Revisited paradigm of subjective pedagogics

Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №4 - 2012

Author: Sakhariyeva Svetlana, East Kazakhstan State University in honor of S. Amanzholov, Kazakhstan

At present subjective approach becomes a priority direction in the research of psychological and pedagogical reality. However, as subjectness has acquired the status of a methodological principle it creates definite conditions for comprehensive study of this phenomenon.

Psychological and pedagogical research is devoted to different aspects of personality subjectness. Thus in V.A. Petrovski's research works different subjectness phenomena are studied. A.V. Zaharova, D.I. Feldshtein and G.A. Tsukerman have studied objective laws of human subjective beginning in ontogenesis. A.A. Davydov has developed the principles of educational systems organization, developing subjectness. Y.N. Volkova has analyzed ontological status of subjectness as a personal characteristic.

The idea of a subject-subject approach in pedagogical science began to develop intensively both in Russia and Kazakhstan and also other CIS countries at the beginning of the XX century and gradually began to turn into a pedagogic paradigm. At present subjective approach has acquired the status of a methodological approach in a pedagogical science, the main objective of which is to develop methods, forms and principles of interaction of the participants of an educational process.

Having analyzed research findings devoted to the problem of building subject-subject relationship in the educational process, we can conclude that there is no a general concept that would allow to cover and present multiple facts in a single paradigm, collected in the course of teaching and up bringing practice. First, it is connected with complexity and insufficient development of such phenomenon as a subject-subject interaction in theory and practice of education and pedagogy.

Transition from authoritative (subject-object) to humanistic educational paradigm (subject-subject and poly subject) means, first of all, denial to percept education as receiving ready knowledge and role of a teacher as a knowledge interpreter and central "figure" of pedagogical process, i.e. the main source of activity. It is replaced by an understanding of education as an achievement where subjective experience of every person is taken into account as a means of his/her self realization and self actualization in life, building personal career that in its turn changes educational and up bringing goals, its motives, norms, forms, methods, teacher's role, etc. Basic components of educational paradigm in authoritative and subject-subject pedagogy are compared in Table 1.

Table 1 Paradigms of authoritative and subject-subject pedagogy

Paradigm components

Authoritative pedagogy (subject-object)

Subject-subject pedagogy


-education aimed at scientific knowledge acquisition;

- knowledge in young age taken as a "whole life supply";

- education aimed at acquisition of the basic human culture;

- life-long learning;

- education aimed at preservation, up bringing and development of a free, independent and self actualizing person with formed subjectness.


- education for public production

- education for a person's self-realization and self actualization in life.


- education of school children is an obligation;

- the teacher is performing his/her professional duty;

- school children are interested in learning, taking pleasure from their achievements;

- the teacher is interested in development of school children, likes to communicate with them


- the teacher bears the responsibility for teaching students;

- the teacher's reputation is created because he/she is keeping distance, demanding discipline and hard work from students.

- students bear responsibility for their own learning;

- the teacher's reputation is created by his/her personal and professional qualities.

Roles of the participant of an educational process

-the teacher passes on knowledge;

- the teacher is in the centre of pedagogical process;

- the teacher is the subject that directs his actions at the object, i.e. the student;

- the teacher is positioned higher than the students;

- as a rule the teacher is active himself.

- the teacher creates conditions for independent learning, for self realization and self actualization;

- both participants of the educational process are active;

- the teacher and the student are equal subjects of the educational process;

- the teacher in cooperation with the students creates, researches, interacts. They are equal partners.

Forms and methods of learning

- hierarchical and authoritative methods;

- conservative structure of subjects;

- conservative organization of the educational process;

- focus on a lesson under teacher's guidance.

- democratic and egalitarian (built on equality) methods;

- dynamic structure of subjects;

- dynamic forms of organization of the educational process;

- focus on students' independent work.

Teaching means

- the main educational means is a traditional textbook.

- the textbook goes together with other additional sources of information, powerful IT and media resources.

Control and assessment

- control and assessment is done mostly by the teacher.

- focus on students' self-monitoring and self assessment.

The table vividly demonstrates the fact that the educational process requires corresponding changes to be introduced into the goals, motives, values, forms, methods and means of learning in the framework of subject-subject pedagogy. However, this is a complicated and long-term process, requiring deep transformations in school consciousness, aimed at gradual shift of emphasis from teacher's teaching function to students' active cognitive activity.

The main idea of the subject-subject approach is to establish a model of learning, oriented to preserve, bring up and develop a free, independent, self actualizing person with the formed subjectness. Concept of subject-subject approach has to solve the following problems: implementation and development of the ways to overcome authoritative traditions of the Soviet school and pedagogy in the relationships of teachers and students , creation of conditions for self realization, self actualization and self identity, development of subjectness of all the participants of the educational process and raising a person responsible for the whole society, capable to collaborate and cooperate in creative work with other people.

