Peculiarities in the research of the essence and structure of the term «University management system»
Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №3 - 2011
Denissova Oksana, East Kazakhstan State Technical University in honor of D. Serikbaev, Kazakhstan
Yussubalieva Madina, East Kazakhstan State Technical University in honor of D. Serikbaev, Kazakhstan
Management is an element and simultaneous function of the organized
systems of different natures (biological, social, technological) and it
conserves the structure, maintenance of activities, programs and goals of activities.
General patterns of management are identified by cybernetics - the
science which generalizes the pattern of any type of management that occurs in
nature in human society and also in mechanical systems. We study specific
aspects of management in technical systems that are relevant branches of
technical sciences, in biological systems - in branches of biology. Management
in the socio-economic systems is studied within the framework of the theory of
The ongoing process of division of labor has led to the isolation of
management in social and economic systems as an independent activity, the
allocation of managerial work as a specific field of employment. Management has
been transformed into the most important sphere of economy and social life.
The sphere of management, production and consumption are the main
socio-economic processes that form the backbone of modern economies. Production
creates the material and product materials, goods and services necessary to
maintain its self-reproduction and consumption through distribution and
In its turn the consumption (production, non-productive, social)
creates the preconditions of production and provides the labor resources.
Effective management ensures the processes of production,
distribution, exchange and consumption coordinates them as parts of a single
socio-economic system (1). The main task of management is to develop
In modern management, different socio-economic systems are
considered. They are sums of people and groups united to achieve a goal, solve
a problem based on the principles of division of labor and distribution
division of responsibilities. It could be private enterprises, organizations,
scientific and production associations or government agencies.
In the process of management an organization acts in the management
environment of its subject and object. Management forms and supports the
organization and it itself should be organized.
The definition of "management" in organizations is controversial
in science, because there are different definitions due to the different
paradigms and approaches to its understanding. Management is defined as
"the formation of goal-oriented behavior of the system through information
impacts produced by a person (a group of people) or device" (2).
The author (3) points out that management activity means the
management of groups of people who should be treated as social-controlled
According to one of the definitions (4), management is an ongoing
and purposeful process of working on controlled object to ensure its
functioning and efficient development. Management system is a mechanism that
enables this process.
Lebedev O.T. (5) in his work says that management is a focused
process of influencing the subject of management control to an object to
achieve a result.
In other different studies (6, 7) the term of management has no less
than thirteen definitions. Thus, Academician D.M. Gvishiani (8) believes that
the organization and management are not equivalent categories and should be
considered separately, and this opinion is shared by P. Drucker (9). Human
progress is not defined by natural resources and technologies but rather by
In our opinion, the most scientifically accurate and efficient in
practice is a paradigm which considers that the core of all processes is a
person with his interests, values and attitudes.
Therefore, it is a person who is the main control element in the
organization and who can act as a subject and an object of management. This
paradigm corresponds to the nature and essence of management.
Thanks to conscious management, individual appears as concerted collective
action. All human activities - permanent and seasonal, physically heavy and
light, smart, useful and useless, etc. are accompanied by management.
Any activity causes the need, possibility and necessity of
management, reflects the nature and essence of management as a specific type of
In general, using the cybernetic approach in any model of the
control events regardless of the nature can be represented as follows in
According to the general control scheme,
the object of control is a managed subsystem, and the subject of management -
managing subsystem. Between the latter and the object of control there is a
direct connection in the form of control actions to carry out any action and
feedback in the form of the results of these actions. Comparing the actual
results of actions of the object of management to target commands allows
considering about the effectiveness of management actions.
Drawing 1 – Cybernetic model of management
The subject of management is an individual or entity
person performing the power-effects on lower levels of management. The
director, department head as well as other individuals and groups engaged in
managerial impact on object control can serve as the subjects of management in
It is known that the object of control is exerted
influence by manager. Aspects of economic activity (product quality, interaction
with customers, marketing), types of resources (financial, labor, information),
characteristics of production (performance, attitude, employment), as well as
socio-economic system itself and its processes may be objects of management in
The external environment has a significant impact on
the object’s state and the entire management system. The degree of interaction
with the environment depends largely on their effectiveness.
