Development of teacher professional competence

Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №4 - 2012

Author: Tashkenbayeva Saltanat , Branch of National Training Center “Orleu” East Kazakhstan Teacher In-Service Training Institute, Kazakhstan

Achieving a high level of professional competence is a strategic goal of teacher in-service education.

The problem of development of teachers’ professional competence has being solved by researchers from the perspective of different approaches: a systematic, axiological, technological, activity-oriented, professional and personal, competence-based, context-based, etc. Each of the approaches being the type of scientific knowledge reflects the different aspects of the research object, and so it gains the greatest efficiency in relationship with other approaches. The process of formation of the professional competence of a teacher is a complex multilateral mechanism, and the use of this complex approach to the study of the development of the professional competence of teachers in the educational activities will be the most effective.

The systematic approach is fundamental, scientific method of analysis of any investigational pedagogical phenomenon. N.V. Blauberg, and E.G. Yudin pointed out that a systematic approach serves as scientific methodological direction which aims to develop principles, methods and means of studying objects of a system [4]. V.G. Afanasyev treats the system as a set of components which while interacting generate (integrative, systemic) qualities that are not inherent in their image [1, 2]. Element is a minimum structure-unit system possessing structural specificity.

Each system has two components: the elemental composition and structure as a system of relations between the elements. The high degree of interconnectedness of all components of the structure ensures its integrity. The structure and nature of constituent relations is defined by the nature of the elements that form the whole, and their qualitative and quantitative characteristics. Under the influence of systemic relations the system operates and develops. All systemically targeted connections dominate the functioning of all parts of the system, as well as all communication management: subordinate (vertical), coordination (horizontal). The level of system integrity depends on its commitment, integrity set of components, quality of each component and density of interconnections between components as well as interconnections between each of them and all in the whole. An important feature of the system is its integrated character [2, 4, 8, 9].

Thus, a systematic approach allows us to consider the formation of professional competence of teachers and to determine its structure, relationships between the elements within the system and with the environment, explore operational characteristics of the formation of quality in educational activities, as well as the management of the system. A systematic approach to pedagogical activity allows you to build a generalized model of the system with the help of system analysis and modeling methods. The most significant achievements of the systematic approach lie in the basis of any educational technology. The conceptual framework of the technological approach highlighted in the works of V.G. Bespalko, J.K. Kabansk, N.V. Kuzmina, G.K. Selevco, N.F. Talyzina etc. G.K. Selevco gives the definition of educational technology as a content summary that incorporates definitions of various authors, and is represented by three aspects:

1. Scientific: pedagogical technologies as part of teaching science explore and develop the goals, content and methods of teaching and design pedagogical processes.

2. Process-descriptive: description (algorithm) of the process, a set of objectives, contents, methods and tools to achieve the intended results of training.

3. Process-effective: the implementation of technological (teaching) process, the operation of all personal, pedagogical and methodological tools [10].

Therefore, educational technology includes the following elements:

1. The conceptual basis

2. Content part: common learning goals and goals for learning specific subjects, the content of academic material.

3. The procedural part: the organization of the educational process, methods and forms of teaching, teacher performance management process on formation of professionally important qualities.

4. Assessment part: operational feedback and implementation of appropriate correction of learning process [3, 6, 10].

Thus the technological approach gives the opportunity for a holistic process design, its consistent and systematic implementation in practice, tracking the results, and its repro-reproducibility.

Taking into consideration the fact that the technological approach is not paying proper attention to the creative development of the individual, in constructing a system of formation of teacher development, it is necessary to consider the psychological characteristics in the process of development of professionally important qualities.

According to the methodological principle by S.L. Rubinstein, a person functions and develops in activity. Educational and cognitive teacher’s activity is the activity in which his professional skills are built thus developing his personality. This activity defines the scope of the potential development of the individual, due to the objective requirements of the teacher.

Numerous studies on the problems of higher education have proved that you can master the skill only on the level of individual creativity and a person acquires professional knowledge and skills in personal context. In other words, every teacher has its specific pedagogical entry into the profession. Individual creative approach to the development of professional competence of teachers in the teaching activity involves:

- personal approach to the development of professional competence;

- identification and development of professional attitudes;

- unique technology activity.

To achieve the objectives of forming a teacher’s personality, you need to organize such training, which provides the transition, and transformation of one type of activity (cognitive) to another (professional) with a corresponding change in the needs and motivations, goals, actions (deeds), tools, subjects and results.

During the formation of the system of teacher development in the process of educational activity, one of the objectives is to enhance the cognitive activity of the teacher, which means to shift the center of gravity with the ready-made knowledge transfer to developing creativity. This problem might benefit the educational process on the basis of competence-oriented approach. The idea of competence-oriented education is one of the answers to the question about the directions of modernization of education. Formation of teacher competence, i.e. the ability to apply knowledge in the teaching activities, is one of the most actual problems of modern education.

