The beginning of the movement for nuclear disarmament
Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №10 - 2018
Author: Alexandrov Nikita, Kazakh-American Free University, Kazakhstan
The emergence of nuclear weapon and the development of the nuclear
potential of the major powers significantly influenced on the geopolitical
situation and the international community in the 20th century. Nuclear weapon
has become an integral tool of the diplomacy of both countries and it continues
to occupy an exceptional place in the context of international relations of the
In addition to secret recognizing the authority of countries with
nuclear capabilities at the international level, the presence of nuclear
weapons in the arsenal of the armament of states led to the emergence and
development of movements for nuclear disarmament.
Nuclear disarmament is the process of reducing the arsenals of
nuclear weapons, their carriers and delivery vehicles, as well as production.
In the opinion of the proponents of nuclear disarmament, it will reduce the
chance of a nuclear war. Opponents of this concept point out that the process
of nuclear disarmament can nullify the effect of "containment", which
largely kept the world from war during the second half of the 20th century .
Nuclear weapon has become an integral tool of the diplomacy of both
countries. The beginning of nuclear disarmament is considered to be in the Caribbean crisis of 1962, when the world at first time appeared on the verge of a nuclear
catastrophe. The reason for this was the deployment of US medium-range missiles
in Turkey, which provoked the Soviet Union for an emergency installation of
similar missiles in Cuba. One of the consequences of the Caribbean crisis was
the emergence in the West of a powerful social movement in support of nuclear
disarmament. The disarmament process had an economic implication: the build-up
of the nuclear arsenal had an enormous burden on the country's economy.
The anti-nuclear movement is a combination of social movements
against various nuclear technologies, especially against the production,
testing and use of nuclear weapons.
One of the first organizations created to support the movement for
nuclear disarmament was the Nuclear Disarmament Campaign in Great Britain. The Nuclear Disarmament Campaign (CND) is an organization that promotes the
unilateral nuclear disarmament of the United Kingdom, advocates for
international nuclear disarmament and more difficult international arms
regulation through agreements such as the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of
Nuclear Weapons. This organization also opposes military actions that could
lead to the use of nuclear, chemical or biological weapons and opposes the
construction of nuclear power plants in the UK. The chairman of CND is Kate
Hudson (Kate Hudson).
The organization opposes military actions that may lead to the use
of nuclear, chemical or biological weapons and the construction of nuclear
power plants on the territory of the Kingdom. The symbol of the movement was a
combined image of the signs of the semaphore alphabet "n" and "d"
(from "nuclear disarmament") in the circle, later adopted as its
symbol by the movement of hippies around the world. Many mistakenly believe
that this image is the foot of the world's dove's paw .
The campaign for nuclear disarmament was formed in 1957, and since
then it has been periodically noted at the forefront of the peace movement in Britain. This means that it was the biggest campaign for peace in Europe. Between 1959 and 1965, a march was organized in Aldermaston, which was held on the Easter weekend from the Atomic
Weapons Institution under Aldermaston in Berkshire to Trafalgar Square, London. The first major march of Aldermaston in 1958 went another way (from London to Aldermaston), and was formed by the Committee on Direct Action Against Nuclear
In liquidation, the global abolition of British nuclear weapons and
opposition to its deployment, the British government is campaigning for the
abolition of the Trident.
In the context of the abolition of weapons of mass destruction,
especially chemical and biological weapons, the campaign for nuclear
disarmament requires a ban on the manufacture, testing and use of weapons made
The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE),
which opposes American military bases and nuclear weapons, supports the
nuclear-free future of a less militarized and more secure Europe .
The movement for nuclear disarmament was supported by a neutral
middle class, the left wing of the Labor Party and the trade union movement. In
1960, the Labor Conference adopted a resolution on unilateral defense policies,
despite strong opposition from party leader Hugh Gates-kall, who branded the
activists of the Mo-vement as "pacifists, separatists who had attached
fellow travelers" and sworn "to fight, fight and again fight to save
hotly favorite party ". In 1961, the resolution was canceled by vote.
