Peculiarities in the research of the essence and structure of the term «University management system»

Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №3 - 2011

Authors:
Denissova Oksana, East Kazakhstan State Technical University in honor of D. Serikbaev, Kazakhstan
Yussubalieva Madina, East Kazakhstan State Technical University in honor of D. Serikbaev, Kazakhstan

Management is an element and simultaneous function of the organized systems of different natures (biological, social, technological) and it conserves the structure, maintenance of activities, programs and goals of activities.

General patterns of management are identified by cybernetics - the science which generalizes the pattern of any type of management that occurs in nature in human society and also in mechanical systems. We study specific aspects of management in technical systems that are relevant branches of technical sciences, in biological systems - in branches of biology. Management in the socio-economic systems is studied within the framework of the theory of socio-economic processes.

The ongoing process of division of labor has led to the isolation of management in social and economic systems as an independent activity, the allocation of managerial work as a specific field of employment. Management has been transformed into the most important sphere of economy and social life.

The sphere of management, production and consumption are the main socio-economic processes that form the backbone of modern economies. Production creates the material and product materials, goods and services necessary to maintain its self-reproduction and consumption through distribution and exchange.

In its turn the consumption (production, non-productive, social) creates the preconditions of production and provides the labor resources.

Effective management ensures the processes of production, distribution, exchange and consumption coordinates them as parts of a single socio-economic system (1). The main task of management is to develop socio-economic system.

In modern management, different socio-economic systems are considered. They are sums of people and groups united to achieve a goal, solve a problem based on the principles of division of labor and distribution division of responsibilities. It could be private enterprises, organizations, scientific and production associations or government agencies.

In the process of management an organization acts in the management environment of its subject and object. Management forms and supports the organization and it itself should be organized.

The definition of "management" in organizations is controversial in science, because there are different definitions due to the different paradigms and approaches to its understanding. Management is defined as "the formation of goal-oriented behavior of the system through information impacts produced by a person (a group of people) or device" (2).

The author (3) points out that management activity means the management of groups of people who should be treated as social-controlled systems.

According to one of the definitions (4), management is an ongoing and purposeful process of working on controlled object to ensure its functioning and efficient development. Management system is a mechanism that enables this process.

Lebedev O.T. (5) in his work says that management is a focused process of influencing the subject of management control to an object to achieve a result.

In other different studies (6, 7) the term of management has no less than thirteen definitions. Thus, Academician D.M. Gvishiani (8) believes that the organization and management are not equivalent categories and should be considered separately, and this opinion is shared by P. Drucker (9). Human progress is not defined by natural resources and technologies but rather by management effectiveness.

In our opinion, the most scientifically accurate and efficient in practice is a paradigm which considers that the core of all processes is a person with his interests, values and attitudes.

Therefore, it is a person who is the main control element in the organization and who can act as a subject and an object of management. This paradigm corresponds to the nature and essence of management.

Thanks to conscious management, individual appears as concerted collective action. All human activities - permanent and seasonal, physically heavy and light, smart, useful and useless, etc. are accompanied by management.

Any activity causes the need, possibility and necessity of management, reflects the nature and essence of management as a specific type of human activity.

In general, using the cybernetic approach in any model of the control events regardless of the nature can be represented as follows in drawing 1.

According to the general control scheme, the object of control is a managed subsystem, and the subject of management - managing subsystem. Between the latter and the object of control there is a direct connection in the form of control actions to carry out any action and feedback in the form of the results of these actions. Comparing the actual results of actions of the object of management to target commands allows considering about the effectiveness of management actions.

Drawing 1 – Cybernetic model of management

The subject of management is an individual or entity person performing the power-effects on lower levels of management. The director, department head as well as other individuals and groups engaged in managerial impact on object control can serve as the subjects of management in the organization.

It is known that the object of control is exerted influence by manager. Aspects of economic activity (product quality, interaction with customers, marketing), types of resources (financial, labor, information), characteristics of production (performance, attitude, employment), as well as socio-economic system itself and its processes may be objects of management in an organization.

