Consideration of East-Kazakhstan region’s needs in translators’ training
Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №4 - 2012
Gersonskaya Valentina, Kazakh-American Free University, Kazakhstan
Kameneva Natalia, Kazakh-American Free University, Kazakhstan
Consideration of East-Kazakhstan region’s needs in translators’
training is an issue problem while designing teaching material for
undergraduate students. At present there is a State Obligatory Educational
Standard (SOES) of the Republic of Kazakhstan (RK) dd. 2006 for an undergraduate
program in Translation Studies. Regulations of this Standard are obligatory to
apply and obey by higher education institutions of the Republic of Kazakhstan that train students in a Bachelor's program in the indicated profession. The SOES
demands much of graduate students with Translation Studies Major. According to
the SOES, graduate students of this Major are not to only translate texts of a
certain subject area but are to understand the basic concepts of cross-cultural
communication, social, natural sciences, and special linguistic disciplines;
are to know the ways of state development, main points of economic laws,
historical variety of cultures, history, culture, language, and religion of the
country studied . We are coming to the conclusion that that Department of
Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan sets goals aimed not only
at training human resources who know foreign languages but it also focuses on obtaining
background knowledge helping to get full information about the country of the
language studied and the language itself. This strategy helps the translator
realize completely the process of translation itself and its peculiarities.
Undoubtedly, the SOES of the Republic of Kazakhstan also demands
good knowledge of the main regulations of translation theory and practice,
mentality, traditions and customs of certain countries, and also knowledge
regarding translation techniques. It is quite obvious that having this
knowledge, graduate students with Translation Studies Major have a possibility
to accomplish in their profession and to become highly qualified specialists.
The following regulations are indicated in the SOES: the graduate should
have the following skills - proficiency in the state language and in two
foreign languages, in translation techniques .
According to the SOES, the graduate should be able to speak foreign
languages fluently, to work with given information, to translate written or
oral texts. The above-mentioned regulations make us come to the conclusion that
graduate students with Translation Studies Major should have relevant
information of stylistic and language peculiarities of translated texts as well
as about the scientific sphere of the subject matter of the text to perform
their professional activity. It is necessary to be a competent person in the
following issues: political and socio-economic development of the Republic of Kazakhstan, constitutional legislation of RK, its administration system,
functioning of educational and cultural institutions; the sphere of
cross-cultural communication, the sphere of linguistic and professional capacity,
the sphere of human resources management, and in the sphere of Translation
This SOES, in a certain measure, must give an opportunity to train
specialists according to goals and objectives set by the Republic of Kazakhstan. As we know, the main priorities regarding development of our Republic are given in
the Address of the President, Nazarbayev N.A., dd. 2011: “Industrialization
forms a new paradigm for regional policy”; “Quality education should be the
basis of industrialization and innovative development of Kazakhstan”
(Nazarbayev N.A., 2011) .
Obviously, on the basis of the strategies mentioned above, great
attention is being paid to the industrial development of Kazakhstan, because there is a great supply of minerals in our country that gives a possibility to
develop different branches of industry. Therefore, we can see need in training
and involvement of specialists, graduate students with Translation Studies
Major to work in this sphere.
The analysis of the SOES shows it that graduate students with
Translation Studies Major are trained to work in different spheres such as:
administrative and managerial, educational and scientific, cultural and
cross-cultural communication, international relationships, publishing, mass
media, information-analytical and many others . However, one can note that
among the indicated spheres there is no mention of the industrial production
sphere, which is a serious problem in human resource development for the region
with the developed industrial production field.
In this work we are focusing on training translators and
interpreters for the East Kazakhstan region as it is is one of the three major
industrial centers of the Republic of Kazakhstan, which produces over 20% of
industrial products 65% of energy and 5% of the country’s export. 48% of
processing industry enterprises is concentrated in the region .