Disagreements in the Labor Party were matched by a split in the Movement itself
between the "Committee of the One", which called for acts of civil
disobedience, and the Laborites, who supported the holding of campaigns in
support of the Movement within the framework of the Constitution. The absence
of internal unity in the party led to a weakening of the Movement's support,
and by 1963 it had practically ceased to exist. During the escalation of
nuclear tensions between the superpowers in the late 1970s, the movement
revived, and in the 1980s it organized an opposition to the conservative
government's agreement with the United States on the replacement of nuclear
missiles of the Polaris type with the Trident system and the deployment of
American cruise missiles, which led to a sharp increase in the number of participants
in the Movement and demonstrations in areas of bases chosen to accommodate
cruise missiles, especially in Molsworth, Cambridgeshire, and Greenham Common,
Berkshire. The disagreement over the inclusion of the commitment to unilateral
nuclear disarmament in the party's program in 1980, a year later became one of the main reasons for the withdrawal of the SDP from it. The association
of the Movement with left-wing politicians reduced the attractiveness of the
Labor Party and promoted its defeat in the elections in the 1980s. Improving
relations between the US and the USSR after the coming to power of Mikhail Gorbachev
reduced the British's concerns about the possible use of nuclear weapons. During
this period, interest arose for the subsidiary organization of the Movement
"Eu-ropean Nuclear Disarmament", but by the end of the 1980s, the
movement again lost mass support .
In recent years, the Nuclear Disarmament Campaign has expanded its
influence with the goal of forming opposition in American and British politics
in the Middle East, as the anti-nuclear campaign in the 1960s intensified in
the issues of the war in Vietnam. In the course of cooperation with the Islamic
Military Coalition and the Muslim Association of Great Britain, the Campaign
for Nuclear Disarmament organized anti-war marches under the slogan "There
is no attack on Iraq," including protests on September 28, 2002 and
February 15, 2003. This also led to the organization of a permanent watch for
the victims of the bombing of London in 2005.
The campaign for nuclear disarmament against the Trident missile
organized a rally on Parliament Square in March 2007, coinciding with the
movement of the House of Commons in favor of the resumption of the nuclear
weapons system. The rally counted more than 1,000 people, supported by Labor
MPs: John Trickett, Emily Thornberry, John McDonnell, Michael Micher, Diane Abbott
and Jeremy Corbin, and Alfyn Llywid of Plaid Camry and Angus McNeil of the
Scottish National Party. In the House of Commons, 161 members of parliament (88
of them the Labor Party) voted against the renewal of Trident .
In 2006, the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament began its activities
against nuclear energy. Its membership, which was 32,000 participants from the
peak of 110,000 people in 1983, tripled after Prime Minister Tony Blair
committed himself to controlling nuclear energy.
The campaign for nuclear disarmament formed a national organization
in London, national groups in Wales, Ireland and Scotland, regional groups in
Cambridgeshire, Cumbria, East Midlands, Kent, London, Manchester, Merseyside,
Mid Somerset, Norwich, South Cheshire and North Staffordshire, southern England
, Southwest England, Suffolk, Surrey, Sussex, Tyne and Wear, West Midlands,
Yorkshire and other local branches .
There are five "groups of specialists": the Nuclear
Disarmament Campaign of the Trade Union, Christian, Labor, Green Campaigns for
Nuclear Disarmament, and Ex-services that have representation rights in the
Governing Council (including parliamentary, youth and student groups).
The first wave was carried out in 1957-1963.
The movement for nuclear disarmament was founded in 1957 and riveted
the attention of a large public .
