Leadership in the developing of the educational system of Kazakhstan

Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №11 - 2019

Author: Uzakbaeva Zhadira, Kazakh-American Free University, Kazakhstan

The economic and social changes happening in the Kazakhstan society, formation of innovative orientation of economy integration into world economic space put new priorities and tasks among which the most relevant is quality of training of experts before the higher education system of the state.

The invariance of interpretation of the concept "quality" in many respects is explained by a variety of the objects having quality, complexity and feature of the nature of quality of objects of a material world, a context of problems of its research, degree of coverage of difficult interrelation and relationship of this category with other categories (economic, sociological, etc.). It caused existence of a large number of determinations of content of quality from positions of such aspects as economic, administrative, social, organizational and technical and technological, psychological, legal, ecological, personal, cost, system, etc. [1, p. 17-23.].

The Bologna declaration and the Prague communique mark out three major results defining quality of the training program (service in the educational program) [2]:

- the academic quality which is understood as skill in the sphere of researches, teaching and dissemination of knowledge and a contribution to personal development;

- ability of university graduates to find work in the international labor market during all life;

- mobility in every sense: spatial, temporary, program (affecting such aspects as recognition of unacademic education and granting opportunities of repeated access to education) and personal flexibility.

Development of higher education in the republic is closely connected with problems and social and economic regularities of development of society and, first of all, transition of economy of the state to the system of the market relations owing to what there is a need for experts of market orientation, requirements to the content of their preparation change.

In the Republic of Kazakhstan since 2004 in the state RK educational standards the model of training of specialists has personally focused character. The quality of result of training in programs of preparation is defined by two blocks of the parameters characterizing knowledge accumulated in a certain academic area, and the acquired competences (possession of methodology and terminology in a certain field of knowledge, understanding of the system interrelations operating in it, skills of social interaction, etc.), including personal development of students (an outlook, thinking, the general development) [3]. Thus, knowledge and abilities are considered as one of quality assessment parameters, but not as the only and major purpose of training that is now a subject of discussions in discussion of separate sides of the concept "result of training" and assessment of its quality.

The higher education of the 21st century differs in a number of features and demands certain changes of contents and the organization of training. One of objectively existing factors stimulating changes in the system of high school education is promptly increasing flow of information. This growth happens such rates that former methods of communications and an education system cannot cope with it any more. Changes which at the same time are observed in high school activity can carry multidimensional manifestation, including new technologies of training, a technique of teaching, means of technical support of the organization, management and service of educational process etc. that demands from a control system of higher education institution of high flexibility and mobility.

One more important factor influencing today acceptance by higher education institutions of the decisions connected with determination of structure and the maintenance of a control system of quality and its providing is the global nature of this problem and universal trends in approaches to its decision. At the same time it is important to note that the system of quality assurance has broader interpretation, than a control system of quality [2].

The interrelation and inclusiveness of these concepts schematically looks as follows: quality assessment ' quality management ' quality assurance.

As models of management were widely adopted a quality management system. In the world there are 10 most widespread models of systems of quality management in higher education institutions among which: models of national and regional awards on quality, for example, model of a national American award on quality of "Baldrige National Quality Award" in the field of education [4] or the model of the European fund for quality management (EFQM) used at award of the European award on quality "Perfection in business "(EQA) [5]; the model constructed according to the principles of General quality management (TQM), requirements and the recommendations of the international standards of the ISO 9000:2000 [6] series and some other.

Now in higher education institutions of Kazakhstan and Russia when developing model of quality management of training of specialists, the following methods and approaches are used:

- estimated method of management of quality of activity of higher education institution;

- the concept based on the principles of General quality management, TQM;

- the approach based on requirements of the international quality standards of ISO 9000:2000.

The estimated method is based on comprehensive inspection of functional zones of higher education institution, a self-assessment of activity and acceptance by their results of certain measures.

Today the level and quality of education make direct impact on economic development of any country. Modern production imposes the increasing requirements not only to hardware, but also to "arms" of workers' necessary knowledge on both their systematic expansion, and updating.

Management evolution, development of school of the human relations, production consideration as ' system, approach to management on the basis of quality management caused formation of the new administrative paradigm based on understanding of the predominating role in production of a human factor.

The majority of researches on studying of the relations between education and macroeconomic growth is conducted within the neoclassical theory. In these researches it is often claimed that productivity of economy depends on the invested capital and the number of busy workers and also on inflow of new technologies. Usually education directly does not join in schemes, but it is supposed that it affects both quality of work, and on engineering procedures [7].

In the conditions of the market ensuring sufficient investment into education is considered one of the most important problems of policy of support of educational capacity of the country. Through the higher education system and its quality, the vital objectives of the individual, the economic interests of employers and the purposes of the state and society connected with development of human resources are achieved [8].

In the context of global trends in ensuring competitiveness of national economy in the Republic of Kazakhstan qualitatively new reconsideration of a role of the higher education in social and economic development of the state is observed. "The concept "education" is transformed and extends". "There is a transition from the concept of functional preparation for the concept of personal development". "The increasing value gets continuous education and education of adults". The listed trends define the main directions of the present stage in development of science and an education system of Kazakhstan [9, p. 2].

