educational process, of the
structure of the education system, encouragement of further scholarly search
research in this area.
The problem of the innovations in the system of higher education
The problems of scientific management of the innovative
processes in the educational activity belong to the scope of educational
innovation . Innovative processes in education which are viewed through the
socio-economic, psychological, pedagogical, organizational and managerial
lenses are the subjects of the innovative management. These contexts are the
ones that determine the conditions in which innovation processes occur and
which character they have - spontaneous or deliberately guided.
Innovative activity as a package of measures to ensure
the effectiveness of the innovative process at different levels and in
different areas of educational and research activities leads to changes in such
components of the teaching and research process as the meaning, purpose,
content, ways of new knowledge search and their comprehension (fundamental
research), transformation and transfer of new knowledge (use of new knowledge
in applied research, development of the new techniques and designs of new
technologies), forms, methods, learning tools, and scientific research,
management teaching process and research and so on. It is important for
socio-economic growth of the society to promote and support entrepreneurship,
organization and provision of business education.
It is known that the subject of pedagogical innovation
in the higher education is a system of relations that arise in the innovative
educational activities with the aim of establishing individual distinguishing
features of the subjects of education: students, graduate students, trainees,
teachers, professors and scientists, teachers, managers, and administrators. We
think that the subject of the scientific and technological innovation in the
field of higher education should be the study of the relationships and mechanisms
that arise in the process of scientific and technological innovative activity
with the active participation of professors and teachers, scientists, researchers,
students, graduate students, engineers and technicians, support staff – on the
one hand and customers and consumers (production and business) – on the other.
In this case, obviously, the innovative changes occur in the following ways
(Fig. 1). Be noted, that the scientific and technical innovations (the word
based on the English word innovations) – is the continuous process of creative
activity, aimed at creation of new products and services, technology and materials,
technical solutions and of new organizational forms, which possess scientific
and technological newness and those which allow for the fullest satisfaction of
public and individual needs. Materialization and the industrial appropriation
of novelties, which are based and established on scientific-technical activity
and market research on identification of the unmet needs and demand, are the
end-result of the scientific-technical novelties. Scientific-technical
innovations, as a rule, come to fruition in three phases and pass the following
stages: 1) Research → creation of the first industrial samples.
2) Creation of the trial set → extensive
production in the volumes which are determined by the market demand (market
3) Production → creation of distribution channels
→ utilization by the end consumers (customers, users) → creation of
the repair service.
It is important to note that while scientific-technical
activity is evaluated by the number of discoveries and innovations (the number
of registered patents and issued licenses), their scientific-technical
importance is determined by the depth of the conducted research, innovative
activity is characterized, first of all, by its commercial value – profit and
economic effectiveness, competitiveness of the products and services of the
enterprise as a whole.
Figure 1. Directions of innovative changes in the area of higher education
The following types of Innovations exist:
1) Radical (foundational) innovations – revolutionary
Changes in the development of technology and society, formation of new
2) Growth (changing) innovations – improvement of
properties of existing appliances and technologies
Let us consider areas where innovative changes taking
place in higher education, and desired outcomes of these innovations (Fig. 1).
1) New educational content: the formation of a new
curriculum aimed at training people to self-actualization and independent life
2) New technologies in education: development, creation
and implementation of innovative technologies in education, total and
comprehensive entrepreneurial and environmental education (training).
3) New training programs and plans: utilization of
methods, techniques, tools of implementation of new training programs and
4) Comfort conditions: creation of favorable conditions
for self-determination of the individual in the learning process.
5) Changes in the way ways of activities and style of
thinking: the motivation to change the way of thinking and styles as teachers,
instructors, pupils and students, changes in the relationship between them, the
creation and development of innovative community in all levels of educational
6) Bringing up (Rising) of interest toward research and
development: education of youth’ interest in research and design activities
through involvement in research and design work, the desire to search,
inventions and discoveries.
7) Diversification of the sources of financing:
diversification of the sources and ways of financing of education, search for
new ways for financial support of education, creation of innovative funds of financial-economic
and material-technical support of education.