In November 1957, JB Priestley wrote an article for the New
Statesman magazine "The United Kingdom and the Nuclear Bombs",
defending the unilateral nuclear disarmament of Great Britain, which caused
many letters of support. In the early 1950's. Britain became the third nuclear
energy after the US and the USSR, conducted a hydrogen bomb test, which
resulted in widespread fear of a nuclear conflict and the effect of nuclear
tests. The first public meeting of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, held
in the Central Hall of Westminster on February 17, 1958, was attended by five
thousand people. After the meeting, several hundred people left to demonstrate
the action at Downing Street.
The new organization aroused considerable public interest and
received support from a diverse range of figures, including scientists,
religious leaders, academics, journalists, writers, actors and musicians.
Organizations that had previously opposed British nuclear weapons supported the
Campaign, including the British Peace Supporters Committee, the Direct Action
Committee, the National Committee for the Abolition of Nuclear Weapon Tests and
Quakers. In the same year, the division of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament
was established in the Republic of Ireland by John de Courcy Irelan and his
wife Beatrice, who sought to support international efforts to achieve nuclear
disarmament and the preservation of Ireland, free of nuclear energy.
Support for protests was exhausted after the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
of 1963. Since the mid-1960s, the concern of the anti-war movement in the
Vietnam war tended to eclipse demonstrations and protests about nuclear
weapons, but the Campaign continued to operate.
Although the Campaign formally never joined any political party and
was never marked by elections, conducting actions and protests, its
participants and supporters repeatedly ran for the elections as Independent
candidates for nuclear disarmament .
The second wave occurred in 1980-1989.
In the 1980s, the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament was revived in response
to the outbreak of the Cold War. Its membership soon gained momentum, and
already in the early 1980s it amounted to 90,000 national participants and
250,000 people in local offices, which made it one of the largest political
organizations in the UK and probably the biggest peace movement in the whole
world. Public support has reached its highest level since the first wave of the
1960s. In October 1981, 250,000 people joined the anti-nuclear demonstration in
London. The demonstration of the Campaign on the eve of the deployment of
Cruise Missiles in October 1983 was one of the largest in British history.
At the 1982 conference, the Labor Party adopted a policy of
unilateral nuclear disarmament.
Since the Campaign for Nuclear Di-sarmament did not have a national
membership until 1966, the strength of public support in its early years of functioning
can be assessed by relying on actors attending demonstrations or expressing approval
in opinion polls. Between 1955 and 1962, in the range of 19% to 33% of people in Britain expressed disapproval of the production of nuclear weapons.
Public support for unilateral disarmament in September 1982 was 31%,
falling to 21% in January 1983, but it is difficult to say whether this decline
was the result of timely propaganda against the Campaign for nuclear
disarmament or not. Her support fell after the end of the Cold War.
In 2005, MORI conducted a survey to find out the public opinion
about its attitude to Trident and the use of nuclear weapons. When raising the
question of whether the United Kingdom should replace Trident, 54% of
respondents answered "Yes" and 46% answered "No" .
The campaign for nuclear disarmament, fostering support in the
1980s, was challenged by several sources, including NATO, the British Atlantic
Committee (which received budget funding), Women and Families for Protection
(set up by conservative journalist Olga Maitland, speaking against the Peace
Camp of Greenham- common). In addition to the aforementioned oppositionists,
the British government took direct steps against the influence of the Campaign.
Minister of Defense Michael Heseltine, who created the Defense Secretariat with
the goal of "bringing to the public the actions of the government's policy
of deterrence and multilateral disarmament," assessed the activities of
the opposition campaigners who investigated, published, mobilized the public,
protested, worked in churches, defamed the leaders of the Campaign and
Opponents of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament asserted that it
was a communist and Soviet-backed organization. In 1981, the Research Institute
for Foreign Affairs issued a booklet stating that Soviet money was used by the Campania. In the 1980s, the Federation of Conservative Students approved the view of its
Soviet funding. However, despite the significant influence of the opposition
and its many supporters, the Campaign's activities have forever gone down in
history as a symbol of peace and the outstanding work of its participants in
combating proliferation and production of nuclear weapons, which could
subsequently lead to global disastrous consequences in the form of nuclear wars
for Great Britain .
