Psychological analysis of pedagogical communication of future teachers and psychologists

Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №3 - 2011

Author: Khassenov Sayakhat, East Kazakhstan State University in honor of S. Amanzholov, Kazakhstan

The questions of pedagogical communication organization, content and teacher training are revealed in the studies of O. Abdullina, N. Kuzmina, N. Kukharev, A. Mudrik, H. Liymetsa, D. Ruvinskiy, V. Slastenin, M. Subkhankulov, L. Kharaeva, Kh. Sheryazdanova, A. Yermentaeva, L. Shcherbakov, etc. The structure and the basis of teacher pedagogical communication are determined in their works.

Considering the basis of professional pedagogical communication of the future teachers and psychologists, we rely on a number of propositions developed in psychopedagogical science. The idea of professional pedagogical communication of the future teachers and psychologists is fundamental to our understanding as the complex formation, which has moral, educational, and psychological components at its basis. This logic of professional pedagogical communication discloses the matter of a teacher-students interaction, the content-transfer of human values by the teacher and the result, which should be achieved in the process of this interaction – establishing well-defined relationship between the teacher and students. Communication always has a personal nature, i.e. it acts as an individual form of social relations, their personal and psychological concretization. That is why the problem of identification of certain features of pedagogical communication of future teachers and psychologists, as well as the use of data obtained at its improvement process, expects the study of psychopedagogical literature on specific issues. Namely, what personality traits of the teacher are the most important in the process of pedagogical communication: what really represents the importance in the teacher for students with whom he interacts; how the socioethnic personality traits of the teacher are reflected in the communication process, and their relative independence and the dialectical connection in the communication of the future teachers and psychologists.

This formulation of the problem supposes an orientation to the knowledge, skills and personal qualities of the future teachers and psychologists, which are important in the communication, their development in the professional training system. At the same time the communication problems are not the abstract out of time and space teacher should consider, but of a person, who lives in a certain ethnic environment at a particular stage of development of society, as a bearer of certain ethnic properties.

The specific psychology characteristics of different nations are preserved. These characteristics include the following components: 1) national consciousness; 2) ethnocentrism; 3) national feelings, mood, temperament; 4) volitional elements of the nation; 5) national directions; 6) national character; 7) national taste; 8) national stereotypes, prejudices, biases; 9) psychological side of the national symbols of values. One should bear their relativeness in mind, because there is no nation which would have absolutely unique features. There can be different degrees of intensity, which appears in the practice of communion, filling it with specific content.

Both teaching and interpersonal relationships of the future teachers and psychologists are modeled and structured on the pattern of interpersonal relations specific to an ethnic group as well as a person at any social and professional role feels closeness to the customs, habits and traditions of the environment in which one grew up and was educated. The aim and the manner of use of acquired personalized meaning, norms and values can be most important in the teacher's professional communication as the orientation basis of the interaction. Normative-value system forms the social attitudes to quite definite normative communication. All of the above must be seriously comprehended, since taking into account ethnocultural variables allows completely new way to look at the traditional socio-psychological universals. On this basis, improving of the potential pedagogical communication will expand, identifying the communication peculiarities in different cultures and will favor the better problem solving of the individual’s behavior regulation.

The analysis of pedagogical and psychological studies of a number of scientists (N. Anikeeva, N. Berezovin, A. Bodalev, V. Grekhnev, A. Dobrovich, V. Kang Kalik, A. Kirichuk, Y. Kolominskiy, S. Kondratieva, A. Kurakin, A. Leontiev, M. Lisina, T. Malkovskaya, A. Mudrik, L. Novikova, L. Petrovskaya, L. Ruvinskiy, V. Slastenin, A. Tolstykh, Kh. Sheryazdanova, A. Yermentaeva, etc.) shows that the training of teachers to the pedagogical communication is a twofold process: on the one hand, it is the acquisition of some new knowledge, skills and experience, and on the other hand, it is the alteration, modification and development of already formed psychological properties of an individual. Both of the aspects should be viewed in the context of broad connections between the teacher and the reality because the personality of the future teachers and psychologists is an active subject of assimilation of systemic effects of organizational structure of continuing education as well as sociocultural, ethnic, culturological, traditional factors of social environment. It is in this “ensemble” of social relations in which professionally relevant knowledge, skills, personal qualities of future teachers and psychologists, are formed. These aspects define the professionalism, personality, and as a matter of course specific features of relationships with the students and other people around a teacher.