8) Bringing up of interest toward academic (university)
entrepreneurship, creation of conditions for entrepreneurship in universities:
educating and encouraging all members of the university staff to be interested
in academic (university) entrepreneurship, educating and encouraging them to be
interested in the commercialization of the results of educational, research and
engineering activities, creating the necessary conditions (logistical, legal,
system of incentives and rewards) for motivation and practical implementation
of educational, scientific, technical and technological entrepreneurship in
9) Innovative higher education establishments of the
entrepreneurial type: creating innovative universities and colleges (other
universities) of the entrepreneurial type as the result of mentioned above
innovative changes and transformational change in higher education (Fig. 1).
The following factors should be the results of activity of the universities and
colleges of entrepreneurial type:
• Innovative educational technologies, techniques and
methods of training
• Dissemination of new knowledge, technology transfer.
• Commercialization and industrial implementation of
results of R & D.
• The participation of universities and research
institutes in the local and regional innovative development.
Consider further types of innovations in higher
education, which can lead to innovative changes. They can be classified as
technological, structural - pedagogical, educational-pedagogical, organizational-educational
and economic (Fig. 2, 3 and 4).
2. Types of innovations in the system of higher education, which can lead to
3. Types of innovations of the educational-pedagogic type in the system of
4. Types of innovations of the organizational-pedagogic type in the system of
Innovations of the Technological type – these are new
introductions in the system of education and teaching activities caused by the
development of science, technology and technology: finding and acquiring new
knowledge dissemination (transfer) and the implementation of new knowledge and
new technologies, distance-learning, web-design, the use of innovative
information technology, computing, information and communication networks, the
Internet and Intranet, as well as innovative marketing (innovations of scientific
and technological progress).
Innovations of the structural-pedagogical type – these
are innovations in shaping the goals, objectives and content of education
(training and bringing-up), in the forms, methods, techniques, technologies of
education, in the diagnosis system, in control, evaluation of results etc.
(innovations in the structural elements of educational systems).
Innovations of educational-pedagogical types are the
following types of innovations:
• Innovations in the education process, educational
course, in the education sector, at the level of the system of education, in
management of the education process (education), etc. (innovations in the
• Innovations in the community and group learning, in
individual types of learning (under the guidance of a teacher), tutoring,
alternative family education, etc. (innovations according to the types of interaction
of the participants of the process).
• Innovations to develop talents of students, teachers,
instructors, namely the development and improvement of their knowledge, skills,
ways of life and competencies etc. (innovative changes in the personal
development of the subjects of the educational process).
• Innovations-conditions for updating of the educational
environment, socio-cultural environment etc.; innovations - are educational
products (pedagogical tools, projects, technology, etc.), management innovations
- new decisions in the structure of educational systems and procedures of
management to ensure their performance (innovation by functionalities of the
subjects educational systems).
• Innovations in the activity of one teacher, methodical
association of teachers, in one school, in a group of schools, in the region,
on the state level and the international level etc. Innovations in the activity
of one faculty members, of the department, of the university, of all
universities in the region, state, on the level of international higher
education (innovation according to the size of their distribution).
• Innovations in the educational institutions of a
certain type, for specific vocational and typological groups of educators and
teachers (innovations according to the level of socio-pedagogical significance).
• Innovations that combine different types of
pedagogical innovations in the educational system (complex
Innovations of the organizational-pedagogic type are the
types of innovations which are distinguished by the following:
• Planned, systematic, spontaneous innovations
(innovations according to the ways of their implementation).
• Innovations: local, massive, global, etc. (innovations according to the size of innovative decisions and
• Innovations: corrective, improvement-oriented,
radical, revolutionary, etc. (innovations according to the level of forecasted
Innovations of the economic and free market-oriented
type – they are the types of innovations which unite all innovations caused by
scientific-technological and industrial and economic development of society:
types and forms of education financing of educational services: educational
institutions of various types, of educational services, of statutory (including
- educational, scientific and educational and cultural) activity of education
establishments; development of academic (university) entrepreneurship;
commercialization of the results of educational (contractual forms of
education, consulting, expert and other services), scientific and technical
activities (R & D, technology transfer) etc. (innovations of
economically-industrial development, depending on market requirements).
In the management of innovation in education innovative
informational technologies, information and innovation management as well as
innovation marketing are used . They can occur almost in all types of the
above mentioned innovations in the education system that can lead to innovative
changes to achieve new quantity and quality levels of education. Information
technologies use computers, the Internet and Intranet, distance methods of
organization and management of educational activities, used to develop a
variety of other information-retrieval systems, information and advertising
and marketing materials (with web-design utilization).
