The beginning of the movement for nuclear disarmament

Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №10 - 2018

Author: Alexandrov Nikita, Kazakh-American Free University, Kazakhstan

The emergence of nuclear weapon and the development of the nuclear potential of the major powers significantly influenced on the geopolitical situation and the international community in the 20th century. Nuclear weapon has become an integral tool of the diplomacy of both countries and it continues to occupy an exceptional place in the context of international relations of the 21st century.

In addition to secret recognizing the authority of countries with nuclear capabilities at the international level, the presence of nuclear weapons in the arsenal of the armament of states led to the emergence and development of movements for nuclear disarmament.

Nuclear disarmament is the process of reducing the arsenals of nuclear weapons, their carriers and delivery vehicles, as well as production. In the opinion of the proponents of nuclear disarmament, it will reduce the chance of a nuclear war. Opponents of this concept point out that the process of nuclear disarmament can nullify the effect of "containment", which largely kept the world from war during the second half of the 20th century [1].

Nuclear weapon has become an integral tool of the diplomacy of both countries. The beginning of nuclear disarmament is considered to be in the Caribbean crisis of 1962, when the world at first time appeared on the verge of a nuclear catastrophe. The reason for this was the deployment of US medium-range missiles in Turkey, which provoked the Soviet Union for an emergency installation of similar missiles in Cuba. One of the consequences of the Caribbean crisis was the emergence in the West of a powerful social movement in support of nuclear disarmament. The disarmament process had an economic implication: the build-up of the nuclear arsenal had an enormous burden on the country's economy.

The anti-nuclear movement is a combination of social movements against various nuclear technologies, especially against the production, testing and use of nuclear weapons.

One of the first organizations created to support the movement for nuclear disarmament was the Nuclear Disarmament Campaign in Great Britain. The Nuclear Disarmament Campaign (CND) is an organization that promotes the unilateral nuclear disarmament of the United Kingdom, advocates for international nuclear disarmament and more difficult international arms regulation through agreements such as the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. This organization also opposes military actions that could lead to the use of nuclear, chemical or biological weapons and opposes the construction of nuclear power plants in the UK. The chairman of CND is Kate Hudson (Kate Hudson).

The organization opposes military actions that may lead to the use of nuclear, chemical or biological weapons and the construction of nuclear power plants on the territory of the Kingdom. The symbol of the movement was a combined image of the signs of the semaphore alphabet "n" and "d" (from "nuclear disarmament") in the circle, later adopted as its symbol by the movement of hippies around the world. Many mistakenly believe that this image is the foot of the world's dove's paw [2].

The campaign for nuclear disarmament was formed in 1957, and since then it has been periodically noted at the forefront of the peace movement in Britain. This means that it was the biggest campaign for peace in Europe. Between 1959 and 1965, a march was organized in Aldermaston, which was held on the Easter weekend from the Atomic Weapons Institution under Aldermaston in Berkshire to Trafalgar Square, London. The first major march of Aldermaston in 1958 went another way (from London to Aldermaston), and was formed by the Committee on Direct Action Against Nuclear War [3].

In liquidation, the global abolition of British nuclear weapons and opposition to its deployment, the British government is campaigning for the abolition of the Trident.

In the context of the abolition of weapons of mass destruction, especially chemical and biological weapons, the campaign for nuclear disarmament requires a ban on the manufacture, testing and use of weapons made of uranium.

The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), which opposes American military bases and nuclear weapons, supports the nuclear-free future of a less militarized and more secure Europe [4].