Control actions are laws, decrees, regulations,
government programs, regulations, instructions, rules and regulations, orders,
instructions, and directions of economic managers of organizations.
Feedback is the result of direct observation and
control of the managed object by the subject and certain authorized persons,
papers, reports and other statistical reporting, outcomes analysis, material
control and accounting.
A lot of goals and challenges faced by organizations
of different classes and different industry sector lead to necessity to have
special knowledge, methods and techniques ensuring effective joint action of
every person in divisions.
The theory of university management, as well as any
scientific theory, historically developed as a process of knowledge
accumulation by successive reflection of practical experience, previous theoretical
developments, intuitive assumptions and hypotheses. Therefore, scientific
theory of university management can be presented structurally as a pyramid
whose base is the practical experience of management. It is at this level where
we formulate the axioms and inference, empirical rules and recommendations
which serve as the basis for developing the next logical forms of knowledge
with its laws, principles, methods and forms are developed.
The most important component of the logical forms of
scientific knowledge of the theory of university management is its conceptual
apparatus. Set of concepts with which there is the possibility to reflect and
express the phenomena inherent to management of higher education institutions,
as well as the relationships between them by fixing their essential properties
The relationship and consistency of scientific
concepts can be represented in a diagram (drawing 2), modifying the published
views on the theory of university management.
Drawing 2 – Connection of main concepts of university management
We briefly consider the relationship between basic
concepts of university management.
The laws of nature, society and thought are the highest
levels knowledge and have the form of universality, which is they express the
general attitude, communication, common to all phenomena of this kind or class.
Based on the laws of society certain control laws are
formed. They are acts adopted legislatively, the expression of objective
necessity in nature and society, which include (5): the law of the unity of the
integrity management system, the law providing the necessary degrees of freedom
control system, the law required variety of control systems; law correlation of
the management and control systems, the proportionality of production and management.
Control laws are universal in nature and should have a
universal character for all social formations, for all modes of production. On
the basis of common control laws formed the laws of educational administration,
higher education institutions.
Principles of management express the most important and
regularly repeating tendencies which in turn reflect rather steady
interrelations between management elements in institutes of higher education.
Principles already in space and time, than the law; it is the form of display
of the law in the concrete specific conditions limited in space and in time.
In institutes of higher education it is necessary to
carry to number of the major principles of management:
1. Development of the theory and practice of management
by institutes of higher education according to transformation of forms and
methods of the organization of economy.
2. External influence on a choice and formation of a control
system by institutes of higher education.
3. Correlation operating and operated subsystems (the
subject and object of management).
4. Optimization of levels of management in institutes of
5. Optimum use in managerial process in the functions of
control, the account and the analysis.
Under the influence of display of principles in the
organization the principles of management representing initial, fundamental,
base ideas of administrative activity (scientific character, systemizing,
integrated approach, efficiency etc.) are formed. Management principles, synthesizing
objective principles of management, define lines of real administrative
practice in institutes of higher education.
Management of institutes of higher education is based on
the certain basic principles which definition is the major problem because the
knowledge and their observance allow raising management efficiency. In modern
conditions, the management of institutes of higher education it is necessary to
adhere to following principles: respect and trust for the person; cooperation;
social justice; an individual approach; personal stimulation; collective
decision-making; constant updating etc.
Representing the general rules, principles form
requirements to a control system of institute of higher education - to
functions, methods and organizational structure managements (OSM).
The management purpose is the leading element in
activity of administrative-and-management personnel of institute of higher
education. Purposefulness assumes the realized movement to clear and a clear
aim, despite all obstacles and even contrary to them. Under the purpose in
public practice, including in management of institutes of higher education,
usually understand some ideal, in advance set result which should be reached to
the subject of management. To the most typical purposes of management of
institutes of higher education carry:
- Maintenance purposes (preservation, stability) the
reached condition arise when it is necessary to fix such condition because it
satisfies the subject and object of management, or is caused by danger of
deterioration of this condition which should be prevented;
- The purposes of an exit from an undesirable (crisis)
condition arise, when parameters, indicators of functioning of system
essentially below standard level, do not satisfy to inquiries of object of
management and purposes of the subject, is much worse than an indicator of conditions
of similar objects. They are directed on overcoming a recession, a non-admission
of decrease in indicators below maximum permissible level, and creation of
preconditions of lifting (stability, functioning);
- Development purposes consist in change of quantitative
parameters and qualities of functioning of system for its transfer in the
desirable condition characterized by the best values of target indicators. The
purposes of development of institute of higher education can consist in
achievement of the certain fixed degree of quality of educational services,
satisfactions of growing requirements etc.
