Effective model of sports management in Kazakhstan: foreign experience

Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №11 - 2019

Authors:
Alshimbayev Ruslan, Kazakh-American Free University, Kazakhstan
Iskenderova Fatima, Kazakh-American Free University, Kazakhstan

The development of the national sphere of sport should correspond to modern integration and globalization processes, the requirements of the transition to post-industrial civilization which will ensure further integration into the global sports space. The development of sports characterizes the level and quality of life of the country's population, the formation of sustainable traditions of a healthy lifestyle in everyday life of citizens, the development of spiritual and intellectual culture. It also determines the country's place in the world sports industry. It is scientifically proven and justified is the fact of the leading role of the sports sector in the education and upbringing of the younger generation, recovering of efficiency and maintaining healthy longevity of citizens, preparing young people for professional activities, organizing healthy leisure activities, prevention of delinquency and deviant behavior of citizens. One of the priority areas for the development of the national sports sector will be to improve the institutional mechanisms of public administration in the field of physical education and sports based on the introduction of progressive foreign experience which led to the choice of the theme for this publication.

Modern sport is diverse. Picture 1 illustrates a complex model for developing sports that include physiotherapy, mass, junior, school, student and professional sports solving the problems of treatment and forming sports culture among the younger generation.' Elite sports/the sport of records (Olympic and professional) are aimed at achieving high sports results and victories. These varieties share common functions: spectacular, political and economic (Illustration 1).

Illustration 1. Complex model of sports development (drawn by the author)

Traditionally, the majority of specialists in the sports consider the degree of state participation in the management and financing of the industry as the main criterion for identifying a particular model. In accordance with this, three main management models are distinguished: American, European and post-Soviet (totalitarian). The American model is characterized by a high insignificant degree of decentralization and state participation in the organization of physical culture and sports. The European model is characterized by a large degree of state involvement. In almost all European countries, the state intervenes in one way or another in the development of mass sports, the sports of records and sometimes even professional sports. The post-Soviet model is characterized by full centralized state administration in the field of physical education and sports. Such a model was in the USSR including Kazakhstan.

The Soviet sports management system was as a good basis for the Kazakhstan model development of sports management. Currently, the sports management system of Kazakhstan has the necessary legislative framework. The regulatory aspects are reflected in the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan, No. 228-V 'On Physical Culture and Sport' Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan dated July 3, 2014 [1]. Based on this law, a sports management system has been developed presented by the state governing bodies (Ministry, administrations, departments, committees, departments, etc.) and public governing bodies (sports federations/associations, physical education and sports clubs; National Olympic Committee of Kazakhstan).

There is a network of institutions of additional education in the field of physical education and sports. State bodies and accredited federations regularly promote a healthy lifestyle through the media, East Kazakhstan promotes sports via print media, such as weekly newspapers Contact Sports and Ustinka Plus; besides the newspapers the region cooperates with the Internet media VKsport.kz, www.sportvko.gov.kz where it promotes healthy lifestyle; to add there is national broadcaster Kazsport devoted to promoting sports.

The Government of Kazakhstan has developed state programs for the development and support of physical education and sports in Kazakhstan.' The programs facilitated an increased interest in sports among population, including people with special needs.' According to the statistics from the SD Physical Culture and Sports Department in EKR from 2017 to 2019, Picture 2, Kazakhstani citizens' interest in doing sports has been growing.

Picture 2. Share of population doing sports (by the author based on statistics provided by the Sports Department)

Holding major sports competitions in the country, both Olympic and non-Olympic, such as Judo Championship, Freestyle Wrestling Championship, Winter Universiade, Kyokushinkaikan Karate Championship contribute a lot to the aforementioned fact. Kazakhstan holds regular Republican tournaments playing traditional sports, Kazakh wrestling Kazakh Kuresi. Athletic performance of Kazakhstani athletes at the Asian, European and World Championships as well as the victory of the National Team of the Republic of Kazakhstan at the Olympic Games serve to promote sports in our state as well.

At the same time, the modern system of sports management in Kazakhstan has certain disadvantages, in particular:

- Insufficient level of financial and technical base development of sports in Kazakhstan nation-wide. Picture 3 illustrates that the share of sports facilities has been growing year to year, yet there is still a shortage of the sports facilities;

- Funding problems among sports federations to ensure development of sports and proper preparation of athletes to compete successfully at various levels in order to be included in the national sports team;

- Inefficient theoretical development the sphere of physical culture and sports;

- Lack of decent attention on behalf of schools, which deteriorates the overall sports life in the state;

- Lack of professional personnel in the field of training sports experts, despite Kazakhstan having sports colleges and higher schools.

