The role of management and leadership in the developing of the educational system of Kazakhstan

Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №11 - 2019

Author: Uzakbaeva Zhadira, Kazakh-American Free University, Kazakhstan

As we look ahead into the next century,

Leaders will be those who empower others.

Bill Gates

We are currently documenting everything we know and have learned. These lists include useful summaries of the knowledge we h've gathered, even though they all do not provide the inspiration we want. Furthermore, there are limitless lists of education and leadership, and the main thing for us is to find the one that we really need. We have to ask ourselves what is important for development and be more creative? In matters of improving the training of managers in education plays an enormous role personality focused on intellectual self-development and has a high level of management culture. This is due to the modern requirements for the degree of professionalism of the manager in education.

In the context of globalization, the education system in most countries is in a state of constant modernization and reform. Currently, management and leadership have become a relatively recent area of research among scientists, researchers. It should not be forgotten that management and leadership have traditionally been in business, trade, politics and economics. Today we can see them in any field of study. It is well known that management and leadership have just studied in Kazakhstan's education system. New trends in the economy, politics, social sphere of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the main vectors of state policy in the field of education, innovation in modern society have identified the need for highly qualified managers of the education system and the increasing role of their managerial competencies.

At present in pedagogical science, the first thing to note is that the path of development of education begins with the education of students from the position of the science of management. According to many experts, management is necessary not only in the economic or industrial sphere, but also in the field of complex social phenomena, which are pedagogical management, since the emergence of new specialists and professionals depends on the management of educational activities, as well as the formation of the human person, one or another of its qualities.

The role of management and leadership in the development of the educational system of Kazakhstan. First of all, let's clarify the differences between management and leadership in the education system.

Educational management

"Education management is the theory and practice of organizing and managing existing educational institutions and systems" [1].

Management implies an ordered way of thinking. It describes in operator terms what should be done, how it should be done and how we know when it is done. Management is not a mystery. This method work lead to the orderly integration of education and society. For example, "school management, as a set of educational doctrines, includes a number of principles and commandments related primarily to the technique of school, and are largely based on the practice of successful teachers. The authors in this area have interpreted these principles and commandments in different ways, usually with reference to longer and more fundamental principles of psychology, sociology, and ethics. [2].

Leadership in education

The definition of "Leadership" is mainly related to the army, as well as to the economy and politics. Most of us hear the concepts of military leadership, economic leadership, national leadership, or political leadership. Kissinger, one of the greatest American statesmen, said the leader's mission is to bring his people from where they are to a place that has never been. So let's take a closer look at each of these processes and try to give a scientific assessment in the development of education of the Republic of Kazakhstan [3].

The essence of management activities in the education system

One of the goals of the State program of education development of the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2011-2020 is the formation of the state - public system of education management. This program solves such problems as improving the mechanism in education, as well as the formation of a system of public-private partnership in education, the introduction of corporate governance principles, improving the system of monitoring of education development, including the creation of national educational statistics, taking into account international requirements, etc. [4].

At present, the time of technology and technology, based on the economy is education, in our country there is an active search for humane ways of positive changes in the professional educational space of Kazakhstan. For this purpose, there is a national doctrine of vocational education, where the final result of training, education and development is directly related to the correct plan, management method.

In the pedagogical sphere of education, the desire to comprehend the pedagogical process from the standpoint of the science of management, to give it a strict science-based character is increasingly rising. There is a statement of many researchers that management is real and necessary not only in the field of technical, production processes, but also in the field of complex social systems, including pedagogical.

Summarizing all the above definitions, the general concept is that management is a special kind of activity performed by the subject of management in order to ensure the movement of the object on a certain strict plan. Management in the educational sphere is not an easy task, which is a set of systems that includes interrelated components. This hierarchy allows you to define a control object for a specific situation. As in all management areas, the main subject of management theory is the law, and the process depends on its objectives, principles, methods, functions, industry specifics, and the level of this body in the overall management system, as well as structure.

