Authentic audio materials in teaching listening for high-school learners

Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №10 - 2018

Authors:
Bukumbayeva Galima , Kazakh-American Free University, Kazakhstan
Kyzykeyeva Almagul, Kazakh-American Free University, Kazakhstan

Socio-political and economic transformations of modern society, the expansion of international relations make a foreign language really popular state, society and personality. The status of a foreign language as a school subject has also changed. Foreign language has become fully realized as a means of communication, understanding and interaction of people, a means of familiarizing with a different national culture and as an important tool for the development of intellectual abilities of students, their educational potential. This significantly increases the status of the school subject "foreign language" as a General educational discipline, the study of which begins in primary school.

The President of the Republic of Kazakhstan in his new address on the third modernization of Kazakhstan set a goal – to enter the top thirty developed countries. The importance of knowledge of a foreign language was highlighted. In the Republic of Kazakhstan, the language policy dates back to 2007, when in the Address to the people of Kazakhstan "New Kazakhstan in the new world" the Head of state proposed to begin the phased implementation of the cultural project "Trinity of languages". It is this moment that can be designated as the starting point of a new language policy of independent Kazakhstan, which today can serve as an example for other countries of the world in terms of popularity in society and its level of efficiency [1].

Listening is one of the most difficult types of speech activity and, according to many teachers, should be developed better than other skills. One of the practical tasks in the field of listening is to teach students the perception of foreign speech in conditions close to real.

Listening is an activity that represents the simultaneous perception and understanding of speech. It is perceptive mental-mimic activity. The process of perception consists of the analysis and synthesis of multi-level language units (phonemes, morphemes, words, sentences), as a result of which there is a transformation of the perceived sound signals into a semantic record (there comes a semantic understanding).

By types of listening is classified as follows:

- with full understanding of the perceived text by ear;

- with the general scope of the content, i.e. with the understanding of basic information only;

- in order to extract the necessary or interesting information;

Difficulty listening of classifications Eluhina N. B. and Prussakova N.N.:

The difficulties of the first group can be divided into three subgroups:

1. Phonetic. This assumes that there is no clear boundary between the sounds in the word and the words in the speech stream. There are two different aspects of hearing: phonemic (perception of individual linguistic phenomena at the level of words and structures) and speech, which includes the process of recognizing the whole in the context. It should be noted that when teaching listening on authentic materials, it is necessary to develop speech hearing. The individual manner of speech can be very diverse and present difficulties for its perception and understanding. Naturally, any individual feature of pronunciation, timbre of voice, rather fast pace and certain defects of speech will make it difficult to understand it, it is necessary from the beginning of training to listen to their speech, gradually reducing the number of educational texts presented by the teacher.

2. Grammatical. A number of grammatical difficulties are associated primarily with the presence of analytical forms, difficult phenomena should be attributed and grammatical homonymy.

Perceiving the phrase, the student must divide it into separate elements, that is, informative features of the sounding phrase, which are physically expressed by the corresponding speech qualities. There are three physically distinct speech parameters: intonation, pause, and logical stress.

3. Lexical. It is the presence of many unfamiliar words students indicate as the cause of misunderstanding of the text. We need to elaborate on this issue.

It is necessary to develop students' ability to receive information and in the presence of unfamiliar language phenomena, by filtering, selection and approximate understanding. Students should be specially trained to understand by ear a speech that contains unfamiliar vocabulary. Unrecognized or misunderstood parts of the speech message are restored by the recipient due to the action of probabilistic prediction; therefore, it is necessary to seek to predict the meaning of the statement, when the form and content form a complete unity [2].

When working with text, it is advisable to divide exercises into pre-listening, while-listening and post-listening. Exercises performed before listening, the most intensively control the process of perception of foreign speech. They contribute to the creation of students motivation, mood for listening to the text of a certain content, removal of language (lexical, grammatical and phonetic) difficulties, as well as difficulties related to country information [3].

K.S. Krichevskaya gives a definition of authentic literature, folklore, fine arts, and musical compositions, objects of reality, such as clothing, furniture, kitchen utensils and their illustrative images. Allocates materials of everyday and everyday life in an independent group: pragmatic materials (ads, questionnaires, signs, labels, menus and bills, maps, brochures on tourism, recreation, goods, work vacancies, etc.), which in terms of accessibility and household use seem quite significant to create the illusion of inclusion to the habitat of native speakers and believes that their role is much higher than the authentic texts from the textbook, although they may yield to them in volume [4].

We propose to divide all authentic materials used in teaching a foreign language into authentic and educational materials.

Thus, authentic materials are materials taken from original sources, which are characterized by the naturalness of lexical content and grammatical forms, situational adequacy of the used language means, illustrates the cases of authentic word consumption, and which, although not specifically designed for educational purposes, but can be used in teaching a foreign language.