In East Kazakhstan nonferrous metallurgy is the basic branch of the
oblast economy. It comprises 52.0% of the industrial potential of the East Kazakhstan oblast (EKO). The leading enterprises of the branch are: the “Kazzink”
LLP (“Ust-Kamenogorsk and Tekely Lead and Zinc Combinates”, "Leninogorsk
Polymetallic Combinate" and "Zyrianovsk Lead Combinate",
“Bukhtarma and Tekely Energy Complexes”) which comprised 26.0% total oblast
income in 2000; the “Ust-Kamenogorsk Titanium and Magnesium Plant” JSC -
1.8%; the “VostokKazmed” merger – 6.5% (includes Zhezkent Ore-Dressing
and Processing Combinate and is a part of the “Kazakhmys” Public Company
Rapid industrial development makes the region increasingly
attractive for foreign investors. It leads to designing joint industrial
projects and construction of huge enterprises. Therefore, East Kazakhstan needs highly qualified specialists who know the specifics of non-ferrous
industry, translators among them.
For the region it is unreasonable to train 90% of translators who
are skilled in the field of tourism, science, international relations and only
10% in the field of nonferrous metallurgy. In connection with the development
of the country and industry this region needs translators who will get a job
and be ready to work in field conditions because industrial plants and their
subdivisions, as a rule, offer jobs at a site, in shops, which are close to the
process of production. At present, when for training of interpreters and
translators books, recommended by the SOES are used, managers of East Kazakhstan industrial enterprises are often disappointed with the work of University
graduates. According to T.A. Alimbekov, head of the “Kazzink” LLP Translators’
department: “Graduate students with Translation Studies Major do not have
enough experience to work at the industrial enterprises because of their lack
of knowledge of terminology and the process of production which complicates
translation process, slows it down and worsens its quality”.
Therefore, there is a serious problem which has not been solved yet
and which is topical now as consideration of the region’s needs can improve the
quality of interpreters’ training for their future successful work at the East Kazakhstan enterprises.
According to the facts mentioned above one can make a conclusion
that it is necessary to consider region needs in the training of undergraduate
with the Translation Studies major. The result of studying always depends not
only on the observance of SOES’ regulations but also on its compliance with the
curricula. The quality of a curriculum is defined by means of distribution of
hours for each course but it is necessary to remember that only Major
disciplines help develop and master skills for future translation process.
The curriculum for training translators/ interpreters includes core
courses (990 hours) and basic courses (1980 hours) .
Among the major courses are General-Professional
Foreign Language (225 hours); Specially-Professional Foreign Language (225
hours); Literary Translation Techniques (135 hours); Written Translation (135
hours); Practice of Informative Translation (135 hours); . The
general amount of hours in major courses is 855 hours.
1. “Translation Studies” Curriculum
According to Table 1, it is obvious that the least amount of hours
is given to the most important set of disciplines – major courses which,
undoubtedly, affects negatively the quality of specialists’ training.
Let us stress, that duration of most essential major courses –
Translation Theory and Practice of Informative Translation – is not sufficient.
Thus, Translation Theory only lasts 180 hours, though the main notions of
translation, style classification, main aims of informative translation and its
types, studied in this course, give a possibility to obtain theoretical
knowledge to do translation. “Practice of Informative Translation” is given
only 135 hours. The course includes the following themes: functional and
stylistic differentiation of texts and the problem of translation; scientific
and technical style and its characteristics; the structure of scientific and
technical texts; principles of scientific and technical translation; the
problems of the term; multiple meaning of the terms; translation of
term-neologisms; false “friends” of a translator and the problem of scientific
and technical terminology; internationalization terms’ system in a scientific
paradigm and a peculiarity of a translation process; principles of technical
translation and translation of materials regarding economics and trade
business; peculiarities of a media prose; principles of text translation that
belong to journalism: reports, a political comment, a theme article,
journalistic story, interview; peculiarities of newspaper headlines [1, 4]. We
can make a conclusion that if we are intended to design a course with consideration
of regional needs as it is required by the Country’s development strategy, the
books by V.S. Slepovich “Course of Translation”  and A.L. Pumpyansky
“Reading and Translation of English scientific and technical literature”
, recommended for the course by the SOES , cannot be used much in the
course as they give training in theory and practice of translation (general,
lexical and grammatical) in the field of economy, international business,
banking, finances, but there are no specific texts suitable for our region.