The movement for nuclear disarmament was supported by a neutral middle class, the left wing of the Labor Party and the trade union movement. In 1960, the Labor Conference adopted a resolution on unilateral defense policies, despite strong opposition from party leader Hugh Gates-kall, who branded the activists of the Mo-vement as "pacifists, separatists who had attached fellow travelers" and sworn "to fight, fight and again fight to save hotly favorite party ". In 1961, the resolution was canceled by vote. Disagreements in the Labor Party were matched by a split in the Movement itself between the "Committee of the One", which called for acts of civil disobedience, and the Laborites, who supported the holding of campaigns in support of the Movement within the framework of the Constitution. The absence of internal unity in the party led to a weakening of the Movement's support, and by 1963 it had practically ceased to exist. During the escalation of nuclear tensions between the superpowers in the late 1970s, the movement revived, and in the 1980s it organized an opposition to the conservative government's agreement with the United States on the replacement of nuclear missiles of the Polaris type with the Trident system and the deployment of American cruise missiles, which led to a sharp increase in the number of participants in the Movement and demonstrations in areas of bases chosen to accommodate cruise missiles, especially in Molsworth, Cambridgeshire, and Greenham Common, Berkshire. The disagreement over the inclusion of the commitment to unilateral nuclear disarmament in the party's program in 1980, a year later became one of the main reasons for the withdrawal of the SDP from it. The association of the Movement with left-wing politicians reduced the attractiveness of the Labor Party and promoted its defeat in the elections in the 1980s. Improving relations between the US and the USSR after the coming to power of Mikhail Gorbachev reduced the British's concerns about the possible use of nuclear weapons. During this period, interest arose for the subsidiary organization of the Movement "Eu-ropean Nuclear Disarmament", but by the end of the 1980s, the movement again lost mass support [5].

In recent years, the Nuclear Disarmament Campaign has expanded its influence with the goal of forming opposition in American and British politics in the Middle East, as the anti-nuclear campaign in the 1960s intensified in the issues of the war in Vietnam. In the course of cooperation with the Islamic Military Coalition and the Muslim Association of Great Britain, the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament organized anti-war marches under the slogan "There is no attack on Iraq," including protests on September 28, 2002 and February 15, 2003. This also led to the organization of a permanent watch for the victims of the bombing of London in 2005.

The campaign for nuclear disarmament against the Trident missile organized a rally on Parliament Square in March 2007, coinciding with the movement of the House of Commons in favor of the resumption of the nuclear weapons system. The rally counted more than 1,000 people, supported by Labor MPs: John Trickett, Emily Thornberry, John McDonnell, Michael Micher, Diane Abbott and Jeremy Corbin, and Alfyn Llywid of Plaid Camry and Angus McNeil of the Scottish National Party. In the House of Commons, 161 members of parliament (88 of them the Labor Party) voted against the renewal of Trident [6].

In 2006, the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament began its activities against nuclear energy. Its membership, which was 32,000 participants from the peak of 110,000 people in 1983, tripled after Prime Minister Tony Blair committed himself to controlling nuclear energy.

The campaign for nuclear disarmament formed a national organization in London, national groups in Wales, Ireland and Scotland, regional groups in Cambridgeshire, Cumbria, East Midlands, Kent, London, Manchester, Merseyside, Mid Somerset, Norwich, South Cheshire and North Staffordshire, southern England , Southwest England, Suffolk, Surrey, Sussex, Tyne and Wear, West Midlands, Yorkshire and other local branches [7].

There are five "groups of specialists": the Nuclear Disarmament Campaign of the Trade Union, Christian, Labor, Green Campaigns for Nuclear Disarmament, and Ex-services that have representation rights in the Governing Council (including parliamentary, youth and student groups).

The first wave was carried out in 1957-1963.

The movement for nuclear disarmament was founded in 1957 and riveted the attention of a large public [7].

In November 1957, JB Priestley wrote an article for the New Statesman magazine "The United Kingdom and the Nuclear Bombs", defending the unilateral nuclear disarmament of Great Britain, which caused many letters of support. In the early 1950's. Britain became the third nuclear energy after the US and the USSR, conducted a hydrogen bomb test, which resulted in widespread fear of a nuclear conflict and the effect of nuclear tests. The first public meeting of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, held in the Central Hall of Westminster on February 17, 1958, was attended by five thousand people. After the meeting, several hundred people left to demonstrate the action at Downing Street.

The new organization aroused considerable public interest and received support from a diverse range of figures, including scientists, religious leaders, academics, journalists, writers, actors and musicians. Organizations that had previously opposed British nuclear weapons supported the Campaign, including the British Peace Supporters Committee, the Direct Action Committee, the National Committee for the Abolition of Nuclear Weapon Tests and Quakers. In the same year, the division of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament was established in the Republic of Ireland by John de Courcy Irelan and his wife Beatrice, who sought to support international efforts to achieve nuclear disarmament and the preservation of Ireland, free of nuclear energy.

Support for protests was exhausted after the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty of 1963. Since the mid-1960s, the concern of the anti-war movement in the Vietnam war tended to eclipse demonstrations and protests about nuclear weapons, but the Campaign continued to operate.