The maintenance of management of institutes of higher
education is defined by functions, which express essence of administrative
relations. One of the first researchers of functions of management is A.Fajol.
He has allocated the following from them: a prediction (planning), the
organization, coordination, control. The subsequent generations of researchers
add the most various signs in the given classification: motivation, management,
communications, estimation, decision-making, personnel selection, negotiating
In our opinion, it is possible to agree with the point
of view of scientists as the management maintenance can be established only by
the practical analysis. Besides activity of the person is many-sided and
various and always includes subjective elements. Therefore, there are always
distinctive features and lines. However for effective, complete management of
institutes of higher education should make a uniform complex of functions of
the management, characterizing all completeness, all spectrum of interaction of
the subject and object managements. Modern control systems provide all without
an exception necessary functions of management in institutes of higher
education, such as:
- The integrated control systems of educational and
research business process, quality, the basic production assets, shots, the
finance, the accounting and administrative account;
- Strategic and operational planning of activity of the
institute of higher education, directed at working out of the purposes and the
problems defining reference points in development of institute of higher
- The management of supply allowing effectively using
material base of institute of higher education;
- Controlling provides execution of operations,
including processes of preparation and carrying out of studies. Besides,
controlling allows carrying out monitoring of all business processes of
institute of higher education;
- Uniform and accessible in real time university’s
- Opportunities of information technology for all
business processes of the institute of higher education, etc.
Management methods institutes of higher education are
ways of performance of the functions set forth above, representing ways of
influence of the subject on object of management for achievement of the certain
result. By means of them use of laws of social development is carried out. They
reflect, on the one hand, the maintenance of these laws, on the other hand, a
control system level of development. Management methods get out and used
depending on a combination (priorities) of functions of management and from a
combination (choice) of its means (tools) of management; are grouped in
character of influence on: administrative (organizational-administrative),
Among the major categories in management of institutes
of higher education, the concept the OSM which is formed on the basis of
certain functions of management. It is the category of management science
reflecting the organizational party of relations of management and making unity
of levels and links (divisions, bodies) managements in their interrelation and
co-subordination. Degree of conformity the OSM institutes of higher education
to management methods, character of problems of functioning and development of
institutes of higher education, rules of law, the internal logic of development
of management institutes of higher education, and also a number of private
characteristics and parameters - stability and flexibility of operating and
operated subsystems should be thus defined. The degree of their adequacy and
appropriateness to the current situation should be evaluated. For this purpose,
it is necessary to consider requirements of adequacy of organizational level to
elements of the material base providing various aspects of activity of management
by institutes of higher education. As a rule, in institutes of higher education
linearly-functional organizational structure of management.
It is known that historical successes of the nation are
defined not by natural resources, not economic basis or technologies, but
rather the talent of the people, and management efficiency, which is understood
as creation of favorable conditions for achievement by the organization of good
results in the caused terms with the least expenses. Hence, management
efficiency represents productivity of activity of a concrete operating
subsystem, which should be reflected in various indicators of a condition of a
subsystem and assumes a finding of the best organizational forms, methods,
technologies of management of institutes of higher education with a view of
achievement of certain social and economic results according to the planned
Efficiency is an indicator of aspiration to the result,
but not result, and a variant of correctness, accuracy of a direction to it.
Productivity as an indicator reflecting degree of
achievement of an object in view is obliged to have quantitative expression.
Hence, productivity – a certain indicator of process, an indicator of how the
received result to in advance planned corresponds.
To operate effectively means to initiate, deduce objects
of management on desirable lines of development.
In a modern science and practical "management"
more often is considered as system. Application of the system approach in
management research gives the chance all-rounded analysis of the given object.