Information management in education, which is based on
the use of information technologies, is a subsystem of decision making and is
aimed at management of the processes of creating, processing and distribution
of information in the field of education. One of the main functions of
information management in the sphere of education is the development of such organizational
structure that would allow for timely and objective useful information in the
right place at the right time and in a convenient form for effective
decision-making. Implementation of the information management in education is
dictated by the following circumstances: scientific and technical development
of society, integration and effective utilization of funds for the development,
implementation and effective use of information technology (aggregate
information resources, tools, and technologies that contribute to the right
conducting of the whole process if management in education); necessity to
integrate all the data that determine the effectiveness and efficiency of the
education system as a whole and each educational entity separately (its
Information management in education is a system of
strategic guidance of the innovative processes with the goal of studying of the
major directions of educational, scientific-technical and industrial activity
and finding reasons for existence of the system of actions toward realization
of the innovative strategy. Its aims are the following:
• Development of plans and programs of innovative
activity in education;
• Development and implementation of a single innovation
policy in education;
• Preparation of scientific and educational experts and
ensuring covering of all areas of education;
• Providing educational activities with necessary
resources (material, labor, financial);
• Planning and selection of the best projects of world
innovations (innovation) and control for its implementation;
• Creation of special groups of management and control
for innovation activity at all stages.
Innovative marketing in education – ensures the
effectiveness of the activity of the education system and educational institutions
on the market innovations in education aimed at the formation or researching
the demand for educational services aiming maximum satisfaction of the needs
and demands of the society. Innovative Marketing is based on the use of new
ideas and technologies that best contribute to the achievement of the purposes
of the entire educational system and individual institutions. Innovative
marketing in education is a function of innovation management in education. It
starts with the stage of looking for new ideas toward new educational services
and technologies that can best satisfy existing and potential demand with the
future materialization and commercialization that ends at the stage of
Conducting market studies is necessary because: they
help explore market conditions of educational services, identify requests, tastes
and desires of consumers of educational services; forecast of the dynamics of
demand for educational innovation, development of marketing strategies for
innovations in education and more. The purpose of innovation marketing in
education is achieving result of obtaining of the end practical result of the
innovation. This result:
• is oriented toward gaining of the certain market share
of educational innovations under a long-term goal, under which the innovative
product was developed;
• Integrates research, production and marketing activity
in educational management system;
• Is long-term oriented, which is why needs market research,
which is the foundation for creation of innovations, which insure highly
effective economic activity in the sphere of education;
• conforms to the requirements of potential consumers of
innovation in education with simultaneous directed impact on their interests.
Let us consider the content of innovations in more
details, as well as some possible ways of practical innovative activity in
Innovations of scientific-technical progress. They may
• Utilization of information technology in the process
of innovation management of the educational system (including higher education
establishments): information and innovation management as well as innovation
• Organization of Distance Education - implementation of
distance courses (subjects of curriculum), automated control of student
knowledge, telebridges and internet conferences and seminars based on on-line
information technology, program platforms of type Blackboard type and so on;
utilization of intranet communication systems and so on.
• The use of information technology in the educational
process: learning how to conduct web-design and how to use IT technologies at
work. These include: electronic business (e-business), automation of scientific
research and projects, automation and decision-making and industrial processes,
information technologies in entrepreneurship, management, marketing and more.
• Organization of distance courses as follows: the
invitation of foreign experts – professors from foreign higher education
establishments in order to teach introductory lectures → distance
teaching of the main body of the course → distance conducting of 3-4
intermediary tests in the presence of the Dean representative → final
exam conducted by the Dean (Assistant Dean) → exam evaluation and grade
entry to the electronic records (transcript) of the student.
• Utilization of the latest techniques and technologies
while conducting foundational and applied scientific research by universities
and other higher education institutions and research institutes, interpretation
and dissemination of new knowledge, design and construction of new techniques,
the development and transfer of advanced technology, the introduction of R
& D results for local, regional and national socio-economic innovative
• Creation and launch of new spin-off and start-up
companies by the innovative entrepreneurial universities.
