The negative form of Zhedel otken shak is expressed with the help of suffix -ma/-me, -ba/-be, -pa/-pe, after which the tense suffix and personal ending are added.
“Buryngy otken shak” denotes an action which was completed before specified time or before the beginning of another action in the past. It is close to the English Past Perfect Tense in its meaning and is formed in two ways:
- By means of the suffixes –kan/-ken, - gan/-gen (-қан/-кен, -ған/-ген) and personal verbal endings. “I had gone”
- The suffixes –kan/-ken, - gan/-gen is added to the verbs ending in voiceless consonants: zhatkan, zhetken (жатқан, жеткен). In other cases the suffix is used: bargan, Bergen (барған, берген).
In the formation of “Buryngy otken shak” in Kazakh language the choice of the suffixes also depends on the law of synharmonism and progressive assimilation:
Table 2. Personal endings of “Buryngy otken shak”
The form “Burungy otken shak” may be negated in three ways:
- by using negative suffixes -ma/-me, -ba/-be, -pa/-pe;
- by using the negative verb “emes” with personal endings;
- by using the negative word “zhok” with personal endings.
The English Past Tenses system also presents a lot of trouble to theKazakh speaking students because of the difference which exists in these languages with regard to time and tense relations.
In English the Past Tense consists of the following tense forms:
- Past Indefinite Active Tense;
- Past Continuous Active Tense;
- Past Perfect Active Tense;
- Past Perfect Continuous Tense .
The grammatical content of the Past Indefinite may be briefly characterised as follows: the Past Indefinite represents an action or state as relatively static in the past. The duration of the process indicated by the Past Indefinite can vary according to the immediate lexical context or special situation with no time indicators at all. The Past Indefinite is a synthetic form (synthetic forms are built up by a change in the word itself: by means of suffixes or by means of vowel change). But the interoggative and negative forms are built up analytically (analytical forms consists of 2 components), by means of the auxiliary verb to do without the particle to .
The Past Indefinite is used to express the following cases:
- to express a single action which took place in the past;
- to express an action which occupied a whole period of time now over;
- in narration to express a succession of actions;
- to express recurrent actions;
- to express permanent actions which indicate continuous, uninterrupted processes in the past, giving a general characteristic of the person or thing denoted by the subject;
- to express an action going on at a given past moment;
- to express a future action viewed in the past;
- to express unreal actions .
The primary meaning of the Past Continuous is that of a past action shown in its progress at a given past moment. The Past Continuous is an analytical form which is built up by means of the auxiliary verb to be in the Past Indefinite and the –ing form of the notional verb.
The Past Continuous is used in the following cases:
- to express an action which was going on at a given moment;
- to express an action going on at a given period of time in the past;
- to express actions characterizing the person denoted by the subject, bringing out the person’s typical traits;
- to indicate a future action viewed from the past .
The Past Perfect is an analytical form which is built up by means of the auxiliary verb to have in the Past Indefinite and the participle of the notional verb. The same auxiliary is used to form the interrogative and the negative forms .
The Past Perfect is used in the following cases:
- to express an action accomplished before a given moment and viewed back from that past moment;
- to express an action which began before a given moment and continues into it up to it.
In adverbial clauses of time introduced by the conjunctions when, before, after, as soon as and till/until to express a future action viewed from the past .
The Past Perfect Continuous is an analytical form which is built up by means of the auxiliary verb to be in the Past Perfect and the ‘ing” - form of the notional verb. In the interrogative form the first auxiliary verb is placed before the subject. In the negative form the negative particle not is placed after the first auxiliary.The Past Perfect Continuous has two different uses which will be further referred to as Past Perfect Continuous I and Past Perfect Continuous II.
Past Perfect Continuous I serves to express an action which began before a given past moment and continued into it or up to it. In this meaning it is parallel to Past Perfect II. Past Perfect Continuous I may be used with the same indications of time. The Past Perfect Continuous can be used with dynamic verbs of both durative and terminative meaning (see the examples above). Stative verbs express this meaning with the help of Past Perfect II Past Perfect II is possible with dynamic verbs of durative meaning but it is not found at all with terminative verbs.