The system is a set of the co-operating elements, which
are in relations and communications with each other, making the complete
formation which qualitatively distinct from elements is making it.
Various and diverse definitions of concept
"system" are in details analyzed in researches (10, 11, 12), system
definitions are stated and in classical works of such scientists, as a
background of Bertalanfi, A. Holla, R. Akkofa, K. Uotta, G. Sajmonova, etc.
In our opinion, it is expedient to join conclusions of
experts (10, 12) that numerous attempts to establish some standard definition
of concept "system" have not led to success and that, probably, such
problem is insoluble at strictly formal level owing to what more correctly to
speak about certain family of concepts "the system" concerning
various classes of system objects.
Also it is possible to divide the point of view of
experts that at carrying out of concrete research it is necessary to define
working concept of system which reflects the accepted concept of representation
of object and can change depending on a carried out stage, aspect, features of
In management science in the beginning of 90th there was
the certain conceptual device, allowing describing a control system of the
organization. Definitions of this concept can be treated according to work
(13), as structure and the nomenclature of administrative bodies and posts.
The majority of authors consider interrelations between
elements therefore the made definition is treated as follows:
- "the design" of organizational system
characterizing structure, interrelation of control links and execution (object
and the subject of management) (14);
- the organization subsystem which components are groups
of co-operating people: its functions consist of perception of certain problems
of the organization (inputs) and the subsequent performance of a set of actions
(processes) in which result the decisions (exits) increasing the income of
activity of all organization (satisfaction) or optimizing some function of all
inputs and exits of the organization (15) are developed.
Thus, the control system represents difficult object
that includes administrative sights, ideas, theories, social technologies,
organizational forms of expression, functioning and development of administrative relations - set of the
organizations, establishments of the given society, and also is characterized
such important by properties, as: uniqueness, low predictability,
purposefulness, ability to self-training and adaptation.
In the course of control system research it is necessary
to reveal, of what components, elements consists, as they co-operate with each
other and with an environment. Compatibility of elements is necessary for
system formation among themselves, establishment possibility between them of
The literature analysis on the given matter of the
research has shown that among the set of theoretical and empirical approaches
applied in modern system of the scientific knowledge, the most well-presented
with theoretical and experimental points of view, in our opinion, is the
structure of elements of the control system, presented on the drawing 3. It
allows analyzing from following parties: theories, process, structure and
technology of management.
It is necessary to consider that the theory and
managerial process characterize administrative activity as process, and
structure and technology of management - as the phenomenon (it in what affects,
finds out essence of process). All elements entering into system should be
professionally organized for effective work of the organization and are adapted
for changing environmental conditions.
The control system cannot be considered a separate
object from management. Therefore at research of a control system as object of
research, along with it, the operated social and economic system (in given
article - institute of higher education) acts.
According to researchers, the institute of higher education is a
versatile educational institution realizing educational programs of higher and
after university formation on a wide spectrum of specialties. It carries out
retraining and (or) improvement of professional skill of experts with higher
education and scientific and pedagogical workers; spending fundamental and
applied researches; being the scientific and methodical center in areas of the
3 – System of the management control
Constant search of ways of its perfection as process, as
way of achievement of the purposes and as adaptation tool to environment
becomes one of problems of construction of an effective control system of
institutes of higher education. In addition, necessity of performance of last
condition influences those decisions, which are accepted concerning the first
two. This is because the ways of construction of management as uniform, complex
and interconnected system is in direct communication with those goods which as
a result of management are realized in the market environment as possibility of
achievement of purposeful effect a great influence is rendered by consumer
characteristics of the made goods.
The institute of higher education is considered as the
subject of market economy acting in a role of the manufacturer of the special
goods - educational services and carrying out function of reproduction of
public intelligence through preparation and retraining of highly-skilled
personnel for formed innovative economy (16).
From positions of efficiency to performance of this role
the institute of higher education is represented and as a control system.
Institute of higher education, functioning as control systems, is investigated
from positions of process of manufacture of educational services and result of
their realization through release (preparation) of experts, competitive on a
labor market; from positions of research and innovative activity, through
working out of scientific ideas, scientific methods, software products,
inventions, "the know-how", creating conditions for high-quality
preparation of experts.