Innovations in the structural elements of educational
systems. The main purpose of such innovations is preparation (bringing up and
education) of the modern professional of the international level who:
• Is fluent in the national (Ukrainian) language as well
as in foreign languages – English and another foreign language (European or
Eastern), and Russian language;
• Has the necessary professional knowledge and skills;
• Knows how to use a computer, information technology,
• Is a good team player and knows how to work in a team;
• Has high moral and ethical principles and humanitarian
values and beliefs;
• Is focused on healthy life-style and ecological behavior;
• Is patriotic and is ready to integrate with the
For the continued improvement and increase of the
effectiveness of preparation of professionals such new progressive tendencies
in forms, methods, approaches and technologies of education are important:
• Organization of included training – study abroad;
study of the courses (subjects) according to the curriculum of American
universities at international higher education establishments, theoretical and
practical internship in foreign (overseas) and joint (with foreign and
Ukrainian capital scrap) companies, firms, corporations, financial institutions
• Organization of theoretical and practical seminars on
the questions of business administration, leadership in social and economic
activities for students, scholars, instructors and employees with invitation of
• Invitation of experts from foreign countries for
giving individual lectures, or lecture series as well as teaching entire
courses (subjects) from the curriculum of the higher education establishment in
English (German) language.
For integration of scientific - pedagogical and
material-technical strength as well as introduction of innovations in education,
science and technology, developing of new technologies and obtaining of new
knowledge it is also important to cultivate the practice of combining of the
different types of universities in teaching and research and production systems
and creation of techno-parks.
Innovations in the pedagogical process. The following
innovations may be included here:
• Introduction of the system of credit - module
education, intermediary (3-4 times during a semester) testing in each course,
with the final grade being the combination of all grades during the course.
• Implementation of electronic transcript for each
student, cancelling of the opportunity for test retaking with proving students
with an option of retaking the course.
• Organization of the education process according to the
principles of interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary. It allows students of
higher education establishments to plan their academic load and timing of
completion of their studies in such a way so as to receive knowledge to the
fullest amount and choose additional courses according to their desires.
Innovations according to the types of interaction
between participants of the educational process. Utilization of the latest
information technologies, of the Internet and Intranet systems, and of the distance
learning systems lead to reformatting of the division of students from academic
educational groups, courses (in their usual sense) to the virtual time units
(according to an individual student’s choice). Depending on students’ preferences
they can study remotely or by themselves (individually) or in a group (collectively).
Distance learning can take place both at universities and at home (if necessary
technical means are available).
Innovative changes in personal establishment of the
subjects of education. The following examples may belong to this type of
• new forms and methods of testing of the knowledge,
skills, and abilities of students and instructors;
• continuous improvement of knowledge of graduates,
staff and instructors through continuous training and increase of professional
qualification during life;
• organizing of regular exchange of students and
teachers between domestic and foreign universities as well sharing of
experience between universities in different countries;
• Inviting well-known scientists, high-level
professionals from different branches of industry and successful entrepreneurs
for lecturing at universities.
• organization of theoretical and practical preparation
of students in the real conditions of the economy, scientific, research and business
Innovations according to the functional opportunities of
the subjects of educational systems.
Conditions for renewal of the educational environment,
social and cultural conditions, may include the following innovative
• Organization of educational process according to the
plans and programs of the leading universities from economically developed
countries. Business, marketing and management (including management of
international business ) is advised to be studied utilizing primarily American
syllabi of BBA and MBA programs, as well as university programs from other countries
(Germany France, Spain, Scandinavian countries, Benelux, etc.).
• The combination of Ukrainian educational standard
educational plans with the educational plans and curricula from excellent
international universities to integrate the best in a particular field of
knowledge, science and technology.
• The democratization of the educational process,
allowing students greater opportunities for free choice of academic
disciplines, expansion of the curriculum to include the subjects of free choice
for students and educational establishments.
• Engagement of Student Government of universities in
the process of improvement of the educational process and statutory activities
of the institution.
Innovations according to the size of their distribution.
It is desired so that the professional activity of each individual instructor
will include innovations, as well as the activity of each educational establishment.
It is desired for this to take place at the individual level, at the level of a
department, the entire university, all universities and colleges in a region,
in a country and in the international overall system.
Types of innovations according to their socio-pedagogical
importance. At the present stage of economic and social globalization processes
it is important to create innovative temporary teams of teachers. First of all,
it concerns Ukrainian universities. Invitation of renowned specialists in
different fields of knowledge, science and technology will enhance the quality
of the educational process, will encourage students to study English language
(the international language of business, science and technology) and other
foreign languages, will allow them to further communicate with colleagues from
abroad, read foreign literature in its original version, study global
scientific and technological achievements by themselves.