The relevance of this problem is further enhanced in the present period of revival and significant increase in the national self-consciousness. For example, in Kazakhstan today there is a growing tendency toward returning to national culture, rising of people’s interest in religion, increasing number of national Kazakh schools. Meanwhile, Kazakh schools mostly located in rural areas, where the elements of business and interpersonal communication of the future teachers and psychologists are interwoven in a complex manner. This raises new content in pedagogical communication of the future teachers and psychologists, because school starts to some extent serve as the family, teachers – as the parents. In Kazakh schools, as elsewhere, most of the employees are women, who tend to be more ethnocentric. They are the main carriers of the nation’s traditions and customs as they maintain and pass them on from generation to generation. The custom of “honoring the elders” in accordance with age, sex, social rank is essential not only at home but also in the process of education. Kazakh schools are characterized as having “akin relationships” inside of them between the teacher and students, colleagues, administration. This feature makes the content of pedagogical communication specific.

We fully agree with the opinion of many national pedagogy scholars that unique methods and forms of national education based on the progressive customs and traditions provide tremendous potential for development of the individual and their moral qualities. The works of Sh. Zhalgassova, S. Zhamansarieva, A. Mukhambayeva, etc., consider various manifestations of national identity in the content of education and in Kazakh schools, open the possibility of using traditional means of teaching in the educational process. But yet not enough study were obtained about such urgent issues as: the impact of national traditions and national psychology on work and personality of the teacher; teacher’s understanding and application of the values of national communication; the specific features of the professional training of future teachers and psychologists to work in the national Kazakh school.

The logic of these issues research involves determination of common, particular and individual in the pedagogical communication content of the future teachers and psychologists. It requires a number of observations. First, as we study the problem of formation and development of knowledge, skills and personality characteristics of teachers and psychologists as a condition for improving the pedagogical communication it is necessary to reveal the external factors which not only promote, but also prevent it. Secondly, considering the reasons of the difficulty of pedagogical communication of the future teachers and psychologists, we partly examine them beyond the personality of the teacher and the psychologist trying to understand not only subjective, but also objective reasons for their difficulties in communicating with students and others. The effectiveness of educational activities depends to a large extent on how the forms of their organization and the content itself suppose communication, where its natural forms turn into professional and functional and serve as an instrument of influence. At the same time competence in the communication is required from the teachers and psychologists. Here the competence in the communication means the ability to establish appropriate contact with students; knowledge and skills to ensure effective process of pedagogical communication. The question of competence in communication of the future teachers and psychologists has its own peculiarities, as there is a certain stereotype of the teacher and psychologist the minds of students in Kazakh schools. Under the preserved high social status each teacher of Kazakh schools priori considered as a specialist with a high culture of communication in the framework of ethnic etiquette. His communication with students, parents, colleagues and other people must conform to a well-defined standard of the nation and it must be clearly differentiated in accordance with age, sex, individual psychological, social and features. Thus, future teachers and psychologists have to be the reference person not only in educational activities, but also in everyday communication situations, this is how the system of definite expectations works.

Such understanding of communication competence of future teachers and psychologists in a specific environment requires an analysis of its communication core. A. Bodalev [1] includes the content of concept communicative core “all the psychological characteristics that managed to develop in a given individual, and which appear while that individual communicates. More or less integrated experience with different categories of people reflects in all this set of properties”.

Hence, the communicative core of a person is a harmonious unity of knowledge, skills and personal qualities of the future teachers and psychologists, which are significant in pedagogical communication. The personality of the teacher and his communicative orientation, attitudes, motivations, capabilities and commitment to pedagogically expedient ways of communication with students are studied in the works O. Abdullina, I. Bagaeva, S. Batrakov, A. Bodalev, V. Grekhnev, S. Yelkanov, I. Zyazyun, A. Zhuravlev, I. Kuzmina, A. Mudrik, Y. Shaposhnikova, Kh. Sheryazdanova, A. Yermentaeva, etc. Depending on the theoretical position of researchers various components of the communicative core content of the future teachers and psychologists were determined, as well as the level of its establishment, role and place of different subjective qualities of pedagogical communication and the degree of their infuence on the nature of the interaction. However, in modern pedagogy and psychology there is no integrated system of components of teacher’s communication competence, where the ratio of the properties, the level of expression of individual properties, the nature of the relationships between them would be taken into account. There are several models of formed communicative core of the teacher. Some of the variants are considered further below.