Although the Campaign formally never joined any political party and was never marked by elections, conducting actions and protests, its participants and supporters repeatedly ran for the elections as Independent candidates for nuclear disarmament [8].

The second wave occurred in 1980-1989.

In the 1980s, the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament was revived in response to the outbreak of the Cold War. Its membership soon gained momentum, and already in the early 1980s it amounted to 90,000 national participants and 250,000 people in local offices, which made it one of the largest political organizations in the UK and probably the biggest peace movement in the whole world. Public support has reached its highest level since the first wave of the 1960s. In October 1981, 250,000 people joined the anti-nuclear demonstration in London. The demonstration of the Campaign on the eve of the deployment of Cruise Missiles in October 1983 was one of the largest in British history.

At the 1982 conference, the Labor Party adopted a policy of unilateral nuclear disarmament.

Since the Campaign for Nuclear Di-sarmament did not have a national membership until 1966, the strength of public support in its early years of functioning can be assessed by relying on actors attending demonstrations or expressing approval in opinion polls. Between 1955 and 1962, in the range of 19% to 33% of people in Britain expressed disapproval of the production of nuclear weapons.

Public support for unilateral disarmament in September 1982 was 31%, falling to 21% in January 1983, but it is difficult to say whether this decline was the result of timely propaganda against the Campaign for nuclear disarmament or not. Her support fell after the end of the Cold War.

In 2005, MORI conducted a survey to find out the public opinion about its attitude to Trident and the use of nuclear weapons. When raising the question of whether the United Kingdom should replace Trident, 54% of respondents answered "Yes" and 46% answered "No" [9].

The campaign for nuclear disarmament, fostering support in the 1980s, was challenged by several sources, including NATO, the British Atlantic Committee (which received budget funding), Women and Families for Protection (set up by conservative journalist Olga Maitland, speaking against the Peace Camp of Greenham- common). In addition to the aforementioned oppositionists, the British government took direct steps against the influence of the Campaign. Minister of Defense Michael Heseltine, who created the Defense Secretariat with the goal of "bringing to the public the actions of the government's policy of deterrence and multilateral disarmament," assessed the activities of the opposition campaigners who investigated, published, mobilized the public, protested, worked in churches, defamed the leaders of the Campaign and espionage.

Opponents of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament asserted that it was a communist and Soviet-backed organization. In 1981, the Research Institute for Foreign Affairs issued a booklet stating that Soviet money was used by the Campania. In the 1980s, the Federation of Conservative Students approved the view of its Soviet funding. However, despite the significant influence of the opposition and its many supporters, the Campaign's activities have forever gone down in history as a symbol of peace and the outstanding work of its participants in combating proliferation and production of nuclear weapons, which could subsequently lead to global disastrous consequences in the form of nuclear wars for Great Britain [10].

Thus, the activities of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament have always been aimed at promoting unilateral nuclear disarmament in the United Kingdom (at present, priority is given to refraining from rearming Trident missiles), as well as to international nuclear disarmament and tougher arms regulation in the world through agreements such as the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons.

It is worthwhile to consider such an influential anti-nuclear movement as "Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War" (International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, IPPNW). This organization is an international movement of health workers, whose activities are aimed at preventing a nuclear conflict and promoting nuclear disarmament. The organization was founded in December 1980.

The founders of VMPIAV - Bernard Laun, professor of cardiology at the Harvard Institute of Public Health, and Evgeny Chazov, general director of the cardiac center in Moscow, are world-reno-wned physicians; their meeting in 1960 gave impetus to cooperation in studying the "mechanism of sudden death".

Bernard Laun became interested in the medical aspects of the nuclear conflict after listening to Philip Noel-Baker's spe-ech on the nuclear arms race in 1961. So-on he, together with some colleagues, fo-unded the group "Physicians for Social Responsibility", becoming its first chairman. The group later acted as one of the main founders of the Institute. In 1979 Laun invited Chazov to organize an international movement of physicians against the nuclear arms race, in fulfillment of their professional duty "to indicate the main threat to human life". Having met a year later in Geneva, they founded VMPVEV together with four other doctors - American and Soviet. It was decided to involve the doctors of the whole world in the work of the doctors, refraining from supporting or criticizing any government.