The following innovations belong to the type of Complex
educational - pedagogical innovations. Such innovations unite different types
of innovations in the system of education:
• creation of innovative Educational institutions:
virtual HEIs, open HEIs, international (joint) institutions, including
institutions of international education;
• creation of programs of international education based
on combination of foreign and national plans and programs with teaching the
subject at native national language and foreign (English or other) language;
• Creation of innovative educational programs based on
new information technologies, remote and open learning, interdisciplinary and
multidisciplinary curricular, individualization and intensification of
Types of innovations according to the ways of their
implementation. It is advised to conduct planned, systematic and periodic
• Implementation of new technologies and improvement of
basic available educational technologies, organization of educational and
bringing-up process processes and research activities in universities.
• Development of new forms, methods and contents of
education, flexible response to social development issues, education market,
and the requirements of the industrial economics.
Types of innovations according to the size and scale of
innovative decisions and actions. Innovations should take place not only in
separate departments of educational institutions, but also in the entire
institutions. Innovations in the state, communal and private HEIs positively affect
spreading of innovations in the entire educational system.
As far as innovations according to the level of
forecasted changes, it will be right to state that all types of innovations
that lead to further development of science and technology, formation of the
modern professional of the high level are desired.
Innovations economic and industrial level depended on
market demands, form new opportunities, forms and sources for further
development and support of the education system and its structures, opening of
new majors in educational establishments, serve increase of corresponding of
education, research and service to the requirements of the modern society.
These should include:
• Participation of private capital in creation and
financing of educational establishments of all levels, of educational programs,
providing loans for education for students and researchers.
• Creation of new private educational establishments for
continuous learning, increases of professional qualifications and provision of
opportunities to receive a joint profession by corporations, companies and
• Creation of new educational and scientific-production
complexes (with different types of universities, research institutions and
enterprises), parks and more.
• Development of academic (university) Entrepreneurship:
promotion of scientific research, discoveries and inventions, the disclosure of
the results of R & D, their patenting and licensing for further
implementation among researchers and instructors.
• The commercialization of the results of educational
activities: contractual forms of education, consulting, expert and other
• Commercialization of research results and scientific
and technical activities of an HEI through: patenting and licensing of
discoveries, inventions, and other important results of R & D, technology
transfer, education and launching together with industry (businesses) of new
companies (spin-offs, start-ups) and others.
Innovative approach to the organization of
entrepreneurial education (teaching and trainings of entrepreneurs).
The nature of the entrepreneurial education and
professional training in entrepreneurship. Individuals can get entrepreneurial
education and participate in teaching entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial
training of staff in different periods of their lives, and that education,
learning and training can be implemented in various ways (take a variety of
forms). For example, all primary school pupils in Scotland have a class on
"Entrepreneurship education", which is not a specific preparation for
the opening of business. It focuses on what it means to be entrepreneurial and
tuned to the business; it teachers the basic concepts of entrepreneurship in
more general terms. In some universities, students can get education in
"about entrepreneurship" [5, p. 11].
This education is designed to teach how to open and run
a business. Instead of the formation of a new company the main goal is in the
context of academic studies devoted to entrepreneurship. Some students gain
knowledge and study the experience of entrepreneurship, learning about
entrepreneurship itself and exactly how and under what conditions it can be
started. To provide the same practical assistance to employees who lost their
jobs and became unemployed, employers or government agencies can offer training
on opening an own business.
Entrepreneurship education can be defined broadly as the
creation of general knowledge and skills "about entrepreneurship" or
"about the goals of an entrepreneurial enterprise" in general.
Entrepreneurship education can be provided as part of a recognized educational
programs for primary (primary school), secondary (high school) or tertiary
(university) level studies in educational establishments of various levels.
Teaching Entrepreneurship is defined as the construction of knowledge and
skills to prepare for starting a business. Thus, the purpose of teaching entrepreneurship
is very specific, as opposed to the goal of entrepreneurship education, which
may be much wider.
In addition to the opportunities for further training in
entrepreneurship people can get education "on entrepreneurship" or
"for entrepreneurship activity" and / or education in starting
business in elementary and high school, college or university.
These courses can either be part of the formal education
programs leading to a certificate or degree, or can include non-credit courses.
