Development of teacher professional competence
Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №4 - 2012
Author: Tashkenbayeva Saltanat , Branch of National Training Center “Orleu” East Kazakhstan Teacher In-Service Training Institute, Kazakhstan
Achieving a high level of professional competence is a strategic
goal of teacher in-service education.
The problem of development of teachers’ professional competence has
being solved by researchers from the perspective of different approaches: a systematic,
axiological, technological, activity-oriented, professional and personal,
competence-based, context-based, etc. Each of the approaches being the type of
scientific knowledge reflects the different aspects of the research object, and
so it gains the greatest efficiency in relationship with other approaches. The
process of formation of the professional competence of a teacher is a complex
multilateral mechanism, and the use of this complex approach to the study of
the development of the professional competence of teachers in the educational
activities will be the most effective.
The systematic approach is fundamental, scientific method of
analysis of any investigational pedagogical phenomenon. N.V. Blauberg, and E.G.
Yudin pointed out that a systematic approach serves as scientific
methodological direction which aims to develop principles, methods and means of
studying objects of a system . V.G. Afanasyev treats the system as a set of
components which while interacting generate (integrative, systemic) qualities
that are not inherent in their image [1, 2]. Element is a minimum
structure-unit system possessing structural specificity.
Each system has two components: the elemental composition and
structure as a system of relations between the elements. The high degree of
interconnectedness of all components of the structure ensures its integrity.
The structure and nature of constituent relations is defined by the nature of
the elements that form the whole, and their qualitative and quantitative characteristics.
Under the influence of systemic relations the system operates and develops. All
systemically targeted connections dominate the functioning of all parts of the
system, as well as all communication management: subordinate (vertical),
coordination (horizontal). The level of system integrity depends on its commitment,
integrity set of components, quality of each component and density of
interconnections between components as well as interconnections between each of
them and all in the whole. An important feature of the system is its integrated
character [2, 4, 8, 9].
Thus, a systematic approach allows us to consider the formation of
professional competence of teachers and to determine its structure,
relationships between the elements within the system and with the environment,
explore operational characteristics of the formation of quality in educational
activities, as well as the management of the system. A systematic approach to
pedagogical activity allows you to build a generalized model of the system with
the help of system analysis and modeling methods. The most significant
achievements of the systematic approach lie in the basis of any educational
technology. The conceptual framework of the technological approach highlighted
in the works of V.G. Bespalko, J.K. Kabansk, N.V. Kuzmina, G.K. Selevco, N.F.
Talyzina etc. G.K. Selevco gives the definition of educational technology as a
content summary that incorporates definitions of various authors, and is
represented by three aspects:
1. Scientific: pedagogical technologies as part of teaching science
explore and develop the goals, content and methods of teaching and design
2. Process-descriptive: description (algorithm) of the process, a
set of objectives, contents, methods and tools to achieve the intended results
3. Process-effective: the implementation of technological (teaching)
process, the operation of all personal, pedagogical and methodological tools .
Therefore, educational technology includes the following elements:
1. The conceptual basis
2. Content part: common learning goals and goals for learning
specific subjects, the content of academic material.
3. The procedural part: the organization of the educational process,
methods and forms of teaching, teacher performance management process on
formation of professionally important qualities.
4. Assessment part: operational feedback and implementation of
appropriate correction of learning process [3, 6, 10].
Thus the technological approach gives the opportunity for a holistic
process design, its consistent and systematic implementation in practice,
tracking the results, and its repro-reproducibility.
Taking into consideration the fact that the technological approach
is not paying proper attention to the creative development of the individual,
in constructing a system of formation of teacher development, it is necessary
to consider the psychological characteristics in the process of development of
professionally important qualities.
According to the methodological principle by S.L. Rubinstein, a
person functions and develops in activity. Educational and cognitive teacher’s
activity is the activity in which his professional skills are built thus
developing his personality. This activity defines the scope of the potential
development of the individual, due to the objective requirements of the
Numerous studies on the problems of higher education have proved
that you can master the skill only on the level of individual creativity and a
person acquires professional knowledge and skills in personal context. In other
words, every teacher has its specific pedagogical entry into the profession.