Thus, the activities of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament have
always been aimed at promoting unilateral nuclear disarmament in the United
Kingdom (at present, priority is given to refraining from rearming Trident
missiles), as well as to international nuclear disarmament and tougher arms
regulation in the world through agreements such as the Treaty on the
Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons.
It is worthwhile to consider such an influential anti-nuclear
movement as "Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War"
(International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, IPPNW). This
organization is an international movement of health workers, whose activities
are aimed at preventing a nuclear conflict and promoting nuclear disarmament.
The organization was founded in December 1980.
The founders of VMPIAV - Bernard Laun, professor of cardiology at
the Harvard Institute of Public Health, and Evgeny Chazov, general director of
the cardiac center in Moscow, are world-reno-wned physicians; their meeting in
1960 gave impetus to cooperation in studying the "mechanism of sudden
Bernard Laun became interested in the medical aspects of the nuclear
conflict after listening to Philip Noel-Baker's spe-ech on the nuclear arms
race in 1961. So-on he, together with some colleagues, fo-unded the group
"Physicians for Social Responsibility", becoming its first chairman.
The group later acted as one of the main founders of the Institute. In 1979
Laun invited Chazov to organize an international movement of physicians against
the nuclear arms race, in fulfillment of their professional duty "to
indicate the main threat to human life". Having met a year later in Geneva, they founded VMPVEV together with four other doctors - American and Soviet. It was
decided to involve the doctors of the whole world in the work of the doctors,
refraining from supporting or criticizing any government.
The Federation, sometimes called the Physicians Against Nuclear War,
is headquartered in Boston and London. By 1985, it had more than 135 thousand
mem-bers in 41 countries, including. 28 thousand in the US and 60 thousand in the USSR. They hold annual conferences, discussing the medical aspects of
nuclear war. At the third conference in Amsterdam (1983), the charter was
approved, according to which the organization is managed by an international
council; it includes one representative from the national branch. The Council
elects co-chairs from the USSR and the United States, as well as the executive
In addition to international meetings, VMPIAP conducts many programs
aimed at drawing public attention to the danger of a nuclear arms race. The
organization belongs to the so-called "medical prescription"
moratorium on all types of nuclear tests. It stands for verifiable freezing of
nuclear weapons, issued a declaration on the non-use of any country's first
weapon, arguing for the use of military spending to combat poverty, illiteracy
In June 1982, six American and Soviet doctors participated in an
unprecedented discussion on Soviet television. The program, funded by the
VMPIAP, attracted 100 million spectators to the USSR, later it was broadcast in
the US and Europe. In the same year, the group published a collection of
articles by American, Soviet, British and Japanese physicians entitled
"The Last Aid: The Medical Dimensions of Nuclear War", which was
widely disseminated and even studied in universities and medical institutes.
In collaboration with the Center for Nuclear Psychology, the WWIIF
funded a study of the relationship of Soviet and American children to the
threat of nuclear war. In the center of educational activity of the
organization is the Soviet-American campaign of doctors, within the framework
of which the countries exchanged groups of doctors who spoke at professional
meetings and public forums. VMPVYV encourages the programs of its national
branches, supplying them with medical and scientific literature, pamphlets,
audiovisual materials and carrying out periodicals. In 1984, the services of
the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
were awarded the prize "In informing the public and declining the
consciousness of humanity for peace".