The external environment has a significant impact on the object’s state and the entire management system. The degree of interaction with the environment depends largely on their effectiveness.

Control actions are laws, decrees, regulations, government programs, regulations, instructions, rules and regulations, orders, instructions, and directions of economic managers of organizations.

Feedback is the result of direct observation and control of the managed object by the subject and certain authorized persons, papers, reports and other statistical reporting, outcomes analysis, material control and accounting.

A lot of goals and challenges faced by organizations of different classes and different industry sector lead to necessity to have special knowledge, methods and techniques ensuring effective joint action of every person in divisions.

The theory of university management, as well as any scientific theory, historically developed as a process of knowledge accumulation by successive reflection of practical experience, previous theoretical developments, intuitive assumptions and hypotheses. Therefore, scientific theory of university management can be presented structurally as a pyramid whose base is the practical experience of management. It is at this level where we formulate the axioms and inference, empirical rules and recommendations which serve as the basis for developing the next logical forms of knowledge with its laws, principles, methods and forms are developed.

The most important component of the logical forms of scientific knowledge of the theory of university management is its conceptual apparatus. Set of concepts with which there is the possibility to reflect and express the phenomena inherent to management of higher education institutions, as well as the relationships between them by fixing their essential properties and characteristics.

The relationship and consistency of scientific concepts can be represented in a diagram (drawing 2), modifying the published views on the theory of university management.

Drawing 2 – Connection of main concepts of university management

We briefly consider the relationship between basic concepts of university management.

The laws of nature, society and thought are the highest levels knowledge and have the form of universality, which is they express the general attitude, communication, common to all phenomena of this kind or class.

Based on the laws of society certain control laws are formed. They are acts adopted legislatively, the expression of objective necessity in nature and society, which include (5): the law of the unity of the integrity management system, the law providing the necessary degrees of freedom control system, the law required variety of control systems; law correlation of the management and control systems, the proportionality of production and management.

Control laws are universal in nature and should have a universal character for all social formations, for all modes of production. On the basis of common control laws formed the laws of educational administration, higher education institutions.

Principles of management express the most important and regularly repeating tendencies which in turn reflect rather steady interrelations between management elements in institutes of higher education. Principles already in space and time, than the law; it is the form of display of the law in the concrete specific conditions limited in space and in time.

In institutes of higher education it is necessary to carry to number of the major principles of management:

1. Development of the theory and practice of management by institutes of higher education according to transformation of forms and methods of the organization of economy.

2. External influence on a choice and formation of a control system by institutes of higher education.

3. Correlation operating and operated subsystems (the subject and object of management).

4. Optimization of levels of management in institutes of higher education.

5. Optimum use in managerial process in the functions of control, the account and the analysis.

Under the influence of display of principles in the organization the principles of management representing initial, fundamental, base ideas of administrative activity (scientific character, systemizing, integrated approach, efficiency etc.) are formed. Management principles, synthesizing objective principles of management, define lines of real administrative practice in institutes of higher education.

Management of institutes of higher education is based on the certain basic principles which definition is the major problem because the knowledge and their observance allow raising management efficiency. In modern conditions, the management of institutes of higher education it is necessary to adhere to following principles: respect and trust for the person; cooperation; social justice; an individual approach; personal stimulation; collective decision-making; constant updating etc.

Representing the general rules, principles form requirements to a control system of institute of higher education - to functions, methods and organizational structure managements (OSM).

The management purpose is the leading element in activity of administrative-and-management personnel of institute of higher education. Purposefulness assumes the realized movement to clear and a clear aim, despite all obstacles and even contrary to them. Under the purpose in public practice, including in management of institutes of higher education, usually understand some ideal, in advance set result which should be reached to the subject of management. To the most typical purposes of management of institutes of higher education carry:

- Maintenance purposes (preservation, stability) the reached condition arise when it is necessary to fix such condition because it satisfies the subject and object of management, or is caused by danger of deterioration of this condition which should be prevented;

- The purposes of an exit from an undesirable (crisis) condition arise, when parameters, indicators of functioning of system essentially below standard level, do not satisfy to inquiries of object of management and purposes of the subject, is much worse than an indicator of conditions of similar objects. They are directed on overcoming a recession, a non-admission of decrease in indicators below maximum permissible level, and creation of preconditions of lifting (stability, functioning);

- Development purposes consist in change of quantitative parameters and qualities of functioning of system for its transfer in the desirable condition characterized by the best values of target indicators. The purposes of development of institute of higher education can consist in achievement of the certain fixed degree of quality of educational services, satisfactions of growing requirements etc.