Individual creative approach to the development of professional competence of
teachers in the teaching activity involves:
- personal approach to the development of professional competence;
- identification and development of professional attitudes;
- unique technology activity.
To achieve the objectives of forming a teacher’s personality, you
need to organize such training, which provides the transition, and
transformation of one type of activity (cognitive) to another (professional)
with a corresponding change in the needs and motivations, goals, actions
(deeds), tools, subjects and results.
During the formation of the system of teacher development in the
process of educational activity, one of the objectives is to enhance the
cognitive activity of the teacher, which means to shift the center of gravity
with the ready-made knowledge transfer to developing creativity. This problem
might benefit the educational process on the basis of competence-oriented
approach. The idea of competence-oriented education is one of the answers to
the question about the directions of modernization of education. Formation of
teacher competence, i.e. the ability to apply knowledge in the teaching
activities, is one of the most actual problems of modern education.
Learning outcomes can not be limited by the set of facts, or the sum
of standard methods of solving problems, but in reality, the situation is often
According to V.A. Bolotov V.V. Serikov, natural transition to the
competence-based model of education defines by the fact that the traditional
model is inherently disharmonious, because instead of a holistic socio-cultural
experience, students actually learn only part of it, first of all this is
The introduction of the competency-based approach to higher
education in our country is also a very important task of integrating Kazakhstan into European education system according to the Bologna Process.
Acquisition of competencies is based on the experience of the
student. This view is based on the achievements of learning theory (Piaget,
Vygotsky, Galperin, Talyzina, etc.), many European and Russian experts share
it. To learn how to communicate, you do need to communicate. You cannot learn
the English language, without speaking English, use the computer without having
practice. Acquisition of competence depends on the activity of students.
On the basis of this provision, one of the most important ways to
face challenges of incorporating the competency approach is seen in the search
for and construction of the learning process based on active learning. Under
active learning, we understand such methods of the educational process that
ensure the inclusion of students in interaction and communication in the
process of cognitive activity.
The practice of the Russian and foreign pedagogy has a wide range of
teaching methods, providing interactive personal interaction of students. The
most effective are portfolio, projects, games, all kinds of educational
technology case studies (the method of the incident, situation analysis, etc.),
small groups, and competence-model. One important factor, without which the
implementation of these technologies is impossible, is teacher role
replacement: from knowledge translator to the organizer of educational
resources. It is clear that the volume of teacher preparation significantly
increases. It includes lesson scenario varieties design, development
(selection) of the relevant training and methodological support of students’
independent work in the classroom and at home.
Competence technology is more effective to the system of teacher
professional competence formation. It bases on the rapidly changing conditions
of employment, changes in the economy, need for new professions; professional
development increase has made it necessary to use such systems that can quickly
respond to the demand of specialists.
Modular system is the most flexible system. It can be adapted to any
of the existing training programs .
Modular training is more economical, the materials that are not
related to the work performed are excluded from the courses:
- counting existing knowledge and skills of the students, which
allows to reduce the educational time;
- counting individual characteristics of students (learning rate,
skills, etc.), which also makes it possible to save time.
The main differences of the modular technology are as follows:
- modular program structure is related to the teacher activity
structure and consists of individual units called modules, which are complete
units with clearly defined beginning and end. At the same time, each module is
a structural element of the modular program;
- to study each module of the study program (a fragment of the
teacher activity) special manuals are developed, which contain the necessary
information about the formation of knowledge and skills necessary for tasks or
- for each student you can make an individual study program based on
the basic modular program with the order for education.
Thus, the modular study involves relatively independent work of
students in the development of individual modular program consisting of
individual modules. Professional activity develops from the required production
standards. Through consistent focus on clear goals, immediate assessment of their
achievement, we achieve warranty, the stability of the results of educational
Analyzing the system of teacher professional competence formation in
the educational activity, we can make the following conclusions:
The problem of teacher professional competence formation is solved
from the perspective of different approaches: a systematic, technological,
professional - personal, competency, etc.
Each of the approaches being the type of scientific knowledge, gains
the greatest efficiency in relation with other approaches.
The most significant are the systematical and the competence-base approaches.
Teacher professional competence formation system bases on such approaches.
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Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №4 - 2012