In October next year, the Norwegian Nobel Committee announced that
the WWII was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1985. "This organization has
brought significant benefits to humanity by disseminating authoritative
information and contributing to the realization of the catastrophic
consequences of a nuclear conflict." The statement went on to say:
"The Committee is convinced that this in turn will strengthen the public's
movement for a complete ban on nuclear weapons and a decisive shift in favor of
health and other humanitarian needs. The awakening of public opinion is already
evident in the West and East, North and South, which can give the talks on arms
reduction new prospects and a new impetus. In this regard, the committee
attaches particular importance to the fact that the organization was founded as
a result of a joint initiative of Soviet and American doctors, supported by
doctors from more than 40 countries. «The Committee invited the co-chairmen of
the VMPIEV B. Lawn and E. Chazov to accept the award on behalf of their organization.
B. Laun is a pioneer in the study of sudden death due to cardiac
arrest, the inventor of a cardioverter and defibrillator, a device that
stimulates the heartbeat of the damaged heart. One of the first he learned to
control the anomalies of the heartbeat, studied the role of psychological and behavioral
factors in heart regulation. B. Laun is a native of Lithuania, a graduate of Maine University and Medical Institute at Johns Hopkins University, the author of two books and
more than 300 research articles.
In a speech delivered in Oslo on December 10, Laun said: "If we
are destined to get rid of the arsenals of genocide, it is only if we call on
the help that energy that the mind and heart feed on the service of humanity.
We, doctors, nurturing human life from birth to death, see our moral duty in
all the strength to prevent slipping to the abyss".
Chazov combined leadership of one of the largest cardiological
centers in the world with the duties of the Deputy Minister of Health of the USSR (and then the Minister) and the head of the 4th Main Directorate of the Ministry of
Health, which monitors the health of high-ranking Soviet officials. Occupying
his post since 1967, he is known in the country as a "Kremlin
doctor". Chazov is the author of 300 articles and several books on
cardiology, including the description of attempts to find a composition that
can dissolve blood clots. Member of the CPSU Central Committee since 1982, he
was awarded many Soviet awards for his achievements in the field of medicine.
Chazov is chairman of the Soviet Committee for Physicians for the Prevention of
Nuclear War, which cooperates with the American Physicians for Social
"True to the oath of Hippocrates, we can not remain silent,
realizing what the latest epidemic will bring to mankind - an atomic war,"
said Chazov at the ceremony. "The Hiroshima bell does not sound like a
funeral ring in our hearts, but an alarm bell, calling for action in defense of
life on the planet." The awarding of the Nobel Prize to the WWII, Chazov
added, "inspires forces that advocate the destruction of nuclear weapons
on the ground."
On the eve of the award ceremony in Oslo, Chazov's figure provoked
controversial judgments, although the award was not awarded to him, but to the
VMPIJAV. Ten European leaders of Christian Democratic parties, joined by German
Chancellor Helmut Kohl, appealed not to award a medal to the Soviet physician,
since in 1973, together with 24 academicians, he signed a letter stigmatizing
Soviet physicist and dissident Andrei Sakharov for anti-Soviet activities.
However, Chazov objected that the Nobel Prize was not awarded to him, and the
letter of 1973 allegedly expressed only a difference of opinion with Sakharov.
Summing up the discussion, the representative of the Norwegian Nobel
Committee Egil Orvik remarked: "We remember Sakharov. The award is not an
award to Dr. Chazov for the signature under the letter. The prize is awarded to
an organization that has overcome ideological obstacles and united the
For its activities in 1984, the organization was awarded the UNESCO
Prize, and in 1985 was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for its services in
informing the public and declining the consciousness of mankind in favor of
peace. In the mid-1980s, there were about 145,000 members of the WWIIF, and by
the early 1990s there were already about 200,000 people from more than 60
countries. In 2007, the organization launched a campaign aimed at the
destruction of nuclear weapons.