We are coming to the conclusion that this course gives a very
general idea of informative translation not training them in themes
which may be essential for them in their future professional activity. Not
underestimating the importance of theoretical themes of the course, we would
like to propose the “Practice of Informative Translation” course, developed
with consideration of needs of the East Kazakhstan region and mainly focused on
nonferrous metallurgy, energy sector or oil and gas industry. First of all, these
texts should contain information regarding East-Kazakhstan industrial field.
Graduate students with Translation Studies Major must obtain experience not by
means of translating separate disconnected sentences, but by means of
translating full, connected texts about a certain branch of industry. Such an
approach will help them realize their future professional activity, possible
difficulties in translation, and study specific vocabulary typical for the
industrial production in East-Kazakhstan. It is reasonable to reconsider the
structure of the “Practice of Informative Translation” course and to design an
integrative course to cope with all the problems described in the paper. One of
the possible solutions to the problem is increasing the amount of hours for
studying “Translation of Scientific and Technical Texts”. According to SOES,
the duration of the “Practice of Informative Translation” course is 135 hours
.We can redistribute these hours between units of this course and to change
priorities. We suggest 20 hours for translation of media texts, popular science
texts and official documents because in our region translators do not often
work with them; 30 hours are dedicated to translation of trade business texts
as such texts are also not so often translated but they are of great importance
for some huge trade companies in the East-Kazakhstan region which are
cooperating with foreign countries in delivery of household appliances.
Consideration of the East Kazakhstan industrial development made us give the
largest amount of hours, 45, for translation of scientific and technical texts.
Thus, we offer the following distribution of hours:
- Translation of media texts – 20 hours;
- Translation of popular science texts – 20 hours;
- Translation of official documents – 20 hours;
- Translation of texts regarding a trade business – 30 hours;
- Translation of scientific and technical texts – 45 hours;
Considering the needs of the region we suggest
the following main themes to study in the “Translation of scientific and
technical texts” unit:
- Nonferrous Metallurgy;
- Energy Policy of Kazakhstan ;
- Oil and Gas.
We also think that each of the main sections should include specific
themes. The first theme “Nonferrous Metallurgy” should contain the following
themes to study: “Nonferrous Metals”, “Production of Zink Concentrate”, “Anode
Furnaces”, “Copper Smelting”. The theme section should contain: “Energy Complex
of East Kazakhstan Region”, “Primary Energy Sources”, and “Hydropower Station
, and the last theme, “Oil and Gas”, should contain the following themes:
“Petroleum”, “Natural Gas” . In other words we suggest the following
distribution of hours:
- Nonferrous Metallurgy: Nonferrous Metals. Production of Zinc Concentrate.
Anode Furnaces. Copper Smelting. (25 hours).
- Energy Policy of Kazakhstan. : Energy Complex of East Kazakhstan Region. Primary Energy Sources. Hydropower Station  (10 hours).
- Oil and Gas: Petroleum. Natural Gas  (10 hours)
The suggested texts can help students obtain
practical skills to work with technical texts, to learn about industrial
branches which are developing in the region and in Kazakhstan in general. Besides,
students will obtain experience how to use technical dictionaries.
We are sure that the region-oriented approach in
training translator and interpreters will help improve the quality of East Kazakhstan translators’ training and enable them to efficiently work at the enterprises
of the region.
Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan (2006). State Obligatory
Educational Standard (SOES) of the Republic of Kazakhstan dd. 2006 for
profession 050207 – Translation Studies. Astana: Ìinistry of Education and
Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
Official site of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, from http://www. akorda.kz
SD International Department of East Kazakhstan oblast (2009). East Kazakhstan:
heading for the future. Astana: Astana DAMU-21.
East-Kazakhstan oblast: short description, from http:// www.kase.kz/
Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan (2007). Standard Program
for profession 050207 – Translation Studies. Almaty: Ìinistry of
Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
Slepovich V.S. (2002). Course of translation. Minsk: TetraSystems.
Pumpyansky A.L. (1997). Reading and translation of English scientific and
technical literature. Minsk: Popurri.
Novitskaya U.V. (2007) Technical translation for students of profession 050207
– Translation Studies and Foreign Language. Ust-Kamenogorsk: KAFU.
Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №4 - 2012