The role of management and leadership in the developing of the educational system of Kazakhstan
Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №11 - 2019
Author: Uzakbaeva Zhadira, Kazakh-American Free University, Kazakhstan
As we look
ahead into the next century,
Leaders will be
those who empower others.
We are currently documenting everything we know and have learned.
These lists include useful summaries of the knowledge we h've gathered, even though they all do not provide the inspiration we
want. Furthermore, there are limitless lists of education and leadership, and
the main thing for us is to find the one that we really need. We have to ask
ourselves what is important for development and be more creative? In matters of
improving the training of managers in education plays an enormous role
personality focused on intellectual self-development and has a high level of
management culture. This is due to the modern requirements for the degree of
professionalism of the manager in education.
In the context of globalization, the education system in most
countries is in a state of constant modernization and reform. Currently,
management and leadership have become a relatively recent area of research
among scientists, researchers. It should not be forgotten that management and
leadership have traditionally been in business, trade, politics and economics.
Today we can see them in any field of study. It is well known that management
and leadership have just studied in Kazakhstan's education system. New trends
in the economy, politics, social sphere of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the main vectors of state policy in the field of education, innovation in modern
society have identified the need for highly qualified managers of the education
system and the increasing role of their managerial competencies.
At present in pedagogical science, the first thing to note is that
the path of development of education begins with the education of students from
the position of the science of management. According to many experts,
management is necessary not only in the economic or industrial sphere, but also
in the field of complex social phenomena, which are pedagogical management,
since the emergence of new specialists and professionals depends on the
management of educational activities, as well as the formation of the human
person, one or another of its qualities.
The role of management and leadership in the development of the
educational system of Kazakhstan. First of all, let's clarify the differences
between management and leadership in the education system.
"Education management is the theory and practice of organizing
and managing existing educational institutions and systems" .
Management implies an ordered way of thinking. It describes in
operator terms what should be done, how it should be done and how we know when
it is done. Management is not a mystery. This method work lead to the orderly
integration of education and society. For example, "school management, as
a set of educational doctrines, includes a number of principles and
commandments related primarily to the technique of school, and are largely
based on the practice of successful teachers. The authors in this area have
interpreted these principles and commandments in different ways, usually with
reference to longer and more fundamental principles of psychology, sociology,
and ethics. .
The definition of "Leadership" is mainly related to the
army, as well as to the economy and politics. Most of us hear the concepts of
military leadership, economic leadership, national leadership, or political
leadership. Kissinger, one of the greatest American statesmen, said the
leader's mission is to bring his people from where they are to a place that has
never been. So let's take a closer look at each of these processes and try to
give a scientific assessment in the development of education of the Republic of Kazakhstan .
essence of management activities in the education system
One of the goals of the State program of education development of
the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2011-2020 is the formation of the state - public
system of education management. This program solves such problems as improving
the mechanism in education, as well as the formation of a system of
public-private partnership in education, the introduction of corporate
governance principles, improving the system of monitoring of education
development, including the creation of national educational statistics, taking
into account international requirements, etc. .
At present, the time of technology and technology, based on the
economy is education, in our country there is an active search for humane ways
of positive changes in the professional educational space of Kazakhstan. For this purpose, there is a national doctrine of vocational education, where the final
result of training, education and development is directly related to the
correct plan, management method.
In the pedagogical sphere of education, the desire to comprehend the
pedagogical process from the standpoint of the science of management, to give
it a strict science-based character is increasingly rising. There is a
statement of many researchers that management is real and necessary not only in
the field of technical, production processes, but also in the field of complex
social systems, including pedagogical.
Summarizing all the above definitions, the general concept is that
management is a special kind of activity performed by the subject of management
in order to ensure the movement of the object on a certain strict plan.
Management in the educational sphere is not an easy task, which is a set of
systems that includes interrelated components. This hierarchy allows you to
define a control object for a specific situation. As in all management areas,
the main subject of management theory is the law, and the process depends on
its objectives, principles, methods, functions, industry specifics, and the
level of this body in the overall management system, as well as structure.
Education management system is built as follows: the subject of
activity; the purpose of training; object and subject of management. These
elements interact with each other and are related to each other and the main of
them distinguish the subject and the object, as any participant has the full
right to act as a subject of management and its object, regardless of its
belonging to the hierarchical level. In addition, the transformation of the
object into a subject promotes everyone to actively develop as a person, to be
independent and improve the skills of self-government. A common example can be
a teacher, being the object of control at the same time to some extent plays
the role of the subject, for instant, leads the management of behavior and
action of others.
By managing and containing systems, the educational process does not
develop spontaneously and orderly way. Basically, the method of interaction of
methods with a particular environment can be implemented by local education
authorities and in other words, the pedagogical system of functioning in each
territorial administration may be different but has the same goal.
In management plays an important role not only the implementation of
a given plan, but also must take into account the morality, ethical and
psychological aspects of this important activity. Since the main subject,
acting in the functioning of any system, is the person himself.
The categories of system components of pedagogical management
include the following basic definitions.
Pedagogical management ' a set of principles, methods,
organizational forms and technological methods of management of educational and
educational process, aimed at improving its efficiency.
Management of educational process (as an integral part of
pedagogical management) - purposeful influence of the head on pedagogical
collective and trained by scientifically proved planning, the organization and
control of their activity.
Educational process is a purposeful activity on training, education
and development of the personality by the organized educational and educational
and cognitive processes in unity with self-education of this personality
providing mastering of knowledge, abilities and skills at the level not lower
than the state educational standard.
Information - the subject and product of the work of the Manager of
the educational or educational process.