One of the most significant anti-nuclear movements in the territory
of the former Soviet Union was the public mo-vement
From the history of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site, it is known
that in August 1947, the decision of the Council of Ministers of the USSR made
a decision to create an atomic test site, which was conventionally called
"Training Ground # 2". The first test of nuclear wea-pons at the Semipalatinsk test site was ma-de on August 29, 1949. In general, the da-mage to human health caused by the 40-year-old activity of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site is
enormous. The whole territory of the former Semipalatinsk region was
contaminated with products of nuclear explosions, and 1.2 million people received
radiation exposure in a different dose range. On February 12, 1989, radioactive
gases were released onto the surface of the earth after another nuclear test.
Two days later, in 110 kilometers from the epicenter of the tests, the
radioactive background was 4000 micro-rengen per hour. This event sparked the
formation of an anti-nuclear movement in the country, headed by the chairman of
the Writers' Union of Kazakhstan, public figure and poet Olzhas Suleimenov
On February 26, 1989, in a live television performance, an
outstanding Kazakh writer and public figure Olzhas Suleimenov made a statement
on the need to stop nuclear testing in Kazakhstan. On February 28, at a meeting
near the Writers' Union building in Alma-Ata, a decision was taken to create
the anti-nuclear movement "Nevada-Semipalatinsk", registered in April
In June 1989, at the First Congress of Soviet Deputies in Moscow, Suleim-enov set out the goals, tasks and requirements of the organization. The
charter of the first non-governmental organization of Kazakhstan, which is the International Antinuclear Movement "Nevada-Semipala-tinsk",
specifies two main goals: the closure of the test site and the rehabilitation
of the affected population, and the improvement of the environment. The first
task was completed. The Interregional Scientific and Practical Conference
"Public Health and the Environment in the City of Semipalatinsk and the
Semipalatinsk Region of the Kazakh SSR", held July 17-19, 1989 in Semipalatinsk, formed a commission which, on the basis of the documents and evidence of
citizens examined, recognized the need to close the landfill .
At the initiative of the movement, the Supreme Soviet of the USSR adopted an appeal to the US Congress with an appeal to begin a dialogue on the
termination of the tests at the parliamentary level. The movement organized
numerous protests, rallies, lessons of peace. So, on October 4, 1989, after the
explosion of a nuclear charge with a capacity of 60 kilotons, a rally was held
near the building of the Ministry of Defense in Moscow. In October, miners of Karaganda came out in support of the anti-nuclear movement. On October 19, 1989, an
explosion with a capacity of 75 kilotons was made on the territory of the Semipalatinsk test site, which was the last. Its consequence was numerous rallies in Moscow, Alma-Ata, Karaganda, Pavlodar, Semipalatinsk, in the village of Karaul in the Abai district, where demands were made to close the landfill .
On October 23, 1989, Olzhas Suleimenov, in his speech at the session
of the Supreme Council, based on the fact that the government did not keep
promises to reduce the number and power of the explosions, reported on the people's
moratorium when any subsequent test would cause a general strike in Kazakhstan.
At the end of October of the same year, at a session of the Supreme Soviet of
the USSR, Olas Suleimenov and academician Andrei Sakharov put forward a
proposal to proclaim a unilateral perpetual moratorium on nuclear explosions by
the USSR. On November 14, 1989, the Supreme Council of the Kazakh SSR adopted a
resolution on the detrimental effects of tests on public health and appeals to
the Supreme Soviet and the government of the Soviet Union with a request to
close the nuclear test site. On November 27, 1989, the Supreme Soviet of the USSR passed a resolution instructing the government to consider closing the Semipalatinsk test site
In the spring of 1990, on the initiative of the movement
"Nevada-Semipa-latinsk" joint actions are conducted in the USA, Great Britain, Japan, Germany and Kazakhstan under the motto "The Wave of Peace". On
April 3-4, 1990, prominent scientists and anti-nuclear activists took part in
the scientific conference "Ecology-Human-Nature". On May 22, 1990,
the Supreme Soviet of the Republic adopted a resolution on the closure of the Semipalatinsk test site. On 23-27 May, an anti-nuclear movement in Almaty, in conjunction
with the "Movement of Physicians for the Prohibition of Nuclear
Weapons", held the International Congress "World Voters Against
Nuclear Weapons", and in September 1990, an international Peace March
under the slogan "For a world without violence. For the survival of the
Earth "with the participation of Soviet and American representatives, who
put forward a call for the cessation of nuclear testing in Nevada. Significant
steps have also been taken to stop nuclear testing at the state level. Thus, in
the Declaration on State Sovereignty adopted by the Supreme Council of
Kazakhstan on October 25, 1990, Article 11 declared the prohibition of the development,
production and testing of nuclear weapons on the territory of the republic
Participants of the movement "Nevada-Semipalatinsk"
continued active operations in the international arena. On November 25-29, 1990, a delegation with the participation of members of the parliaments of the USSR, the United States and Great Britain, which included Olzhas Suleimenov, met with visiting the
capitals of the states. The leaders of the states were handed the texts of the
Open Letter written by more than 2000 parliamentarians from 42 countries,
calling for the banning of nuclear tests in the world.