The maintenance of management of institutes of higher education is defined by functions, which express essence of administrative relations. One of the first researchers of functions of management is A.Fajol. He has allocated the following from them: a prediction (planning), the organization, coordination, control. The subsequent generations of researchers add the most various signs in the given classification: motivation, management, communications, estimation, decision-making, personnel selection, negotiating etc.

In our opinion, it is possible to agree with the point of view of scientists as the management maintenance can be established only by the practical analysis. Besides activity of the person is many-sided and various and always includes subjective elements. Therefore, there are always distinctive features and lines. However for effective, complete management of institutes of higher education should make a uniform complex of functions of the management, characterizing all completeness, all spectrum of interaction of the subject and object managements. Modern control systems provide all without an exception necessary functions of management in institutes of higher education, such as:

- The integrated control systems of educational and research business process, quality, the basic production assets, shots, the finance, the accounting and administrative account;

- Strategic and operational planning of activity of the institute of higher education, directed at working out of the purposes and the problems defining reference points in development of institute of higher education;

- The management of supply allowing effectively using material base of institute of higher education;

- Controlling provides execution of operations, including processes of preparation and carrying out of studies. Besides, controlling allows carrying out monitoring of all business processes of institute of higher education;

- Uniform and accessible in real time university’s information system;

- Opportunities of information technology for all business processes of the institute of higher education, etc.

Management methods institutes of higher education are ways of performance of the functions set forth above, representing ways of influence of the subject on object of management for achievement of the certain result. By means of them use of laws of social development is carried out. They reflect, on the one hand, the maintenance of these laws, on the other hand, a control system level of development. Management methods get out and used depending on a combination (priorities) of functions of management and from a combination (choice) of its means (tools) of management; are grouped in character of influence on: administrative (organizational-administrative), economic, socially-psychological.

Among the major categories in management of institutes of higher education, the concept the OSM which is formed on the basis of certain functions of management. It is the category of management science reflecting the organizational party of relations of management and making unity of levels and links (divisions, bodies) managements in their interrelation and co-subordination. Degree of conformity the OSM institutes of higher education to management methods, character of problems of functioning and development of institutes of higher education, rules of law, the internal logic of development of management institutes of higher education, and also a number of private characteristics and parameters - stability and flexibility of operating and operated subsystems should be thus defined. The degree of their adequacy and appropriateness to the current situation should be evaluated. For this purpose, it is necessary to consider requirements of adequacy of organizational level to elements of the material base providing various aspects of activity of management by institutes of higher education. As a rule, in institutes of higher education linearly-functional organizational structure of management.

It is known that historical successes of the nation are defined not by natural resources, not economic basis or technologies, but rather the talent of the people, and management efficiency, which is understood as creation of favorable conditions for achievement by the organization of good results in the caused terms with the least expenses. Hence, management efficiency represents productivity of activity of a concrete operating subsystem, which should be reflected in various indicators of a condition of a subsystem and assumes a finding of the best organizational forms, methods, technologies of management of institutes of higher education with a view of achievement of certain social and economic results according to the planned indicators.

Efficiency is an indicator of aspiration to the result, but not result, and a variant of correctness, accuracy of a direction to it.

Productivity as an indicator reflecting degree of achievement of an object in view is obliged to have quantitative expression. Hence, productivity – a certain indicator of process, an indicator of how the received result to in advance planned corresponds.

To operate effectively means to initiate, deduce objects of management on desirable lines of development.