Other programs of informal education, operating outside the formal education
system may include courses, seminars, workshops and other training offered by
local business organizations, employers or government agencies.
Some experts argue that the earlier people get involved
in entrepreneurship, the more likely it is that they will become entrepreneurs
in one form or another in their lives [10; 11]. Evidence of this can be seen in
a greater prevalence of entrepreneurial activity among those individuals whose
parents were private entrepreneurs or ran (opened) their own private business.
We can assume that children of entrepreneurs are developing specific ideas,
perceptions and entrepreneurship skills by watching their parents work and
participating in the activities of the family business [5, p. 11].
Perhaps some education and training programs can replace
this training. A question of what types of business skills and approaches to training
work best arises. This may depend on the educational context, for example, on
whether the teaching takes place in elementary or secondary school, college or
university, or as an extra-curricular educational program. Many authors agree
that experiential learning, or "learning by doing" is the most
effective for the development of entrepreneurial skills and attitudes than traditional
methods (such as lectures or distance learning courses). Several studies
conducted in the innovation-oriented countries - Singapore, Sweden and the UK show that the experimental approach to learning is the best approach to teaching
entrepreneurs [5, p. 11].
What should be taught? Business surveys have identified
the ten most desired topics for achieving and managing rapid growth. First of
all, those were business problems, such as: sales, finance growth, cash flow
management, and the problems of hiring and training employees. However,
education and skills training in entrepreneurship, should be much wider and
influence attitudes towards entrepreneurship, they should help people recognize
and understand business opportunities and think creatively, create opportunities
for them to develop leadership skills and provide confidence in their abilities
[5, p. 11].
Thus, the purpose of entrepreneurship training should be
encouragement of creativity, innovativeness and self-employment
(entrepreneurship). Therefore, entrepreneurial education and skills training in
entrepreneurship involve something more than just development of specific
skills of running a business. This can affect the motivation of people to look
for something that might seem impossible or too risky. In short,
entrepreneurial education and professional training in entrepreneurship can
create a positive perception and willingness of individuals to start a business
(see, for example: European Commission, 2008. Entrepreneurship in Higher
Education, Especially Within Non-Business Studies: Final Report of the Expert
Group. Belgium: Brussels, 2008. – 68 ð., from URL: http://ec.europa.eu/ enterprise/ policies/ sme/
files/ support_ measures/ training_education/ entr_highed_ en.pdf).
Where to teach entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship is
essentially interdisciplinary. Since entrepreneurial education, professional
training in entrepreneurship and preparation of entrepreneurship personnel
require learning of numerous business skills, students of other
non-entrepreneurial and non-business majors can benefit and benefit from such
training. Now, many experts have begun to doubt whether business schools are
the best places to learn entrepreneurship. This is because the most innovative
and potentially promising ideas, those that can be really implemented, often
appear in the fields of technical and creative disciplines and not in business
[5, p. 11].
Requirements of education "toward learning
entrepreneurship" question the usefulness of the traditional practice of
education (training), implying a shift of thinking on key areas of education
and training procedures [10; 11]. New pedagogical methods of teaching and
interdisciplinary content represent new opportunities (challenges) for teachers
and schools. A considerable amount of research indicates lag or unwillingness
of school business education and teachers to meet today’s requirements [5, p.
Multidisciplinary business content and empirical
approach require integration into basic training. Today the "education of
trainers (coaches)" can require the same great effort as developing
Creative computer applications can attract and retain
the interest of some people, influence their attitudes towards entrepreneurship
and their understanding of entrepreneurship.
Although the needs and problems of entrepreneurship
education and entrepreneurship training are numerous, there are also many
opportunities to influence the perception and the development of skills and
ambitions in existing and potential entrepreneurs.
Relationship of the entrepreneurship education (and
training) and economic development. As already noted, GEM research has divided
countries into three groups depending on their level of economic development.
Then, the GEM theoretical model presents three sets of basic economic framework
(conditions) that affect business in a country - namely, those that:
• represent the basic requirements for economic
• increase efficiency and are accelerators (amplifiers)
• develop innovations and entrepreneurship.