The Federation, sometimes called the Physicians Against Nuclear War, is headquartered in Boston and London. By 1985, it had more than 135 thousand mem-bers in 41 countries, including. 28 thousand in the US and 60 thousand in the USSR. They hold annual conferences, discussing the medical aspects of nuclear war. At the third conference in Amsterdam (1983), the charter was approved, according to which the organization is managed by an international council; it includes one representative from the national branch. The Council elects co-chairs from the USSR and the United States, as well as the executive committee.

In addition to international meetings, VMPIAP conducts many programs aimed at drawing public attention to the danger of a nuclear arms race. The organization belongs to the so-called "medical prescription" moratorium on all types of nuclear tests. It stands for verifiable freezing of nuclear weapons, issued a declaration on the non-use of any country's first weapon, arguing for the use of military spending to combat poverty, illiteracy and disease.

In June 1982, six American and Soviet doctors participated in an unprecedented discussion on Soviet television. The program, funded by the VMPIAP, attracted 100 million spectators to the USSR, later it was broadcast in the US and Europe. In the same year, the group published a collection of articles by American, Soviet, British and Japanese physicians entitled "The Last Aid: The Medical Dimensions of Nuclear War", which was widely disseminated and even studied in universities and medical institutes.

In collaboration with the Center for Nuclear Psychology, the WWIIF funded a study of the relationship of Soviet and American children to the threat of nuclear war. In the center of educational activity of the organization is the Soviet-American campaign of doctors, within the framework of which the countries exchanged groups of doctors who spoke at professional meetings and public forums. VMPVYV encourages the programs of its national branches, supplying them with medical and scientific literature, pamphlets, audiovisual materials and carrying out periodicals. In 1984, the services of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) were awarded the prize "In informing the public and declining the consciousness of humanity for peace".

In October next year, the Norwegian Nobel Committee announced that the WWII was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1985. "This organization has brought significant benefits to humanity by disseminating authoritative information and contributing to the realization of the catastrophic consequences of a nuclear conflict." The statement went on to say: "The Committee is convinced that this in turn will strengthen the public's movement for a complete ban on nuclear weapons and a decisive shift in favor of health and other humanitarian needs. The awakening of public opinion is already evident in the West and East, North and South, which can give the talks on arms reduction new prospects and a new impetus. In this regard, the committee attaches particular importance to the fact that the organization was founded as a result of a joint initiative of Soviet and American doctors, supported by doctors from more than 40 countries. «The Committee invited the co-chairmen of the VMPIEV B. Lawn and E. Chazov to accept the award on behalf of their organization.

B. Laun is a pioneer in the study of sudden death due to cardiac arrest, the inventor of a cardioverter and defibrillator, a device that stimulates the heartbeat of the damaged heart. One of the first he learned to control the anomalies of the heartbeat, studied the role of psychological and behavioral factors in heart regulation. B. Laun is a native of Lithuania, a graduate of Maine University and Medical Institute at Johns Hopkins University, the author of two books and more than 300 research articles.

In a speech delivered in Oslo on December 10, Laun said: "If we are destined to get rid of the arsenals of genocide, it is only if we call on the help that energy that the mind and heart feed on the service of humanity. We, doctors, nurturing human life from birth to death, see our moral duty in all the strength to prevent slipping to the abyss".

Chazov combined leadership of one of the largest cardiological centers in the world with the duties of the Deputy Minister of Health of the USSR (and then the Minister) and the head of the 4th Main Directorate of the Ministry of Health, which monitors the health of high-ranking Soviet officials. Occupying his post since 1967, he is known in the country as a "Kremlin doctor". Chazov is the author of 300 articles and several books on cardiology, including the description of attempts to find a composition that can dissolve blood clots. Member of the CPSU Central Committee since 1982, he was awarded many Soviet awards for his achievements in the field of medicine. Chazov is chairman of the Soviet Committee for Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, which cooperates with the American Physicians for Social Responsibility.

"True to the oath of Hippocrates, we can not remain silent, realizing what the latest epidemic will bring to mankind - an atomic war," said Chazov at the ceremony. "The Hiroshima bell does not sound like a funeral ring in our hearts, but an alarm bell, calling for action in defense of life on the planet." The awarding of the Nobel Prize to the WWII, Chazov added, "inspires forces that advocate the destruction of nuclear weapons on the ground."