Activists of the movement "Nevada-Semipalatinsk" took part
in mass actions at the testing range in Nevada, a rally in New York. The branch
offices are open in all regions of Kazakhstan, as well as in Russia, the USA, Italy, Japan, Turkey and other countries. The regional East-Siberian Committee of
the movement was established with the center in Barnaul, in May 1991, the
foreign movement of the Movement was established in Turkey, in June the
North-West in St. Petersburg.
On August 29, 1991, a tense struggle for the cessation of nuclear
tests at the Semipalatinsk test site was crowned with success. President of the
Republic of Kazakhstan Nazarbayev signed a decree "On closing the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site". Kazakhstan was the first to take a real step towards
universal nuclear disarmament: it closed the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site,
the fourth in terms of its destructive power, nuclear potential.
The program of the movement "Nevada-Semipalatinsk" has
joined the program of the international anti-nuclear alliance. The Treaty on
the Comprehensive Prohibition of Nuclear Weapon Tests was adopted. Most
countries put their signatures under it .
In the asset movement there are victories that Kazakhstan can be proud of and the entire anti-war movement of the planet. In 1989, the movement
stopped 11 explosions at the Semipalatinsk test site, out of the planned 18.
Only 7 succeeded, the last explosion took place on October 19. "The
movement, uniting scientists, writers, employees, workers and many people of
all ages, has made a huge contribution to the struggle to close the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site and to suspend the activities of other test ranges of the
world. Olzhas Suleimenov's merit in the anti-nuclear movement is great,
"the Pre-sident of Kazakhstan, NA Nazarbayev, ga-ve such assessment to the
movement and its leader .
The second goal of the movement "Nevada-Semipalatinsk" is
the improvement of the environment, which is much longer in time. It requires
not only financial costs, but also huge human resources.
Currently, the movement was named "Nevada-Semey" in
connection with the renaming of the city of Semipalatinsk in Semey in 2007.
Realizing the importance of work in achieving peace on Earth, Olzhas
Suleimenov, president of the Nevada-Semey MAD, announced that it is time to
transfer the peace relay to the hands of the younger generation. The young
inhabitants of Semey signed 100 thousand subscription lists supporting the idea
of renouncing nuclear weapons. In total, more than half a million signatures
were collected in Kazakhstan. Then the collection of signatures is distributed
to all countries of the world with the aim of creating a special international
fund, where young people work, urging the world to recognize nuclear weapons
Having examined examples of organizations whose activities are aimed
at the implementation of nuclear disarmament, we have identified the following
key provisions on anti-nuclear movements:
1) Nuclear disarmament is not directly a complete refusal of the
state from nuclear weapons, but represents a process of gradual reduction of
the arsenals of nuclear weapons, their carriers and delivery vehicles, as well
2) The movements on nuclear disarmament are international
socio-political organizations that have their own structure and institutional mechanisms;
3) Major public organizations such as the Movement for Nuclear
Disarmament in the UK, Doctors for the Prevention of Nuclear War and the
Nevada-Semey movement have proven over the years that the nuclear disarmament
movements, through their efforts to promote nuclear disarmament are able to
earn the approval of the international community (the Nobel Peace Prize in
1984, the organization "Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear
War"), affect the significant reduction in the number of nuclear weapons
(UK) and contribute to the complete abandonment of nuclear weapons states
The activity of anti-nuclear movements proves their effectiveness
and the need to implement nuclear disarmament processes in the context of
international security. The movement of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament in
Great Britain proves that even though some states do not completely abandon
their nuclear capabilities, partial and gradual nuclear disarmament can be
carried out and carries positive results.