Education management system is built as follows: the subject of activity; the purpose of training; object and subject of management. These elements interact with each other and are related to each other and the main of them distinguish the subject and the object, as any participant has the full right to act as a subject of management and its object, regardless of its belonging to the hierarchical level. In addition, the transformation of the object into a subject promotes everyone to actively develop as a person, to be independent and improve the skills of self-government. A common example can be a teacher, being the object of control at the same time to some extent plays the role of the subject, for instant, leads the management of behavior and action of others.

By managing and containing systems, the educational process does not develop spontaneously and orderly way. Basically, the method of interaction of methods with a particular environment can be implemented by local education authorities and in other words, the pedagogical system of functioning in each territorial administration may be different but has the same goal.

In management plays an important role not only the implementation of a given plan, but also must take into account the morality, ethical and psychological aspects of this important activity. Since the main subject, acting in the functioning of any system, is the person himself.

The categories of system components of pedagogical management include the following basic definitions.

Pedagogical management ' a set of principles, methods, organizational forms and technological methods of management of educational and educational process, aimed at improving its efficiency.

Management of educational process (as an integral part of pedagogical management) - purposeful influence of the head on pedagogical collective and trained by scientifically proved planning, the organization and control of their activity.

Educational process is a purposeful activity on training, education and development of the personality by the organized educational and educational and cognitive processes in unity with self-education of this personality providing mastering of knowledge, abilities and skills at the level not lower than the state educational standard.

Information - the subject and product of the work of the Manager of the educational or educational process.

Monitoring of the educational process-continuous monitoring of the progress, results and effectiveness of the educational process through the use of computer technology, the collection and processing of information about it [5].

According to the study, students' academic performance mainly depends on the action of teachers, on the method and process of learning, as students cannot get a decent education in a class where there is no good management and leadership. Therefore, it is very important to maintain a balance between the teacher and each student.

As well as studies have shown that in the classroom where teachers and students had a quality relationship, there were fewer problems with behavior and discipline. Overall, about 20% of students in each class suffer from mental and emotional disorders. They in turn need special approaches and it is directly connected with the teaching method. And the most effective teachers didn't treat everyone equally, in many cases they used different strategies for different character of students. The approach of teachers to students is very diverse, and given that people cannot have the same character and thoughts, this kind of relationship between teacher and student cannot be determined and it is only necessary to prepare future teachers for self-government. For these purposes, many countries already have so-called leadership for teachers (USA and EU countries) [6].

What does the word "leader" mean? We need to know more about the history and origin of the word. According to the etymological dictionary of the leader in the old English language "lædere" the one who leads, from "lædan" [7].

Leaders are people to be followed.' It follows that the secret of leadership is that they do not defend their opinions only, but look for a solution in each situation based on the interests of all their subordinates, as well as the ability to predict given the current situation and act in minimal risks. This and it is different from the management where law and order has a major role. In a word, we can say that leadership is one of the ways of management, the process of which depends on the performer.

The leader acts regardless of the state of Affairs, in the economic sphere, and even at the time of crisis. This is not a certain position and it cannot be taught, each has its own approach, which requires a lot of time and experience. This quality should have a leader. A striking example is Bill Gates, despite early failures, led to the success of Microsoft [8].

According to the study, in addition to the daily training of students, the teacher-leader takes a leading role in improving the practice of teaching, regardless of the school in which they study. In addition, collective leadership has a greater impact on student achievement than individual leadership. So that you can draw from this the conclusion that it is necessary in schools shared leadership among teachers.

Before each teacher needs three important tasks: outplay trust, acts as the leader and gives a professional education. One of the factors affecting the performance of students is respect between colleagues and between the student and the teacher. For these purposes, events, greetings, awards, etc. As a result of the trusting relationships that inspire teacher leaders, they boldly speak out to ask difficult questions, reach out and push their directors and colleagues on issues that require solutions, listen without judgment and respect everyone's voice.