Education in the countries with the developed market economy is one of the most highly profitable directions of investment of means. Besides the educational sphere has rather low degree of risk of losses of investments and income on them. By estimates of the American economists, one dollar invested in educational development makes from three to six dollars for profit.

Education as the social phenomenon as social process and, at last, as the social institute, being an element of society, is influenced practically by all changes happening in it. It is twice fair in relation to education in the society enduring deep, high-quality transformations. It also is the Kazakhstan society today.

As positive process should consider granting in the Republic of Kazakhstan higher education institutions of all forms of ownership of the equal rights for conducting educational activity and creation of conditions of development of competitive education market.

Statistics shows that in Kazakhstan, as well as in many other countries, there is a glut of labor market experts to the higher education at a shortcoming of experts with secondary vocational education and the existing need for working professions.

Providing the branches of economy with qualified personnel is one of the main objectives of institutions of education. For this purpose, in the Republic of Kazakhstan the State educational order on formation of the student's contingent in a section of specialties is annually specified. Up to 2010/2015 academic years the state order was formed through providing the state educational grants and the state educational credits and from 2015/2016 academic years - only according to state grants.

The analysis of processes of reforming of an education system of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the changes happening in it shows that the main positive acquisition of sovereign Kazakhstan is the realized policy of "human development" and maintaining social unity of the Kazakhstan society.

Among the top positive trends of development of a system of the higher school of Kazakhstan at the present stage of its reforming:

- modernization of a national education system on the basis of harmonization of national traditions and global trends in the field of education;

- transition from the "education for the rest of life" model to "education throughout all life" model [10]. Content of higher education of RK is characterized by unity of its elements and requirements, continuous structure of education with continuity of all steps of training and equality of access to them that creates conditions to a possibility of training during all life;

- in an education system of the Republic of Kazakhstan, on equal terms, the non-state sector of educational services gained development;

- training financing sources are diversified. Access for citizens of RK to the higher education, is generally carried out through the system of paid education which on a parity basis is implemented by higher education institutions of all forms of ownership and is focused on a requirements satisfaction and social needs of the personality [11];

- the state order for preparation is the main instrument of regulation of compliance of the offer of educational services to demand for experts existing in branches of economy of the republic and the mechanism of realization of the principle of free education for socially unprotected segments of the population and the population with the low level of income. Through the state order selection of the most gifted youth is provided, conditions for increase in access to education for graduates of rural schools are created;

- significantly the independence of educational institutions extends [12].

At the same time, reforming of higher education brought a number of problems which did not lose the relevance and now to life. The most significant of them are: imperfection of a regulatory framework of regulation of dynamic transformations in the system of the higher school of RK, an imbalance of specific, industry and territorial structure of supply and demand of shots with the higher education and decrease, in general on the republic, level of quality of training of the top skills [6].

Educational development in the republic is closely connected with problems and social and economic regularities of development of society. The main concept of development of the higher education of RK is the refusal of the state monopoly for education therefore in the republic competitive education market where on equal terms with state non-state higher educational institutions which specific weight in the total number of higher education institutions of RK is about 72% function was created. Availability of the higher education to the population of the republic is implemented generally at the expense of a paid form to which share over 86% of the cumulative contingent of students of higher education institutions of Kazakhstan fall. The state order for preparation is the main instrument of regulation of compliance of the offer of educational services to demand for experts existing in branches of economy of the republic. Its share in the total number of the contingent does not exceed 20%. As a result, demand for educational services (specialties) is formed spontaneously, causing disproportions in labor markets.

Integration of higher education institutions of RK into world educational space, inclusiveness of a national education system into Bologna Process, the entry of Kazakhstan into the World Trade Organization (WTO), objectively dictates need of introduction of practice of accreditation of domestic higher education institutions and adaptation of the national system of ensuring quality of education (NSEQE) to the standard procedures of external control and assessment in world practice.

In the context of this problem in a research the model of restructuring of a system of external assessment of high school activity which purpose to provide competitiveness and adequacy of its mechanisms and procedures to the similar experience standard in world educational space is offered.

The basic principles of restructuring of the existing system of external assessment of quality of high school activity is the principle of continuity of its components based on accounting of their role and the importance as a part of the projected system; adaptation and transformation of maintenance of components of the existing system to contents of foreign procedures analogs; inclusiveness in the system of external control and assessment of procedures, nonconventional for national educational space, which need is dictated by trends of development of the Republic of Kazakhstan and its educational system.

The model of process of restructuring offered in a research includes two stages of consecutive transformation of the existing system of external control and assessment of quality of high school activity in the projected system through its intermediate, transitional model.

Are determined by the main components of the re-structured system of external assessment of higher education institutions of RK in a research: licensing; accreditation on the basis of the national quality standards adapted to the international standards; international accreditation; public rating of higher education institutions and qualification control of knowledge of graduates by the professional agencies.


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Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №11 - 2019

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