In a modern science and practical "management" more often is considered as system. Application of the system approach in management research gives the chance all-rounded analysis of the given object.

The system is a set of the co-operating elements, which are in relations and communications with each other, making the complete formation which qualitatively distinct from elements is making it.

Various and diverse definitions of concept "system" are in details analyzed in researches (10, 11, 12), system definitions are stated and in classical works of such scientists, as a background of Bertalanfi, A. Holla, R. Akkofa, K. Uotta, G. Sajmonova, etc.

In our opinion, it is expedient to join conclusions of experts (10, 12) that numerous attempts to establish some standard definition of concept "system" have not led to success and that, probably, such problem is insoluble at strictly formal level owing to what more correctly to speak about certain family of concepts "the system" concerning various classes of system objects.

Also it is possible to divide the point of view of experts that at carrying out of concrete research it is necessary to define working concept of system which reflects the accepted concept of representation of object and can change depending on a carried out stage, aspect, features of solved problems.

In management science in the beginning of 90th there was the certain conceptual device, allowing describing a control system of the organization. Definitions of this concept can be treated according to work (13), as structure and the nomenclature of administrative bodies and posts.

The majority of authors consider interrelations between elements therefore the made definition is treated as follows:

- "the design" of organizational system characterizing structure, interrelation of control links and execution (object and the subject of management) (14);

- the organization subsystem which components are groups of co-operating people: its functions consist of perception of certain problems of the organization (inputs) and the subsequent performance of a set of actions (processes) in which result the decisions (exits) increasing the income of activity of all organization (satisfaction) or optimizing some function of all inputs and exits of the organization (15) are developed.

Thus, the control system represents difficult object that includes administrative sights, ideas, theories, social technologies, organizational forms of expression, functioning and development of administrative relations - set of the organizations, establishments of the given society, and also is characterized such important by properties, as: uniqueness, low predictability, purposefulness, ability to self-training and adaptation.

In the course of control system research it is necessary to reveal, of what components, elements consists, as they co-operate with each other and with an environment. Compatibility of elements is necessary for system formation among themselves, establishment possibility between them of productive communications.

The literature analysis on the given matter of the research has shown that among the set of theoretical and empirical approaches applied in modern system of the scientific knowledge, the most well-presented with theoretical and experimental points of view, in our opinion, is the structure of elements of the control system, presented on the drawing 3. It allows analyzing from following parties: theories, process, structure and technology of management.

It is necessary to consider that the theory and managerial process characterize administrative activity as process, and structure and technology of management - as the phenomenon (it in what affects, finds out essence of process). All elements entering into system should be professionally organized for effective work of the organization and are adapted for changing environmental conditions.

The control system cannot be considered a separate object from management. Therefore at research of a control system as object of research, along with it, the operated social and economic system (in given article - institute of higher education) acts.

According to researchers, the institute of higher education is a versatile educational institution realizing educational programs of higher and after university formation on a wide spectrum of specialties. It carries out retraining and (or) improvement of professional skill of experts with higher education and scientific and pedagogical workers; spending fundamental and applied researches; being the scientific and methodical center in areas of the activity.

Drawing 3 – System of the management control

Constant search of ways of its perfection as process, as way of achievement of the purposes and as adaptation tool to environment becomes one of problems of construction of an effective control system of institutes of higher education. In addition, necessity of performance of last condition influences those decisions, which are accepted concerning the first two. This is because the ways of construction of management as uniform, complex and interconnected system is in direct communication with those goods which as a result of management are realized in the market environment as possibility of achievement of purposeful effect a great influence is rendered by consumer characteristics of the made goods.

The institute of higher education is considered as the subject of market economy acting in a role of the manufacturer of the special goods - educational services and carrying out function of reproduction of public intelligence through preparation and retraining of highly-skilled personnel for formed innovative economy (16).

From positions of efficiency to performance of this role the institute of higher education is represented and as a control system. Institute of higher education, functioning as control systems, is investigated from positions of process of manufacture of educational services and result of their realization through release (preparation) of experts, competitive on a labor market; from positions of research and innovative activity, through working out of scientific ideas, scientific methods, software products, inventions, "the know-how", creating conditions for high-quality preparation of experts.