Picture 3. Growth of sports physical infrastructure in EKR (by the author based on statistics provided by the Sports Department)

In this regard, there is a need to study the foreign experience in terms of creating an effective model of sports management. Consider the model of sports management using the example of the United States. The traditional principle of the American model of sports management is an insignificant degree of state intervention and decentralization of managerial functions in relation to various areas of physical education and sports ("sports for all", "the elite sports" and "professional sports"), and within each of the areas, such freedom of action generates positive effect, because sport clubs do compete with one another during meets and tournaments, thus presenting and promoting themselves. In the United States the responsibility for supporting of 'sports for all' area have 'sports councils' (commissions) which act as private (non-governmental), non-profit organizations and support mass sports in various forms. Usually they are advisory bodies of the municipal government. The main task of these councils is to support the functioning of all existing sports organizations, clubs, teams, as well as the holding of sports competitions. 'Sports councils' carry out all their activities on the basis of agreements, including with city authorities [2].

The main functions of the management of amateur sports of "highest achievements" are performed by various public organizations independent from each other. The most important role in this system is played by the US Olympic Committee (USOC), the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), and the Amateur Athletes Union (AAU). The US Olympic Committee is the most influential organization that coordinates financial and organizational amateur sports in the United States. Its structure includes representatives of all state Olympic committees, national sports federations (over 40), as well as national sports organizations. USOC activities are highly transparent. This is expressed in the publication of annual reports containing information on both organizational measures taken and new results of work and on the means to achieve in such a way (including financial and legal). Each annual report contains an independent audit report consisting of consolidated financial statements for all USOC activities, profit and loss statements.

An equally significant organization in the United States amateur sports system is the National Association of University Sports, the importance of which is due to the fact that student athletes are the dominant group in the total number of participants in sports of the highest achievements of the United States. According to recent reports, the number in the total share is more than 70%.

Traditionally, professional sports play an important role in the American sports movement, which is being developed by professional sports leagues, associations, unions, as well as clubs. The most famous of them are: National Basketball League, National Hockey League, National Baseball League, National Football League, etc.

In the United States professional sports has a pronounced specificity. Professional sports position is steadily based on the high demand for his product ' an entertainment. If a sport becomes unprofitable, then it ceases to exist as a professional. The entertainment is a product of the activity of all league teams. Therefore, waging a tough fight on the site, the clubs are partners in the sports business. One of the main goals of the league is to balance the strength of rivals, since the appearance of a super club can lead to a decrease in the attendance of matches. There are cases when the league owners took drastic measures, up to the dissolution of the strongest team, if it began to win with an advantage. The task of constantly balancing the sports forces and financial opportunities of clubs is decided by the draft system, the essence of which is that the representatives of the teams select the right players according to a certain system, while the team that takes the last place in the championship gets the right to make a choice first.

In the United States with regard to state regulation of physical education and sports it is mainly limited to lawmaking. Some publications on issues of sports management state that in the US sports is not a mere game, it is a show generating immense profits for sports associations and clubs respectively, Table 1.

American sports is well-developed, it is a common fact. The US Governments implements a policy of some indirect regulation of sports and attempts to not interfere with it. Professional sports are commercialized. American Government also encourages private companies to get involved in the sports life in their states and the country overall by creating tax privileges.

Thus, watching the existing sports leagues in the USA (NHL, NFL and NBA) we can see how much money they make.

So, without taking part in the management of physical culture and sports activities directly, the American government, represented by government bodies at the state and municipal levels, should pursue a policy of indirect regulation and stimulation of the development of sports in the country through the adoption of separate legislative acts (contributing to the development of sponsorship and socially responsible business, sports television and radio broadcasts, the provision of state sports infrastructure for renting to profession clubs). In addition, in some cases, the US government provides direct financial support to the national Olympic team. It should be noted that in recent years, the state's indirect regulation of economic processes (including in the field of sports) has become increasingly widespread in the United States. Moreover, now it is already possible to speak of this phenomenon as a steady tendency, as a result of which in the US sports sector there is a clear shift of management principles towards the European model [2].