On the eve of the award ceremony in Oslo, Chazov's figure provoked controversial judgments, although the award was not awarded to him, but to the VMPIJAV. Ten European leaders of Christian Democratic parties, joined by German Chancellor Helmut Kohl, appealed not to award a medal to the Soviet physician, since in 1973, together with 24 academicians, he signed a letter stigmatizing Soviet physicist and dissident Andrei Sakharov for anti-Soviet activities. However, Chazov objected that the Nobel Prize was not awarded to him, and the letter of 1973 allegedly expressed only a difference of opinion with Sakharov.

Summing up the discussion, the representative of the Norwegian Nobel Committee Egil Orvik remarked: "We remember Sakharov. The award is not an award to Dr. Chazov for the signature under the letter. The prize is awarded to an organization that has overcome ideological obstacles and united the peoples".

For its activities in 1984, the organization was awarded the UNESCO Prize, and in 1985 was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for its services in informing the public and declining the consciousness of mankind in favor of peace. In the mid-1980s, there were about 145,000 members of the WWIIF, and by the early 1990s there were already about 200,000 people from more than 60 countries. In 2007, the organization launched a campaign aimed at the destruction of nuclear weapons.

One of the most significant anti-nuclear movements in the territory of the former Soviet Union was the public mo-vement "Nevada-Semipalatinsk."

From the history of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site, it is known that in August 1947, the decision of the Council of Ministers of the USSR made a decision to create an atomic test site, which was conventionally called "Training Ground # 2". The first test of nuclear wea-pons at the Semipalatinsk test site was ma-de on August 29, 1949. In general, the da-mage to human health caused by the 40-year-old activity of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site is enormous. The whole territory of the former Semipalatinsk region was contaminated with products of nuclear explosions, and 1.2 million people received radiation exposure in a different dose range. On February 12, 1989, radioactive gases were released onto the surface of the earth after another nuclear test. Two days later, in 110 kilometers from the epicenter of the tests, the radioactive background was 4000 micro-rengen per hour. This event sparked the formation of an anti-nuclear movement in the country, headed by the chairman of the Writers' Union of Kazakhstan, public figure and poet Olzhas Suleimenov [11].

On February 26, 1989, in a live television performance, an outstanding Kazakh writer and public figure Olzhas Suleimenov made a statement on the need to stop nuclear testing in Kazakhstan. On February 28, at a meeting near the Writers' Union building in Alma-Ata, a decision was taken to create the anti-nuclear movement "Nevada-Semipalatinsk", registered in April 1989.

In June 1989, at the First Congress of Soviet Deputies in Moscow, Suleim-enov set out the goals, tasks and requirements of the organization. The charter of the first non-governmental organization of Kazakhstan, which is the International Antinuclear Movement "Nevada-Semipala-tinsk", specifies two main goals: the closure of the test site and the rehabilitation of the affected population, and the improvement of the environment. The first task was completed. The Interregional Scientific and Practical Conference "Public Health and the Environment in the City of Semipalatinsk and the Semipalatinsk Region of the Kazakh SSR", held July 17-19, 1989 in Semipalatinsk, formed a commission which, on the basis of the documents and evidence of citizens examined, recognized the need to close the landfill [12].

At the initiative of the movement, the Supreme Soviet of the USSR adopted an appeal to the US Congress with an appeal to begin a dialogue on the termination of the tests at the parliamentary level. The movement organized numerous protests, rallies, lessons of peace. So, on October 4, 1989, after the explosion of a nuclear charge with a capacity of 60 kilotons, a rally was held near the building of the Ministry of Defense in Moscow. In October, miners of Karaganda came out in support of the anti-nuclear movement. On October 19, 1989, an explosion with a capacity of 75 kilotons was made on the territory of the Semipalatinsk test site, which was the last. Its consequence was numerous rallies in Moscow, Alma-Ata, Karaganda, Pavlodar, Semipalatinsk, in the village of Karaul in the Abai district, where demands were made to close the landfill [13].