Learning outcomes can not be limited by the set of facts, or the sum of standard methods of solving problems, but in reality, the situation is often the case.

According to V.A. Bolotov V.V. Serikov, natural transition to the competence-based model of education defines by the fact that the traditional model is inherently disharmonious, because instead of a holistic socio-cultural experience, students actually learn only part of it, first of all this is knowledge-component [5].

The introduction of the competency-based approach to higher education in our country is also a very important task of integrating Kazakhstan into European education system according to the Bologna Process.

Acquisition of competencies is based on the experience of the student. This view is based on the achievements of learning theory (Piaget, Vygotsky, Galperin, Talyzina, etc.), many European and Russian experts share it. To learn how to communicate, you do need to communicate. You cannot learn the English language, without speaking English, use the computer without having practice. Acquisition of competence depends on the activity of students.

On the basis of this provision, one of the most important ways to face challenges of incorporating the competency approach is seen in the search for and construction of the learning process based on active learning. Under active learning, we understand such methods of the educational process that ensure the inclusion of students in interaction and communication in the process of cognitive activity.

The practice of the Russian and foreign pedagogy has a wide range of teaching methods, providing interactive personal interaction of students. The most effective are portfolio, projects, games, all kinds of educational technology case studies (the method of the incident, situation analysis, etc.), small groups, and competence-model. One important factor, without which the implementation of these technologies is impossible, is teacher role replacement: from knowledge translator to the organizer of educational resources. It is clear that the volume of teacher preparation significantly increases. It includes lesson scenario varieties design, development (selection) of the relevant training and methodological support of students’ independent work in the classroom and at home.

Competence technology is more effective to the system of teacher professional competence formation. It bases on the rapidly changing conditions of employment, changes in the economy, need for new professions; professional development increase has made it necessary to use such systems that can quickly respond to the demand of specialists.

Modular system is the most flexible system. It can be adapted to any of the existing training programs [7].

Modular training is more economical, the materials that are not related to the work performed are excluded from the courses:

- counting existing knowledge and skills of the students, which allows to reduce the educational time;

- counting individual characteristics of students (learning rate, skills, etc.), which also makes it possible to save time.

The main differences of the modular technology are as follows:

- modular program structure is related to the teacher activity structure and consists of individual units called modules, which are complete units with clearly defined beginning and end. At the same time, each module is a structural element of the modular program;

- to study each module of the study program (a fragment of the teacher activity) special manuals are developed, which contain the necessary information about the formation of knowledge and skills necessary for tasks or tests;

- for each student you can make an individual study program based on the basic modular program with the order for education.

Thus, the modular study involves relatively independent work of students in the development of individual modular program consisting of individual modules. Professional activity develops from the required production standards. Through consistent focus on clear goals, immediate assessment of their achievement, we achieve warranty, the stability of the results of educational work.

Analyzing the system of teacher professional competence formation in the educational activity, we can make the following conclusions:

The problem of teacher professional competence formation is solved from the perspective of different approaches: a systematic, technological, professional - personal, competency, etc.

Each of the approaches being the type of scientific knowledge, gains the greatest efficiency in relation with other approaches.

The most significant are the systematical and the competence-base approaches. Teacher professional competence formation system bases on such approaches.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Artemyev, T.I. The relationship of potential and actual development of personality. In L.I. Antsyferova (Ed.), Psychology of personal formation and development.

2. Afanasiyev, V.G. (1968). The scientific management of society (the experience of systems research).Moscow: Politizdat, p.384.

3. Bespalko, V.P. The terms of educational technology. Moscow: Pedagogy.

4. Blauberg, I.V. (1972).The systems approach to social cognition // Historical materialism as a theory of social awareness and activity. Moscow, 157, 90.

5. Bolotov, V.A. (2003). Competence model: from the idea to the educational program. Pedagogy. ¹ 10, 8-4.

6. Kulnevich, S.V. (2001). Personal pedagogy from the concepts to technology: Textbooks. Rostov-na-Donu: Teacher, 160.

7. Crochet, E. (1996). Manual of modular system of technological education. Geneva: International Labour Organization, 86.

8. Serikov, G.N. (1997). Education: aspects of system reflection. Kurgan: Urals, 464.

9. Serikov, G.N. (1994). Elements of the theory of education management system. Chelyabinsk CSTU, 168 .

10. Selevco, G.K. (1998). Modern Educational Technology: Textbooks. Moscow: Education, 256



Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №4 - 2012

  
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