Authentic audio materials in teaching listening for high-school learners
Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №10 - 2018
Bukumbayeva Galima , Kazakh-American Free University, Kazakhstan
Kyzykeyeva Almagul, Kazakh-American Free University, Kazakhstan
economic transformations of modern society, the expansion of international relations
make a foreign language really popular state, society and personality. The
status of a foreign language as a school subject has also changed. Foreign
language has become fully realized as a means of communication, understanding
and interaction of people, a means of familiarizing with a different national
culture and as an important tool for the development of intellectual abilities
of students, their educational potential. This significantly increases the
status of the school subject "foreign language" as a General
educational discipline, the study of which begins in primary school.
The President of the Republic of Kazakhstan in his new address on the third modernization of Kazakhstan set a goal – to enter the top thirty developed countries. The importance of knowledge of
a foreign language was highlighted. In the Republic of Kazakhstan, the language
policy dates back to 2007, when in the Address to the people of Kazakhstan "New Kazakhstan in the new world" the Head of state proposed to begin
the phased implementation of the cultural project "Trinity of
languages". It is this moment that can be designated as the starting
point of a new language policy of independent Kazakhstan, which today can serve
as an example for other countries of the world in terms of popularity in
society and its level of efficiency .
Listening is one of the
most difficult types of speech activity and, according to many teachers, should
be developed better than other skills. One of the practical tasks in the field
of listening is to teach students the perception of foreign speech in conditions
close to real.
Listening is an activity
that represents the simultaneous perception and understanding of speech. It is
perceptive mental-mimic activity. The process of perception consists of the
analysis and synthesis of multi-level language units (phonemes, morphemes,
words, sentences), as a result of which there is a transformation of the
perceived sound signals into a semantic record (there comes a semantic understanding).
By types of listening is
classified as follows:
- with full
understanding of the perceived text by ear;
- with the general scope
of the content, i.e. with the understanding of basic information only;
- in order to extract
the necessary or interesting information;
Difficulty listening of
classifications Eluhina N. B. and Prussakova N.N.:
The difficulties of the
first group can be divided into three subgroups:
1. Phonetic. This
assumes that there is no clear boundary between the sounds in the word and the
words in the speech stream. There are two different aspects of hearing:
phonemic (perception of individual linguistic phenomena at the level of words
and structures) and speech, which includes the process of recognizing the whole
in the context. It should be noted that when teaching listening on authentic
materials, it is necessary to develop speech hearing. The individual manner of
speech can be very diverse and present difficulties for its perception and
understanding. Naturally, any individual feature of pronunciation, timbre of
voice, rather fast pace and certain defects of speech will make it difficult to
understand it, it is necessary from the beginning of training to listen to
their speech, gradually reducing the number of educational texts presented by
2. Grammatical. A number
of grammatical difficulties are associated primarily with the presence of
analytical forms, difficult phenomena should be attributed and grammatical
Perceiving the phrase,
the student must divide it into separate elements, that is, informative
features of the sounding phrase, which are physically expressed by the
corresponding speech qualities. There are three physically distinct speech parameters:
intonation, pause, and logical stress.
3. Lexical. It is the
presence of many unfamiliar words students indicate as the cause of
misunderstanding of the text. We need to elaborate on this issue.
It is necessary to
develop students' ability to receive information and in the presence of
unfamiliar language phenomena, by filtering, selection and approximate
understanding. Students should be specially trained to understand by ear a
speech that contains unfamiliar vocabulary. Unrecognized or misunderstood parts
of the speech message are restored by the recipient due to the action of
probabilistic prediction; therefore, it is necessary to seek to predict the
meaning of the statement, when the form and content form a complete unity .
When working with text,
it is advisable to divide exercises into pre-listening, while-listening and
post-listening. Exercises performed before listening, the most intensively
control the process of perception of foreign speech. They contribute to the
creation of students motivation, mood for listening to the text of a certain content,
removal of language (lexical, grammatical and phonetic) difficulties, as well
as difficulties related to country information .
K.S. Krichevskaya gives
a definition of authentic literature, folklore, fine arts, and musical
compositions, objects of reality, such as clothing, furniture, kitchen utensils
and their illustrative images. Allocates materials of everyday and everyday
life in an independent group: pragmatic materials (ads, questionnaires, signs,
labels, menus and bills, maps, brochures on tourism, recreation, goods, work
vacancies, etc.), which in terms of accessibility and household use seem quite
significant to create the illusion of inclusion to the habitat of native
speakers and believes that their role is much higher than the authentic texts
from the textbook, although they may yield to them in volume .