On October 23, 1989, Olzhas Suleimenov, in his speech at the session of the Supreme Council, based on the fact that the government did not keep promises to reduce the number and power of the explosions, reported on the people's moratorium when any subsequent test would cause a general strike in Kazakhstan. At the end of October of the same year, at a session of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, Olas Suleimenov and academician Andrei Sakharov put forward a proposal to proclaim a unilateral perpetual moratorium on nuclear explosions by the USSR. On November 14, 1989, the Supreme Council of the Kazakh SSR adopted a resolution on the detrimental effects of tests on public health and appeals to the Supreme Soviet and the government of the Soviet Union with a request to close the nuclear test site. On November 27, 1989, the Supreme Soviet of the USSR passed a resolution instructing the government to consider closing the Semipalatinsk test site [14].

In the spring of 1990, on the initiative of the movement "Nevada-Semipa-latinsk" joint actions are conducted in the USA, Great Britain, Japan, Germany and Kazakhstan under the motto "The Wave of Peace". On April 3-4, 1990, prominent scientists and anti-nuclear activists took part in the scientific conference "Ecology-Human-Nature". On May 22, 1990, the Supreme Soviet of the Republic adopted a resolution on the closure of the Semipalatinsk test site. On 23-27 May, an anti-nuclear movement in Almaty, in conjunction with the "Movement of Physicians for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons", held the International Congress "World Voters Against Nuclear Weapons", and in September 1990, an international Peace March under the slogan "For a world without violence. For the survival of the Earth "with the participation of Soviet and American representatives, who put forward a call for the cessation of nuclear testing in Nevada. Significant steps have also been taken to stop nuclear testing at the state level. Thus, in the Declaration on State Sovereignty adopted by the Supreme Council of Kazakhstan on October 25, 1990, Article 11 declared the prohibition of the development, production and testing of nuclear weapons on the territory of the republic [15].

Participants of the movement "Nevada-Semipalatinsk" continued active operations in the international arena. On November 25-29, 1990, a delegation with the participation of members of the parliaments of the USSR, the United States and Great Britain, which included Olzhas Suleimenov, met with visiting the capitals of the states. The leaders of the states were handed the texts of the Open Letter written by more than 2000 parliamentarians from 42 countries, calling for the banning of nuclear tests in the world.

Activists of the movement "Nevada-Semipalatinsk" took part in mass actions at the testing range in Nevada, a rally in New York. The branch offices are open in all regions of Kazakhstan, as well as in Russia, the USA, Italy, Japan, Turkey and other countries. The regional East-Siberian Committee of the movement was established with the center in Barnaul, in May 1991, the foreign movement of the Movement was established in Turkey, in June the North-West in St. Petersburg.

On August 29, 1991, a tense struggle for the cessation of nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk test site was crowned with success. President of the Republic of Kazakhstan Nazarbayev signed a decree "On closing the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site". Kazakhstan was the first to take a real step towards universal nuclear disarmament: it closed the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site, the fourth in terms of its destructive power, nuclear potential.

The program of the movement "Nevada-Semipalatinsk" has joined the program of the international anti-nuclear alliance. The Treaty on the Comprehensive Prohibition of Nuclear Weapon Tests was adopted. Most countries put their signatures under it [16].

In the asset movement there are victories that Kazakhstan can be proud of and the entire anti-war movement of the planet. In 1989, the movement stopped 11 explosions at the Semipalatinsk test site, out of the planned 18. Only 7 succeeded, the last explosion took place on October 19. "The movement, uniting scientists, writers, employees, workers and many people of all ages, has made a huge contribution to the struggle to close the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site and to suspend the activities of other test ranges of the world. Olzhas Suleimenov's merit in the anti-nuclear movement is great, "the Pre-sident of Kazakhstan, NA Nazarbayev, ga-ve such assessment to the movement and its leader [17].

The second goal of the movement "Nevada-Semipalatinsk" is the improvement of the environment, which is much longer in time. It requires not only financial costs, but also huge human resources.

Currently, the movement was named "Nevada-Semey" in connection with the renaming of the city of Semipalatinsk in Semey in 2007. Realizing the importance of work in achieving peace on Earth, Olzhas Suleimenov, president of the Nevada-Semey MAD, announced that it is time to transfer the peace relay to the hands of the younger generation. The young inhabitants of Semey signed 100 thousand subscription lists supporting the idea of renouncing nuclear weapons. In total, more than half a million signatures were collected in Kazakhstan. Then the collection of signatures is distributed to all countries of the world with the aim of creating a special international fund, where young people work, urging the world to recognize nuclear weapons outlawed [18].