1. Shikaki Khalil The Nuclearization Debates: The
Cases of Israel and Egypt // Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 14. - No. 4.
(Summer, 1985). - P. 318.
2. ElBaradei Mohamed Reflections on Nuclear
Challenges Today. 6 December 2005, London, UK International Institute for
Strategic Studies, Alistair Buchan Lecture
3. Caldicott, Hellen. The new nuclear danger. George
W. Bush's military-indus-trial complex. New Press, NY, 2002. - P.319.
4. Cameco and Kazatomprom Sign Agreement to
Restructure JV Inkai, Ca-meco, May 27, 2016 // www. cameco. com
5. Eben Harrell, David F. Hoffman, “Plutonium
Mountain: Inside the 17-Year Mission to Secure a Dangerous Legacy of Soviet
Nuclear Testing,” Project on Managing the Atom, Belfer Center for Science and
International Affaird, Harvard University, August 2013 // belfercenter.ksg.harvard.edu
6. United Nations Disarmament Yearbook, volume 20:
2011, chapter IV. Ð. 119.
7. Cameco and Kazatomprom Sign Agreement to
Restructure JV Inkai, Cameco, May 27, 2016 // www. cameco. com
8. Tom Blanton and Svetlana Savranskaya, eds.,
“Kazakhstan and Nunn-Lu-gar: A Non-Proliferation Success Sto-ry,” National
Security Archive, Natio-nal Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book, No. 528,
Washington, DC, 2015. – P. 176-186.
9. Dhanapala J. Les peoples au center du desarmement//
Chronique ONU. 2001.No.1. P. 16.
10. Report of the Secretary-General «New Dimensions
of Arms Regulation and Disarmament in the Post-Cold War Era». A/C.1/4777. 1992
11. Carter J. A Dangerous Deal With India. // The Washington Post. 29.03.2006 http:// www. washingtonpost.com/ wpdyn/ content/article/
2006/ 03/ 28/ AR200603 2801210.html;
12. Chavetz G. The Political Psychology of the
Nuclear Nonproliferation Regime // The Journal of Politics, Vol. 57, No. 3.
13. Deutsch K. The New Nuclear Threat // Foreign
Affairs. Vol. 71. No. 41. (Fall 1992).
14. Dhanapala J. Multilateralism and the future of
the global nuclear nonproliferation regime// Nonproliferation review, Volume 8,
Number 3, Fall Winter 2001
15. ElBaradei Mohamed Reflections on Nuclear
Challenges Today. 6 December 2005, London, UK International Institute for
Strategic Studies, Alistair Buchan Lecture
16. Ferguson Charles D., Potter William C. and
others The Four Faces of Nuclear Terrorism. Monterey, California, 2004
17. George Perkovich, Jessica T. Math-ews, Joseph
Cirincione, Rose Gotte-moeller, Jon B. Wolfsthal Universal Compliance. A
strategy for nuclear Security. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2005
- www. Carnegie Endowment. org/strategy
18. Keohane R. and Nye J. S. Jr. Globalisation:
What's new? What's not? (So what?) // Foreign policy. 2008. Spring. P. 104-119.
Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №10 - 2018