L. Mnatsakanyan and K. Levitan [2] state that communication in the teaching activities to the maximum extent includes professional and personal qualities. The authors have compiled an extensive list of main skills and personality traits of the teacher. In their view, high level of knowledge of the taught subject, ability to convey knowledge and skills to the students, exactingness, general erudition, and kindness are necessary in the process of interaction with the students.

Thus, problems in relationships lead to loosing of the student’s communication skills, limit the possibility of communication experience, block the development of necessary personal qualities and determine the maladaptive behavior.

Personality traits of the teacher, which affect the professional pedagogical communication in a negative way, represent the second group difficulty reasons.

Thus, T. Polyakova [3] suggests that the lack of teachers’ special communicative skills, lack of commitment to their development, instability of temper can lead to serious difficulties in the relationship of the teacher with the students.

Y. Kolominsky [4] identifies the following list of teacher’s traits that prevent normal communication with the students: lack of understanding of students, injustice, anger, low or excessive exactingness, pedantry, imposition of own views tactlessness, the contradiction between words and deeds, dishonesty, shortcomings in teaching. The dominance of at least one of these character traits in the "ensemble of mental properties" can have dangerous consequences for the moral state of a student. For example, the O. Bondarenko in her study determined that 50% of students feel increased anxiety in the process of communication with the teacher. Socio-pedagogical analysis of E. Panova, L. Rybako, Y. Moroz reveals the following: 22% of teenagers reported to the teacher’s rudeness, insults, humiliation, yelling, total indifference (“do not see me as a person”), 16% say that they were physically assaulted by the teacher. Hence children account the teacher’s aggressive behavior for negative personal qualities of teachers.

T. Malkovskaya believes that qualities such as temper, straightness, hastiness, harshness, heightened self-esteem, self-confidence, stubbornness, lack of sense of humor, excessive softness, simple-mindedness, sensibility, sluggishness, excessive restraint, disorganization also have negative influence on teacher’s professional and pedagogical communication.

In the study of T. Yatsenko [5] two types of teacher and student’s relationship are distinguished – friendly and hostile. These types depend on the interpersonal orientation of the teacher. It is established that the hostile attitude of the teacher varies to a large extent in relation to different students. Most often negative emotions appear toward weak, unattractive, melancholic and phlegmatic children.

Teacher communication experience with different categories of people, his age characteristics, sex, unique understanding of cultural values of communication and other factors reflects in the personal qualities, which degrade pedagogical communication is reflected . For example, S. Kondratyeva in her experimental studies [6] found out that male teachers have more difficulties in understanding students in the communication process then female teachers have. The data obtained suggest that teachers of natural disciplines are less competent in understanding the state of the student and one and a half times higher rate their ability to establish contacts than teachers of humanities. It is known that inadequate self-esteem determine the inner position of those who rely only on force, orders, power, who does not tolerate opposition, remarks in his address, who does not recognize the right of students to have their own opinion.

Thus, inadequate self-esteem of the future teachers and psychologists leads them to the wrong comprehension of the degree of their proximity to the students and measures of influence on them. In this case the syndrome of exaggerated self-esteem comes to the existence, promoting self-satisfaction of the future teachers and psychologists.

REFERENCES

1. Bodalev A. Communication and development of the psyche. M., 1986.

2. Mnatsakanyan L., Levitan K. The culture of communication. – Yerevan, 1987. – p. 87

3. Polyakova T. The analysis of the difficulties in teaching activities of the entry-level teachers. – M.: Pedagogy, 1983. – p. 129

4. Kolominsky Y. The human: The Psychology. – M.: Education, 1986. – p. 218

5. Yatsenko T. Soci-psychological education in the training of the future teachers. Kiev, 1987.

6. Kondratiev S. The teacher – The student. – M.: Pedagogy, 1984. – p. 80



Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №3 - 2011

  
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