Having examined examples of organizations whose activities are aimed at the implementation of nuclear disarmament, we have identified the following key provisions on anti-nuclear movements:

1) Nuclear disarmament is not directly a complete refusal of the state from nuclear weapons, but represents a process of gradual reduction of the arsenals of nuclear weapons, their carriers and delivery vehicles, as well as production;

2) The movements on nuclear disarmament are international socio-political organizations that have their own structure and institutional mechanisms;

3) Major public organizations such as the Movement for Nuclear Disarmament in the UK, Doctors for the Prevention of Nuclear War and the Nevada-Semey movement have proven over the years that the nuclear disarmament movements, through their efforts to promote nuclear disarmament are able to earn the approval of the international community (the Nobel Peace Prize in 1984, the organization "Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War"), affect the significant reduction in the number of nuclear weapons (UK) and contribute to the complete abandonment of nuclear weapons states (Kazakhstan).

The activity of anti-nuclear movements proves their effectiveness and the need to implement nuclear disarmament processes in the context of international security. The movement of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament in Great Britain proves that even though some states do not completely abandon their nuclear capabilities, partial and gradual nuclear disarmament can be carried out and carries positive results.

REFERENCES

1. Shikaki Khalil The Nuclearization Debates: The Cases of Israel and Egypt // Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 14. - No. 4. (Summer, 1985). - P. 318.

2. ElBaradei Mohamed Reflections on Nuclear Challenges Today. 6 December 2005, London, UK International Institute for Strategic Studies, Alistair Buchan Lecture

3. Caldicott, Hellen. The new nuclear danger. George W. Bush's military-indus-trial complex. New Press, NY, 2002. - P.319.

4. Cameco and Kazatomprom Sign Agreement to Restructure JV Inkai, Ca-meco, May 27, 2016 // www. cameco. com

5. Eben Harrell, David F. Hoffman, “Plutonium Mountain: Inside the 17-Year Mission to Secure a Dangerous Legacy of Soviet Nuclear Testing,” Project on Managing the Atom, Belfer Center for Science and International Affaird, Harvard University, August 2013 // belfercenter.ksg.harvard.edu

6. United Nations Disarmament Yearbook, volume 20: 2011, chapter IV. Ð. 119.

7. Cameco and Kazatomprom Sign Agreement to Restructure JV Inkai, Cameco, May 27, 2016 // www. cameco. com

8. Tom Blanton and Svetlana Savranskaya, eds., “Kazakhstan and Nunn-Lu-gar: A Non-Proliferation Success Sto-ry,” National Security Archive, Natio-nal Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book, No. 528, Washington, DC, 2015. – P. 176-186.

9. Dhanapala J. Les peoples au center du desarmement// Chronique ONU. 2001.No.1. P. 16.

10. Report of the Secretary-General «New Dimensions of Arms Regulation and Disarmament in the Post-Cold War Era». A/C.1/4777. 1992

11. Carter J. A Dangerous Deal With India. // The Washington Post. 29.03.2006 http:// www. washingtonpost.com/ wpdyn/ content/article/ 2006/ 03/ 28/ AR200603 2801210.html;

12. Chavetz G. The Political Psychology of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Regime // The Journal of Politics, Vol. 57, No. 3. (Aug., 1995)

13. Deutsch K. The New Nuclear Threat // Foreign Affairs. Vol. 71. No. 41. (Fall 1992).

14. Dhanapala J. Multilateralism and the future of the global nuclear nonproliferation regime// Nonproliferation review, Volume 8, Number 3, Fall Winter 2001

15. ElBaradei Mohamed Reflections on Nuclear Challenges Today. 6 December 2005, London, UK International Institute for Strategic Studies, Alistair Buchan Lecture

16. Ferguson Charles D., Potter William C. and others The Four Faces of Nuclear Terrorism. Monterey, California, 2004

17. George Perkovich, Jessica T. Math-ews, Joseph Cirincione, Rose Gotte-moeller, Jon B. Wolfsthal Universal Compliance. A strategy for nuclear Security. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2005 - www. Carnegie Endowment. org/strategy

18. Keohane R. and Nye J. S. Jr. Globalisation: What's new? What's not? (So what?) // Foreign policy. 2008. Spring. P. 104-119.



Table of contents: The Kazakh-American Free University Academic Journal №10 - 2018

  
Main
About journal
About KAFU
News
FAQ

   © 2019 - KAFU Academic Journal