Take on the qualities of effective leaders

The same qualities that make any leader effective apply to teacher leaders. They are knowledgeable in their field, be it literacy, special education or specific content or area of specialization. They have high hopes for their colleagues and students and are kind and encouraging to all. They know and apply the latest and most relevant research and generously share information and resources with others. They are humble experts in what they do, and willing mentors, coaches, and collaborative educators with colleagues. At the same time, they are students who are open to change and constantly strive to become better at their craft.

Facilitate vocational training

Providing continuing professional education at a high level is probably the most important role of the teacher manager. Together with the Director, the leading teachers plan and conduct vocational training at the school. Vocational training is to establish belief school wide that corresponds to the "best" methods of learning and assessment. professional reading, viewing and discussing how authentic, purposeful practices look and sound, conversations with colleagues about the application of these methods in the classroom and, with leadership support, improving daily learning and assessment so that students can learn more, after all, it is the quality and depth of professional learning in the school that determines the learning outcomes of students and teachers.

Often, those who wish to engage in education often have certain qualities of leadership, because we are rarely people who want to play a passive role in the world around us. According to John Quincy Adams, "If your actions inspire others to dream more, learn more, do more, and become more, you are a leader." By applying this definition of leadership to teachers, we will see that the concept of "teacher Leader" is becoming increasingly defined and even appointed [9].

Having concluded, we can say that leadership and management in the education system play a major role. Because leadership and management in education do not develop at the appropriate level. Moreover, in accordance with the modern Policy of education in Kazakhstan, it should pay great attention to academic researchers. It is believed that the best practice is the experience that has already been used. The practice of management and leadership qualities in the education system gives good results in your work, and you can use them in your practice. Leadership and management are directly related to development, as it brings positive changes to move forward, the internal development of the human system. Since we are talking about the development of the education system, it is necessary to plan, organize, control, manage. To grow, we need to use some experience, but changes happen when we make transformational changes-something changing completely.

Conclusion

Conditions of development of Kazakhstan at the present stage impose on higher education a number of fundamentally new requirements of economic, social and managerial nature. The trend of education in Kazakhstan will be a change in the activities of the top management of the national education system and the transition to new methods of work. Innovative approaches to the management of universities, strategies for effective personnel management, the introduction of corporate governance principles, tools to ensure the quality of higher education, financial management have acquired great relevance today. In the implementation of the State program of education development of the country for the period up to 2020 and effective management of the University plays a huge role in the updating of knowledge in the field of education management.

Thus, management activities in the education system - is an activity to achieve certain goals, aimed at developing solutions, organization, control, which is based on the interaction of people, coordination of their actions. It can be represented as a system of knowledge, as the structure of the control theory is internally different, but a complete system of knowledge, which is characterized by the logical dependence of some elements on others, the deductibility of the theory of the content of a certain set of statements and concepts - the original basis of the theory of certain logical and methodological principles and rules.

REFERENCES

1. https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/management

2. https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/knowledge-management

3. Education Journal 2012;1(1):5-8 Published online December 30, 2012 (http:// www. sciencepublishinggroup.com/j/edu) doi: 10.11648/j.edu.20120101.12

4. https://primeminister.kz/page/article_item-34

5. http://eyecenter.crimea.com/en/teach/trans/1_3.html

6. 'Teaching Leadership' Gama Perruci, Sadhana W. Hall, Center for Public Policy and the Social Sciences, Dartmouth College, US, 2018.

7. Thinking Differently about Leadership. A Critical History of Leadership Studies. Suze Wilson, Senior Lecturer, School of Management, Massey University, New Zeal'nd, 2016.

8. https://www.biography.com/people/bill-gates-9307520

9. https://www.forbes.com/sites/kevinkruse/2012/10/16/quotes-on-leadership/# 7d4e 0b da2feb



Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №11 - 2019

  
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