Authentic teaching materials are materials specifically designed with all the parameters of the authentic educational process and the criteria of authenticity and designed to solve specific educational problems.

The main task of listening training at the senior stage (eighth to eleventh grades) is to improve the skills previously formed and, if necessary, their correction. Auditing at this stage should be carried out successfully with a single presentation of the audio message.

This stage is characterized by the improvement of students' skills to use different methods of enriching their vocabulary, expanding their potential vocabulary and linguistic knowledge. At the forefront is the independent use of a foreign language as a means of obtaining new information for students, which would otherwise represent the facts known to them, increase their awareness in various fields of knowledge, introduced into new areas of their application [5].

The selection of materials and the choice of the type of listening at the senior stage of training depend on the communicative situation in which there is a perception by ear, taking into account the difficulties in listening to authentic materials, taking into account the age psychology of students in choosing subjects. Thus, the thought-over organization of the educational process, clarity and consistency of presentation, maximum reliance on active mental activity, a variety of teaching methods, refinement of perception tasks allows you to create internal motivation, to direct the attention of students to the moments that will help program future practical activities with the perceived material.

Therefore, in the practical part of this work, we will consider the EMC “Message 4” (Cambridge University Press), which trains students in eighth grade and develop a set of exercises for listening to three modules for the second half of the year.

The educational and methodical complex " Message 4 "(Cambridge University Press) by Meredith Levy and Diana Goodey represents the modern foreign EMC in England for teaching English with audio cassettes, designed for international students who have studied English for three years at secondary level. It contains six modules, two thematic units. Each of the units is designed in such a way that provides for parallel training in all types of speech activities: reading, speaking, listening and writing. The textbook is colorfully decorated and contains visual supports: a variety of photos, funny drawings, reproductions of works of art. It is widely represented both educational-authentic and authentic materials: publicist texts from Newspapers and magazines, scientific articles, essays of country and cultural character, pragmatic materials, excerpts from works of art.

The composition of the EMC includes the Student's Book, Workbook, Teacher's Book, Teacher's Resource Pack, Audio cassettes/ CDs, DVD and Activity Booklet 3&4. And also there are additional texts and tasks, represent different speech forms (dialogues and monologues). The subject matter of the texts is varied: "Friends and neighbors; "Celebrations"; " Food for thought”, etc.

Having studied the peculiarities of listening training, we tried to make a series of exercises corresponding to methodological recommendations.

Next, we will develop tasks for listening to the fourth, fifth and sixth module to the existing authentic texts in the textbook.

2. Unit 8 is Secrets and lies.

1. First exercise for pre-listening activities. Students should ask for following questions:

How do you think people are always honest?

- Is it useful sometimes to lie?

2. For the next, students should listen to a discussion on the radio and answer the following questions:

- Would Jill do if it happened in a small local shop?

- Does Peter think it would always be wrong to keep the money?

- What argument does Jill make against that?

- Does Peter agree?

3. For past-listening activities, students should make a story by analogy, they can use the situation from their life and give the original title to the text.

Listening is the foundation of communication; it begins with the mastery of oral communication. Possession of such a type of speech activity as listening, allows a person to understand what he is told and adequately respond to what is said, helps to correctly state his answer to the opponent, which is the basis of dialogue speech. In this case, listening teaches the culture of speech: listen to the interlocutor carefully and always listen to the end, which is important not only when talking in a foreign language, but also when speaking in his native language.

Summing up the results of this course work, we came to the following conclusions. The study of the theoretical material and the analysis of special literature devoted to the problem of authentic materials showed that, although in recent times there has been active research work in this area, the problem of determining the functionality and use of authentic materials in the process of learning a foreign language is still far from resolved and continues to be relevant, requiring special attention by the modern teachers.

Analysis of the use of authentic materials in “Message 4” revealed that the proposed auditory materials meet the parameters and criteria of authenticity, and developed additional tasks to the audio texts of this textbook, can serve for a thorough work on the text and its understanding by students, to obtain a better result in the development of listening skills. Therefore, the use of this CMD is located in the middle stage is not only advisable, but necessary, since this kind of speech activity provides the acquisition of those skills, that really help students to communicate in a foreign language without experiencing the difficulties associated with the understanding of foreign speech at the hearing.

REFERENCES

1. Ким Е.А. Развитие трёхъязычия в Республике Казахстан https: // sibac. info/ studconf/ hum/xxxvii/43774

2. Елухина Н.В. Обучение аудированию в русле коммуникативно ориентированной методики // Иностранные языки в школе, 1989.

3. Елухина Н.В. Обучение слушанию иноязычной речи // Иностранные языки в школе, 1996.

4. Артемов В.А. Психология обучения иностранным языкам. – М., 1963.



Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №10 - 2018

  
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