We propose to divide all
authentic materials used in teaching a foreign language into authentic and
materials are materials taken from original sources, which are characterized by
the naturalness of lexical content and grammatical forms, situational adequacy
of the used language means, illustrates the cases of authentic word consumption,
and which, although not specifically designed for educational purposes, but can
be used in teaching a foreign language.
materials are materials specifically designed with all the parameters of the
authentic educational process and the criteria of authenticity and designed to
solve specific educational problems.
The main task of
listening training at the senior stage (eighth to eleventh grades) is to
improve the skills previously formed and, if necessary, their correction. Auditing
at this stage should be carried out successfully with a single presentation of
the audio message.
This stage is
characterized by the improvement of students' skills to use different methods
of enriching their vocabulary, expanding their potential vocabulary and
linguistic knowledge. At the forefront is the independent use of a foreign language
as a means of obtaining new information for students, which would otherwise
represent the facts known to them, increase their awareness in various fields
of knowledge, introduced into new areas of their application .
The selection of
materials and the choice of the type of listening at the senior stage of
training depend on the communicative situation in which there is a perception
by ear, taking into account the difficulties in listening to authentic
materials, taking into account the age psychology of students in choosing
subjects. Thus, the thought-over organization of the educational process,
clarity and consistency of presentation, maximum reliance on active mental
activity, a variety of teaching methods, refinement of perception tasks allows
you to create internal motivation, to direct the attention of students to the moments
that will help program future practical activities with the perceived material.
Therefore, in the
practical part of this work, we will consider the EMC “Message 4” (Cambridge University Press), which trains students in eighth grade and develop a set of exercises
for listening to three modules for the second half of the year.
The educational and
methodical complex " Message 4 "(Cambridge University Press) by
Meredith Levy and Diana Goodey represents the modern foreign EMC in England for
teaching English with audio cassettes, designed for international students who
have studied English for three years at secondary level. It contains six
modules, two thematic units. Each of the units is designed in such a way that
provides for parallel training in all types of speech activities: reading,
speaking, listening and writing. The textbook is colorfully decorated and
contains visual supports: a variety of photos, funny drawings, reproductions of
works of art. It is widely represented both educational-authentic and authentic
materials: publicist texts from Newspapers and magazines, scientific articles,
essays of country and cultural character, pragmatic materials, excerpts from
works of art.
The composition of the
EMC includes the Student's Book, Workbook, Teacher's Book, Teacher's Resource
Pack, Audio cassettes/ CDs, DVD and Activity Booklet 3&4. And also there
are additional texts and tasks, represent different speech forms (dialogues and
monologues). The subject matter of the texts is varied: "Friends and
neighbors; "Celebrations"; " Food for thought”, etc.
Having studied the
peculiarities of listening training, we tried to make a series of exercises
corresponding to methodological recommendations.
Next, we will develop
tasks for listening to the fourth, fifth and sixth module to the existing
authentic texts in the textbook.
2. Unit 8 is Secrets and
1. First exercise for
pre-listening activities. Students should ask for following questions:
How do you think people
are always honest?
- Is it useful sometimes
2. For the next,
students should listen to a discussion on the radio and answer the following
- Would Jill do if it
happened in a small local shop?
- Does Peter think it
would always be wrong to keep the money?
- What argument does
Jill make against that?
- Does Peter agree?
3. For past-listening
activities, students should make a story by analogy, they can use the situation
from their life and give the original title to the text.
Listening is the
foundation of communication; it begins with the mastery of oral communication.
Possession of such a type of speech activity as listening, allows a person to
understand what he is told and adequately respond to what is said, helps to
correctly state his answer to the opponent, which is the basis of dialogue
speech. In this case, listening teaches the culture of speech: listen to the
interlocutor carefully and always listen to the end, which is important not
only when talking in a foreign language, but also when speaking in his native
Summing up the results
of this course work, we came to the following conclusions. The study of the
theoretical material and the analysis of special literature devoted to the
problem of authentic materials showed that, although in recent times there has
been active research work in this area, the problem of determining the
functionality and use of authentic materials in the process of learning a
foreign language is still far from resolved and continues to be relevant,
requiring special attention by the modern teachers.
Analysis of the use of
authentic materials in “Message 4” revealed that the proposed auditory
materials meet the parameters and criteria of authenticity, and developed
additional tasks to the audio texts of this textbook, can serve for a thorough
work on the text and its understanding by students, to obtain a better result
in the development of listening skills. Therefore, the use of this CMD is
located in the middle stage is not only advisable, but necessary, since this
kind of speech activity provides the acquisition of those skills, that really
help students to communicate in a foreign language without experiencing the
difficulties associated with the understanding of foreign speech at the
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Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №10 - 2018