Specificity of activity of institute of higher education as manufacturer consists in manufacture of the special goods where its consumer consumes this kind of the goods as concrete live work (intellectual), activity. Hence, management of institute of higher education is the management directed on granting of qualitative educational services. Thus as commodity producers institutes of higher education it is the non-profitable, noncommercial organizations even if granting of educational services has market character.

So, Batalov J.V. (16) says “educational services is the specific kind of activity caused by necessity of satisfaction of spiritual needs of the person, not having material results, directed on maintenance of useful effect in the form of acquisition by the person of set of knowledge, abilities, skills and competence, necessary for their realization in sphere of intellectual work”.

Considering the given definition, it is possible to recognize that during this specific kind of activity between the manufacturer and the consumer of services there are certain economic relations at which they exchange among themselves «one vital means, another - work, service which wants to consume the first».

Such characteristics as intangibility, inseparability from the consumer, indissolubility in manufacture and consumption, impossibility of preservation of volume and quality, absence of the property differ from the material (substation) goods educational services. Specific features, consisting in rendering of a set of information services at which the volume of the saved up information, pass from quantity to quality to meet the desire of the consumer and form new knowledge and outlooks, in other perception of world around and development of possibilities for participation in system of its existence.

As the end result of activity of the institute of higher education creation of the goods possessing in special consumer cost as set of knowledge, abilities, skills and competences which former graduates - the experts acting on a labor market as the specific goods - hired highly skilled labor have already seized acts. These goods are characterized by consumer cost (value) which should satisfy requirements and expectations of consumers of these goods - the enterprises, the state, a society, and also own expectations of its carriers - experts as direct and primary consumers (and accomplices of manufacture) educational services of higher education (drawing 4).

Drawing 4 – Classification of the basic consumers of production of institutes of higher education

The stated allows recognition that as the commodity form of educational services educational process, organized by institute of higher education on preparation of competitive experts for innovative economy acts. The consumer purpose is the satisfaction of its requirement for higher education reception. The commodity producer overall objective is to satisfy requirements of consumers as much as possible. On the market, the institute of higher education delivers the original goods - experts with higher education as carriers of set of knowledge, abilities, skills and competences for use in certain area of professional work.

Thus, the control system of institutes of higher education is a set of the interconnected elements (the purposes, functions, management methods, the OSM etc.) and the subsystems of management co-operating among themselves for achievement of an overall objective of their activity.

The control system always exists and functions within the limits of the setting - environment. In a general view, the concept of "environment" includes factors, which influence the condition of concrete system and compel it to react, changing thus its internal environment. At that time, it is not in a condition to operate factors of environment and is capable to adapt to its requirements only: modern technologies, the advanced technics, profitableness, competitiveness, security resources, including information, flexibility etc. At the same time, the experts prepared by institutes of higher education (as the end result of activity of institutes of higher education) affect in the course of the labor activity and change its condition to environment.

In relation to the institutes of higher education conducting educational, scientific, and innovative activity, to environment as to their infrastructure from which they co-operate, it is possible to carry: all levels of legislative and executive power, regional controls formation, the branch ministries, departments and their regional structures; the enterprises-employers and business communities (legal bodies of all patterns of ownership); associations and associations (community), trade unions; scientific institutions, divisions of academies of Sciences, regional scientific communities; establishments of the social environment; establishments of formation of other levels; consumers of production of scientifically-innovative activity of university.

Management can be really successful in the event that it is in constant and continuous development if it is focused on the changes providing viability the organizations and accumulation by it of innovative potential. Realization of this position becomes possible under condition of detailed research of corresponding control systems and assumes the end result working out and the offer of the most effective variants of their construction.

Faultless optimum system management of institutes of higher education it is impossible to create, however, continuous process of its perfection with accent on ability of flexible reaction to environment changes – a necessary condition of management efficiency.

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Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №3 - 2011

  
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