A necessary precondition of subject-subject approach formation is availability of a subjective environment for development of subjectness of all participants of the educational process.

Under "subjectness" of a person we mean the ability of a person to initiate his/her own activity, put and correct goals, realize his/her motives, make independent decisions, plan his/her life.

Subjectness as a personal quality needs to be formed and developed. An important role in this is given to a teacher as a student until a definite age (the level of his social maturity) can not set goals concerning his own studies consciously and clearly (there are some exceptions). The goal of a teacher is to choose various forms, methods and technologies to develop, bring up and stimulate development of subjectness. However, it does not matter how high the level of a student's subjectness developed, the student actively (more often unconsciously) influences on another participant of the educational process, i.e. the teacher and also on an educational goal, the choice of means, methods, techniques and it depends on the age, level of education and up bringing and individual peculiarities, personal subjective experience. By this the student changes the strategy and tactics of the chosen interaction that undoubtedly influences the final result of learning.

In our opinion, subjective approach in pedagogy is on the one hand a requirement to the teacher to be active, participate consciously and willingly in his own professional and pedagogical process, actively learn, and on the other hand, it is a requirement to the student to participate consciously and actively in his own learning. However, the notion of the subjective approach in pedagogy is wider that just conscious and voluntary activity of a future teacher and bigger than just considering a student to be an "object" of pedagogical influence.

The model of learning based on the paradigm of subject-subject pedagogy is principally different from conservative "authoritative" approaches to students teaching, as the main objective of the teacher is to choose and use methods, means and technologies of interaction with children for their self realization, self actualization, independent problem-solving and application of their own subjective experiences. Subjective pedagogy is directed to help the learners to explore themselves, to find unique qualities, develop active subjective position, and be able to make a plan of further educational and professional life.

The teacher's functions under the conditions of subject-subject pedagogy can be realized in several directions: firstly, to help a student understand his/her educational opportunities, his/her own potential and professional interests on the basis of his/her own subjective experience and ideas.

Secondly, acting in the framework of the subjective paradigm, the teacher can help the student put into use something that interests him/her that might be "here and now" and be of temporary nature but possess potential possibilities for development of subjectness of a person. Thirdly, the teacher directs the student to identify problems, find possible ways of their solution, set goals, objectives, find ways, methods, create conditions to achieve them.

Thus, in the framework of subject-subject paradigm the educational goal is set as a result of mutual cooperation of the participants of the educational process and is a product of collaborative work of all the participants of the educational process (i.e. the teacher and the student). The paradigm of subject-subject pedagogy excludes possibility of the teacher's pedagogical goals not to be accepted by the student as the teacher does not force them.

When subjective pedagogy paradigm is implemented requirements to the teacher's personal and professional qualities change completely. The teacher should be able to realize his/her professional identity, constantly learn, be able to actualize, express him/herself, do reflexive analysis of his/her work, make plans of his/her own professional practice, design projects to develop students' subjectness, taking into account their subjective experiences, create and constantly fill the subjective environment with pedagogically justified technologies and methods.

When the paradigm of subject-subject pedagogy is implemented, the teacher and the student are equal partners and the relationship between them has genuinely subjective nature. The teacher acts as a subject as it completely depends on him if a model of learning focusing on a subject-subject interaction is chosen. The teacher should consciously strive to develop the student's subjectness, based on his/her personal subjective experience of a child. However, the teacher himself should intentionally and systematically develop his own subjectness, choosing in the course of communication and mutual learning what direction to move in the framework of an educational environment.

With this approach the student becomes a true subject of the educational process, as education goals as well as means and methods of their achievement depend on his/her potential opportunities, initiative, interest and his/her active participation.

Thus, in the framework of implementation of the subject-subject paradigm the student turns from a tool of achievement of the teacher's educational goals into an active, equal subject, independently setting goals that become goals of his own development.


1. Volkova, E.N. (1998). [Subjectness of a teacher: theory and practice]. Moscow, p. 38.

2. Korovina, S.V. (2011). [Modeling of the educational system for development of the subjective position of a student]. [Pedagogical education and science], #7, 66-69.

3. Serezhkina, R.K. (2012). [Subjectness formation of a student in the process of professional training as realization of his/her creative abilities]. [Pedagogical education and science], #3, 76-79.

4. Selivanova, O.G. (2010). [Subjectness as a phenomenon of contemporary pedagogical research]. [Person and education], #23, 4-8.

Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №4 - 2012

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