Monitoring of the educational process-continuous monitoring of the
progress, results and effectiveness of the educational process through the use
of computer technology, the collection and processing of information about it
According to the study, students' academic performance mainly
depends on the action of teachers, on the method and process of learning, as
students cannot get a decent education in a class where there is no good
management and leadership. Therefore, it is very important to maintain a
balance between the teacher and each student.
As well as studies have shown that in the classroom where teachers
and students had a quality relationship, there were fewer problems with
behavior and discipline. Overall, about 20% of students in each class suffer
from mental and emotional disorders. They in turn need special approaches and
it is directly connected with the teaching method. And the most effective
teachers didn't treat everyone equally, in many cases they used different
strategies for different character of students. The approach of teachers to
students is very diverse, and given that people cannot have the same character
and thoughts, this kind of relationship between teacher and student cannot be
determined and it is only necessary to prepare future teachers for
self-government. For these purposes, many countries already have so-called
leadership for teachers (USA and EU countries) .
What does the word "leader" mean? We need to know more
about the history and origin of the word. According to the etymological
dictionary of the leader in the old English language "lædere"
the one who leads, from "lædan" .
Leaders are people to be followed.' It follows that the secret of
leadership is that they do not defend their opinions only, but look for a
solution in each situation based on the interests of all their subordinates, as
well as the ability to predict given the current situation and act in minimal
risks. This and it is different from the management where law and order has a
major role. In a word, we can say that leadership is one of the ways of
management, the process of which depends on the performer.
The leader acts regardless of the state of Affairs, in the economic
sphere, and even at the time of crisis. This is not a certain position and it
cannot be taught, each has its own approach, which requires a lot of time and
experience. This quality should have a leader. A striking example is Bill
Gates, despite early failures, led to the success of Microsoft .
According to the study, in addition to the daily training of
students, the teacher-leader takes a leading role in improving the practice of teaching,
regardless of the school in which they study. In addition, collective
leadership has a greater impact on student achievement than individual
leadership. So that you can draw from this the conclusion that it is necessary
in schools shared leadership among teachers.
Before each teacher needs three important tasks: outplay trust, acts
as the leader and gives a professional education. One of the factors affecting
the performance of students is respect between colleagues and between the
student and the teacher. For these purposes, events, greetings, awards, etc. As
a result of the trusting relationships that inspire teacher leaders, they
boldly speak out to ask difficult questions, reach out and push their directors
and colleagues on issues that require solutions, listen without judgment and
respect everyone's voice.
on the qualities of effective leaders
The same qualities that make any leader effective apply to teacher
leaders. They are knowledgeable in their field, be it literacy, special education
or specific content or area of specialization. They have high hopes for their
colleagues and students and are kind and encouraging to all. They know and
apply the latest and most relevant research and generously share information
and resources with others. They are humble experts in what they do, and willing
mentors, coaches, and collaborative educators with colleagues. At the same
time, they are students who are open to change and constantly strive to become
better at their craft.
Providing continuing professional education at a high level is
probably the most important role of the teacher manager. Together with the
Director, the leading teachers plan and conduct vocational training at the
school. Vocational training is to establish belief school wide that corresponds
to the "best" methods of learning and assessment. professional
reading, viewing and discussing how authentic, purposeful practices look and
sound, conversations with colleagues about the application of these methods in
the classroom and, with leadership support, improving daily learning and
assessment so that students can learn more, after all, it is the quality and
depth of professional learning in the school that determines the learning
outcomes of students and teachers.
Often, those who wish to engage in education often have certain
qualities of leadership, because we are rarely people who want to play a
passive role in the world around us. According to John Quincy Adams, "If
your actions inspire others to dream more, learn more, do more, and become
more, you are a leader." By applying this definition of leadership to
teachers, we will see that the concept of "teacher Leader" is becoming
increasingly defined and even appointed .
Having concluded, we can say that leadership and management in the
education system play a major role. Because leadership and management in
education do not develop at the appropriate level. Moreover, in accordance with
the modern Policy of education in Kazakhstan, it should pay great attention to
academic researchers. It is believed that the best practice is the experience
that has already been used. The practice of management and leadership qualities
in the education system gives good results in your work, and you can use them
in your practice. Leadership and management are directly related to
development, as it brings positive changes to move forward, the internal development
of the human system. Since we are talking about the development of the
education system, it is necessary to plan, organize, control, manage. To grow,
we need to use some experience, but changes happen when we make
transformational changes-something changing completely.
Conditions of development of Kazakhstan at the present stage impose
on higher education a number of fundamentally new requirements of economic,
social and managerial nature. The trend of education in Kazakhstan will be a change in the activities of the top management of the national education system
and the transition to new methods of work. Innovative approaches to the
management of universities, strategies for effective personnel management, the
introduction of corporate governance principles, tools to ensure the quality of
higher education, financial management have acquired great relevance today. In
the implementation of the State program of education development of the country
for the period up to 2020 and effective management of the University plays a
huge role in the updating of knowledge in the field of education management.
Thus, management activities in the education system - is an activity
to achieve certain goals, aimed at developing solutions, organization, control,
which is based on the interaction of people, coordination of their actions. It
can be represented as a system of knowledge, as the structure of the control
theory is internally different, but a complete system of knowledge, which is
characterized by the logical dependence of some elements on others, the
deductibility of the theory of the content of a certain set of statements and
concepts - the original basis of the theory of certain logical and methodological
principles and rules.
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6. 'Teaching Leadership' Gama Perruci, Sadhana W.
Hall, Center for Public Policy and the Social Sciences, Dartmouth College, US, 2018.
7. Thinking Differently about Leadership. A Critical History of Leadership Studies. Suze Wilson, Senior
Lecturer, School of Management, Massey University, New Zeal'nd, 2016.
9. https://www.forbes.com/sites/kevinkruse/2012/10/16/quotes-on-leadership/# 7d4e 0b da2feb
Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №11 - 2019