An important place in the development of sports is propaganda and self-education; publication of sports magazines (about 300), broadcasts of sports channels; education in children and junior private clubs. So, since 1986, in addition to physical education lessons, the President's Challenge program has been in place, including 5 exercises: mile running, shuttle running, pulling up, bending the body, and leaning forward. In 27 sports a system of interscholastic competitions has been developed, in which about 20 thousand schools are involved. Professional sports are also developed and uniting people of all ages and represented by 177 clubs in various sports. Universities of the country graduate physical education teachers but everyone can become a coach, no license is required.

Up to 15 thousand sports and health centers operate in the USA and 80% of the populations engage in various types of physical exercises, which is a pretty good indicator [3].

The study of foreign experience in the legal regulation of physical culture and sports allows us to distinguish two classic models of sports legislation: 'interventionist' and 'non-intervention'. The model of the legislation of the interventionist is defined as 'one that contains certain legislation of state control in relation to the structure and mandate of the sports movement substantial part'. All other models of sports legislation are defined as non-interventive. A similar approach can be used as a theoretical basis in the study of legal regulation; however, one should take into account the previously noted tendency to strengthen the degree of state regulation of the processes of socially significant physical culture and sports activities (convergence of European and American models). Analyzing the fundamentals of legal regulation of physical culture and sports, it is interesting to give an analysis of some general provisions of the legislation on sports in developed countries of the world, carried out by P. A. Rozhkov. First of all, the scientist distinguishes:

- State responsibility for the development of physical education and sports;

- Separation of powers between state bodies and public sports organizations;

- The role of local authorities in the field of sports;

- Goals and objectives of physical education and sports;

- The organizational structure of the sports movement in the country;

- Sports financing;

- Physical education and sport among various groups of the population, and, first of all, in schools and other educational institutions;

- Training of sports personnel;

- Construction of sports facilities;

- Conducting research and information activities [4].

At the same time, analyzing the general provisions of the sports legislation, P.A. Rozhkov notes various approaches and mechanisms for their implementation in different countries, in particular, in the United States, the state traditionally implements indirect legal regulation, which consists of the adoption of certain laws and contributes to the development of the social sphere of physical education and sports (for example, the 'Law on the broadcasting of sports competition by national television companies '(1961, 1972, 1984, 1993), as well as in the use of tax policy mechanisms - partial weakening of tax regimes. An example of this the United States Olympic Committee was exempted from taxation for the first time in 1933, when the US Congress exempted the profits from the Olympics (Los Angeles 1932) from taxation. [4] Subsequently, starting in 1950, USOS was completely exempted from the need to pay taxes. An important element of American law is the regulation of labor and economic relations in professional sports.

Conclusion

As a result of a study of the foreign experience of state regulation of physical education and sports, we can draw several general conclusions, which later will make it possible to apply in the practical sphere of management in Kazakhstan.

On the one hand, sports authorities attempt to improve the state of sports in the country, and on the other you can tell a mile off that Kazakhstan lacks expertise in managing sports, since many skilled and in-demand sport managers fled the country seeking a better life in early 90ies.

Unfortunately, this is only a smaller part of the information about the American model for managing sports that we would like to tell about, yet we are strongly convinced their experience will serve as an example for our country, an example that Kazakhstani sports need nowadays.

'Sports is turning into the favorite subject for thinking and soon will become the only way of thinking', Vassily Klyuchevsky.

REFERENCES

1. No. 228-V 'On Physical Culture and Sport' the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan dated July 3, 2014 (as amended as of April 1, 2019) [Electronic resource]. - Access mode: https: // online.zakon.kz/ Document/?doc_id=31576150

2. Kondrashov D.D. Development of a physical culture and sports management system in a socially oriented market economy of Russia: Dissertation... Ph.D. - St. Petersburg, 2006.

3. Karamzina D.E. A comparative analysis of physical education and sports organizations in Russia, Germany and the USA // IV Interuniversity Scientific and Practical Conference of young scientists, graduate students, undergraduates and students 'Actual problems of the theory and practice of physical education, sports and tourism' (April 19, 2016). - Kazan: Volga GAFKSiT, 2016.

4. Rozhkov P.A. The development of physical culture and sports in the modern world: organizational, managerial, financial and regulatory problems. - M.: Soviet Sports, 2012.



Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №11 - 2019

  
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