Past Perfect Continuous II serves to express an action which was in progress just before a given past moment and it affects the past situation in some way. The precise time limits of the action are not specified. In this meaning the Past Perfect Continuous is not parallel to Past Perfect II. Past Perfect Continuous II is, as a rule, not associated with any indications of time .
Analyzing the theoretical material of Past Tenses in English and Kazakh languages we found out the following differences:
- The English past tenses forms are built up with analytical forms, which consist of two components: an auxiliary verb and a notional verb. An auxiliary verb has no lexical meaning, it expresses only grammatical meaning. A notional verb is the bearer of lexical meaning. Only Past Simple in the affirmative form is built up synthetically by a change in the verb itself (by means of suffix – ed).
- The Kazakh past tenses have agglutinative forms, where the suffixes are added to the root of verbs depending on the law of synharmonism and progressive assimilation.
- Past Continuous and Past Perfect Continuous forms do not exist in the Kazakh, but Continuous tenses in the Kazakh are expressed by means of a notional verb in the form of Participle.
- Word order is different, in Kazakh the verb-predicate always stands at the end of the sentence. In negative and interrogative forms of Buryngy otken shak verb stands before the negative words: “emes” and “zhok”.
In English Past tenses in an affirmative form the predicate is placed after the subject. In questions the word order is characterized by the model: auxiliary verb + subject + main verb.
Also we define the following similarities:
- Zhedel otken shak in the Kazakh is close to the Past Indefinite in English;
- Buryngy otken shak in the Kazakh is close to the Past Perfect Tense in English.
As a general rule, the native language of every learner is a significant factor in the acquisition of a new language and exercising either an interfering or facilitating effect on the target language. All textbooks take into consideration this, because the majority of a learner’s errors in producing the second language stem from the learner’s assumption that the target language operates like the native language. Carefully analyzing verbs as the most complex part of speech, due to the central role it performs in the expression of predicative functions of the sentence, it is possible to make a conclusion that the difficulties experienced by Kazakh speaking students in learning English is connected with the following: English is an analytical language, where grammatical relations are more expressed by auxiliary verbs. As a result of this fact, Kazakh speaking students often forget to put in auxiliary verbs a sentence in practicing the English Past Tenses such as Past Perfect, Past Continuous, Past Perfect Continuous in all three forms (affirmative, negative, interrogative) and interrogative, negative forms of Past Simple; in negative forms of Past Perfect and Past Simple the students often put instead of auxiliary verbs: did/had the negative word “not”, because in Kazakh language negative form of Burungu otken shak which is close to Past Perfect is formed only with the help of notional verb and this negative word “zhok” which means not in English and personal ending . Another difference of the analytical language from the agglutinative language is that syntax and meaning are shaped by use of word order rather than by inflection. In English the predicate is placed after the subject, in Kazakh the predicate always stands at the end of the sentence. The first typical mistake of Kazakh speaking in the word order is that the students put the predicate at the end of a sentence. The second typical mistake is caused by the auxiliary verbs of interrogative sentences in English, which are (in our case - did, had) often placed at the beginning of a sentence, because co called interoggative particles (-ba/-be, -ma/-me,- pa/-pe) are placed at the end of a sentence. Due to the non existence of Past Continuous Tense and Past Perfect Continuous Kazakh speaking students mixed up the Past Simple and Past Continuous, Past Continuous Perfect and Past Perfect.
On the basis of the above mentioned grammatical difficulties Kazakh native speakers come across in the English grammar, we have come to the conclusion, that the use of the grammar textbooks aimed at Russian speaking students is not possible and it does not give expecting results, due to the fact that adequate grammar textbooks written by Russian linguists take into account only the specifics of the Russian language. Overcoming these difficulties, which are typical for the Kazakh-speaking students in learning the past tense in the English language, requires the specific methodological approaches, such as a good practice of the past tenses based on their learners’ native language, which cannot be achieved without creating the necessary group of exercises.
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