As the GEM model presents, entrepreneurial education and
training are presented in a form of specific entrepreneurial framework (basic)
conditions which affect the entrepreneurial attitude, activity and aspirations
(desires), and as a result, economic development [5, p. 13-14]. Many people in
innovation-oriented countries believed that entrepreneurship could not be
taught. Many people today still believe that education and training are not required
to start a business. They cite the example of Bill Gates and Steve Jobs, who
dropped out of college after a few years of school and achieved stunning
success in business. However, it became apparent that these people do not
represent a typical entrepreneur, especially for companies that produce
products based on knowledge and services. Many governments in countries with
innovation-oriented economy since then have declared their commitment to
teaching entrepreneurship, identifying it as a key priority.
In these rich economies entrepreneurial education is
properly set up, organized and developed, attention is paid to the evaluation
of existing programs, sharing best practices, identifying problems and making
Effective management of innovative activities is
important for the successful development and introduction of new technologies,
and for further development of science and technology and social and economic
growth of the nation. The problems of implementation of innovations in the
system of education and the system of higher education are very important for
innovative technologies in education and higher education developments not only
in Ukraine but in other countries of post-Soviet space.
Development of innovative approach in entrepreneurship,
entrepreneurial education and training of the entrepreneurs and their impact on
the economic situation of the countries is usually measured in terms of the
• School entrepreneurship education and training in
• Transfer (implementation) of the results of R & D.
• Laws and regulations in the field of entrepreneurship,
• Government programs to support entrepreneurship.
• Financial support of entrepreneurship.
• Internal burden (load) of markets.
• Policy of support of entrepreneurship.
• After-school entrepreneurship education and training
• Cultural and social norms.
• Professional infrastructure.
• The internal market dynamics.
• Physical infrastructure.
1. Annual Innovation Report
2008. URL: http://www.dius.gov.uk/innovation
2. Best US Universities for
Innovation Transfer? Comparing Innovation Transfer Activities of U.S. Research Universities. Copyright 2011. – Innovation Excellence. URL: http://www. innovationex
cellence. com /blog/ 2011/12/14/ best-us-universities-for-innovation-transfer/
3. Innovation and
Competitiveness /The Association of American Universities (AAU) URL: http://www.aau. edu/ policy/ article.aspx?id=4692
4. Innovation Nation White
Paper, 2008. URL: http://www.dius.gov.uk/ reports_ and_publications/~/media/ publications/S/ScienceInnovation_web
5. Global Entrepreneurship
Monitor Special Report: A Global Perspective on Entrepreneurship Education and
Training /Alicia Coduras Martínez, Jonathan Levie, Donna J. Kelley,
Rögnvaldur J. Sæmundsson and Thomas Schøtt / GEM, 2010. – 64 ð. – URL: http: // www. gemconsortium. org/
docs/ download / 276
6. Hutorskoy A.V. Pedagogical
Innovation: a manual for students of higher educational institutions. Moscow: Pub lishing Center Academy, 2008. – 256 p. (in Russian)
7. Romanovskiy O.O. The
Phenomenon of Entreneurship at Universities in the World: a Monograph. –
Vinnytsia: Nova Knyha, 2012. – 504 p. (in Ukraine)
8. Science and Innovation
Investment Framework 2004–2014. – URL: http://www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/
9. The Competitiveness and
Innovative Capacity of the United States. January 2012. Prepared by the U.S.
DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE In consultation with the NATIONAL ECONOMIC COUNCIL. URL:
http:// www. commerce. gov/ sites/ default/ files/ documents/ 2012/ january/ competes_010511_0.pdf
10. World Economic Forum. 2009.
Educating the Next Wave of Entrepreneurs: Unlocking Entrepreneurial
Capabilities to Meet the Global Challenges of the 21st Century: A Report of the
Global Education Initiative. – Switzerland: World Economic Forum, 2009. – 179 ð. – URL: https://members.weforum.org/
pdf/ GEI/ 2009/ Entrepreneurship_ Education_Report.pdf
11. World Economic Forum. 2009.
Educating the Next Wave of Entrepreneurs: Unlocking Entrepreneurial
Capabilities to Meet the Global Challenges of the 21st Century: Executive
Summary Report on Entrepreneurship Education. World Economic Forum, Global Education
Initiative. – Switzerland: Davos-Klosters, 2009. – 35 ð.
– URL: http://www.stanford.edu/class/e140/e140a/
handouts/ Educ_ Next_ Wave_ Entrepreneurs.pdf
Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №4 - 2012