Specificity of activity of institute of higher education
as manufacturer consists in manufacture of the special goods where its consumer
consumes this kind of the goods as concrete live work (intellectual), activity.
Hence, management of institute of higher education is the management directed
on granting of qualitative educational services. Thus as commodity producers
institutes of higher education it is the non-profitable, noncommercial organizations
even if granting of educational services has market character.
So, Batalov J.V. (16) says “educational services is the
specific kind of activity caused by necessity of satisfaction of spiritual
needs of the person, not having material results, directed on maintenance of
useful effect in the form of acquisition by the person of set of knowledge,
abilities, skills and competence, necessary for their realization in sphere of
Considering the given definition, it is possible to
recognize that during this specific kind of activity between the manufacturer
and the consumer of services there are certain economic relations at which they
exchange among themselves «one vital means, another - work, service which wants
to consume the first».
Such characteristics as intangibility, inseparability
from the consumer, indissolubility in manufacture and consumption,
impossibility of preservation of volume and quality, absence of the property
differ from the material (substation) goods educational services. Specific
features, consisting in rendering of a set of information services at which the
volume of the saved up information, pass from quantity to quality to meet the
desire of the consumer and form new knowledge and outlooks, in other perception
of world around and development of possibilities for participation in system of
As the end result of activity of the institute of higher
education creation of the goods possessing in special consumer cost as set of
knowledge, abilities, skills and competences which former graduates - the
experts acting on a labor market as the specific goods - hired highly skilled
labor have already seized acts. These goods are characterized by consumer cost
(value) which should satisfy requirements and expectations of consumers of
these goods - the enterprises, the state, a society, and also own expectations
of its carriers - experts as direct and primary consumers (and accomplices of
manufacture) educational services of higher education (drawing 4).
Drawing 4 – Classification of the basic consumers of production of
institutes of higher education
The stated allows recognition that as the commodity form
of educational services educational process, organized by institute of higher
education on preparation of competitive experts for innovative economy acts.
The consumer purpose is the satisfaction of its requirement for higher
education reception. The commodity producer overall objective is to satisfy
requirements of consumers as much as possible. On the market, the institute of
higher education delivers the original goods - experts with higher education as
carriers of set of knowledge, abilities, skills and competences for use in
certain area of professional work.
Thus, the control system of institutes of higher
education is a set of the interconnected elements (the purposes, functions,
management methods, the OSM etc.) and the subsystems of management co-operating
among themselves for achievement of an overall objective of their activity.
The control system always exists and functions within
the limits of the setting - environment. In a general view, the concept of
"environment" includes factors, which influence the condition of
concrete system and compel it to react, changing thus its internal environment.
At that time, it is not in a condition to operate factors of environment and is
capable to adapt to its requirements only: modern technologies, the advanced
technics, profitableness, competitiveness, security resources, including
information, flexibility etc. At the same time, the experts prepared by institutes
of higher education (as the end result of activity of institutes of higher education)
affect in the course of the labor activity and change its condition to environment.
In relation to the institutes of higher education
conducting educational, scientific, and innovative activity, to environment as
to their infrastructure from which they co-operate, it is possible to carry:
all levels of legislative and executive power, regional controls formation, the
branch ministries, departments and their regional structures; the
enterprises-employers and business communities (legal bodies of all patterns of
ownership); associations and associations (community), trade unions; scientific
institutions, divisions of academies of Sciences, regional scientific
communities; establishments of the social environment; establishments of
formation of other levels; consumers of production of scientifically-innovative
activity of university.
Management can be really successful in the event that it
is in constant and continuous development if it is focused on the changes
providing viability the organizations and accumulation by it of innovative
potential. Realization of this position becomes possible under condition of detailed
research of corresponding control systems and assumes the end result working
out and the offer of the most effective variants of their construction.
Faultless optimum system management of institutes of
higher education it is impossible to create, however, continuous process of its
perfection with accent on ability of flexible reaction to environment changes –
a necessary condition of management efficiency.
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Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №3 - 2011